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Identification
NameDrospirenone
Accession NumberDB01395
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Drospirenone is a synthetic progestin that is an analog to spironolactone. It is found in a number of birth control formulations. Drospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic. It was shown in animal studies that drospirenone exhibits antiandrogenic activity judging from accessory sex gland growth in castrated, androgen-treated, juvenile rats.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
1,2-DihydrospirorenoneNot AvailableNot Available
6beta,7Beta;15beta,16beta-dimethylene-3-oxo-17alpha-pregn-4-ene-21,17-carbolactoneNot AvailableNot Available
6β,7β,15β,16β-dimethylene-3-oxo-17α-pregn-4-ene-21,17 carbolactoneNot AvailableNot Available
DehydrospirorenoneNot AvailableNot Available
DrospirenonaSpanishINN
DrospirenonumLatinINN
DRSPNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
YasminkitBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-05-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
SafyralkitBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-02-13Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
YazkitBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.2006-03-16Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
YasminkitPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2002-01-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
Safyraldrospirenone + ethinyl estradiol + levomefolate calcium + levomefolate calcium
Yasmindrospirenone + ethinylestradiol
Yazdrospirenone + ethinylestradiol
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number67392-87-4
WeightAverage: 366.4932
Monoisotopic: 366.219494826
Chemical FormulaC24H30O3
InChI KeyMETQSPRSQINEEU-HXCATZOESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H30O3/c1-22-6-3-12(25)9-17(22)13-10-14(13)20-16(22)4-7-23(2)21(20)15-11-18(15)24(23)8-5-19(26)27-24/h9,13-16,18,20-21H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t13-,14+,15-,16+,18+,20-,21+,22-,23+,24+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1R,2R,4R,10R,11S,14S,15S,16S,18S,19S)-10,14-dimethylspiro[hexacyclo[9.8.0.0²,⁴.0⁵,¹⁰.0¹⁴,¹⁹.0¹⁶,¹⁸]nonadecane-15,2'-oxolan]-5-ene-5',7-dione
SMILES
[H][C@@]12C[C@]1([H])[C@@]1([H])[C@]3([H])[C@]4([H])C[C@]4([H])[C@@]4(CCC(=O)O4)[C@@]3(C)CC[C@]1([H])[C@@]1(C)CCC(=O)C=C21
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as spironolactones and derivatives. These are steroid lactones with a structure based on the spironolactone skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassSteroid lactones
Direct ParentSpironolactones and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Spironolactone
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Oxolane
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Lactone
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the prevention of pregnancy in women who elect an oral contraceptive.
PharmacodynamicsDrospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic.
Mechanism of actionProgestins such as drospirenone diffuse freely into target cells in the female reproductive tract, mammary gland, hypothalamus, and the pituitary and bind to the progesterone receptor. Once bound to the receptor, progestins slow the frequency of release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and blunt the pre-ovulatory LH surge.
AbsorptionOral bioavailability is approximately 76%.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding95-97%
Metabolism

Extensively metabolized following oral or intravenous administration. The two major metabolites are inactive and are formed independent of the CYP450 enzyme system. The metabolites are the acid form of drospirenone formed by opening of the lactone ring and the 4,5-dihydro-drospirenone-3-sulfate.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Drospirenone
Not Available
4,5-dihydro-drospirenone-3-sulfateDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life30 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9383
Caco-2 permeable+0.6376
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6524
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6171
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6726
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7005
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.796
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6964
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5534
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8665
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9336
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7754
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8355
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8541
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9163
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9505
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9757
Rat acute toxicity1.9430 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9393
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8215
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
PricesNot Available
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States69333952001-05-112017-08-11
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00225 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.36ALOGPS
logP3.37ChemAxon
logS-5.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area43.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity101.68 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability41.81 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (37.1 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

DOI: 10.1002/cjoc.201201147

General Reference
  1. Krattenmacher R: Drospirenone: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of a unique progestogen. Contraception. 2000 Jul;62(1):29-38. Pubmed
  2. Wichianpitaya J, Taneepanichskul S: A comparative efficacy of low-dose combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel and drospirenone in premenstrual symptoms. Obstet Gynecol Int. 2013;2013:487143. doi: 10.1155/2013/487143. Epub 2013 Feb 20. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 68:12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (292 KB)
MSDSDownload (567 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
AcenocoumarolEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
AcetohexamideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
AcitretinMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
AlogliptinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
AmilorideMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
AminoglutethimideMay increase the metabolism of Progestins.
Ammonium chloridePotassium-Sparing Diuretics may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ammonium Chloride. Specifically the risk of systemic acidosis.
AnastrozoleEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Anastrozole.
AprepitantMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
AripiprazoleCYP3A4 Inducers may decrease the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole.
ArtemetherMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
AtazanavirMay increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
BoceprevirMay increase the serum concentration of Drospirenone.
BosentanMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
ButabarbitalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
ButethalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
CanagliflozinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
CarbamazepineMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
ChlorpropamideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Citric AcidEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
ClobazamMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
ColesevelamMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
DabrafenibMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DalteparinEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
DarunavirMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
DeferasiroxMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DehydroepiandrosteroneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Estrogen Derivatives.
DicoumarolEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
DofetilideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Dofetilide.
DuloxetineHypotensive Agents may enhance the orthostatic hypotensive effect of DULoxetine.
Edetic AcidEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
EfavirenzMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
EnoxaparinEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
EplerenoneMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
Ethyl biscoumacetateEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
ExemestaneEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Exemestane.
ExenatideMay decrease the serum concentration of Oral Contraceptive (Progestins).
FelbamateMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
Fondaparinux sodiumEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
FosamprenavirContraceptives (Progestins) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fosamprenavir. Fosamprenavir may decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
FosaprepitantMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). The active metabolite aprepitant is likely responsible for this effect.
FosphenytoinMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
GliclazideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
GlimepirideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
GliquidoneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
GlyburideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
GriseofulvinMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
HeparinEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
HeptabarbitalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
HexobarbitalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
HyaluronidaseEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Hyaluronidase.
HydrocodoneCYP3A4 Inducers (Weak) may decrease the serum concentration of Hydrocodone.
Insulin AspartHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Insulin DetemirHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Insulin GlargineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Insulin GlulisineHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Insulin LisproHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Insulin RegularHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Insulin, isophaneHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LamotrigineMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
LenalidomideEstrogen Derivatives may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Lenalidomide.
LinagliptinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
LomitapideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide.
LopinavirMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Lopinavir may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
MetforminHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
MethohexitalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
MetreleptinMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Metreleptin may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
MifepristoneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Mifepristone may increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
MitotaneMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
NelfinavirMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
NevirapineMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
OspemifeneEstrogen Derivatives may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ospemifene. Estrogen Derivatives may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ospemifene.
OxcarbazepineMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
PentobarbitalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
PerampanelMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
PhenindioneEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
PhenprocoumonEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
PhenytoinMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
PimozideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Weak) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide.
PrimidoneMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
prucaloprideMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
QuinidinePotassium-Sparing Diuretics may diminish the therapeutic effect of QuiNIDine.
RepaglinideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
RisperidoneHypotensive Agents may enhance the hypotensive effect of RisperiDONE.
RopiniroleEstrogen Derivatives may increase the serum concentration of ROPINIRole.
SaquinavirMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
SaxagliptinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
SecobarbitalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptive failure is possible.
SelegilineContraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Selegiline.
SiltuximabMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
SpironolactoneMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
SugammadexMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
SulodexideEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
TelaprevirMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
TeriflunomideMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP1A2 Substrates.
ThalidomideContraceptives (Progestins) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Thalidomide.
TipranavirEstrogen Derivatives may enhance the dermatologic adverse effect of Tipranavir. The combination of tipranavir/ritonavir and ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone was associated with a high incidence of skin rash. Tipranavir may decrease the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
TocilizumabMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
TolbutamideHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
TolvaptanMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
TopiramateMay decrease the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins).
Tranexamic AcidContraceptives (Progestins) may enhance the thrombogenic effect of Tranexamic Acid.
TreprostinilEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
TriamtereneMay enhance the hyperkalemic effect of Potassium-Sparing Diuretics.
UlipristalMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Progestins. Progestins may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ulipristal.
VildagliptinHyperglycemia-Associated Agents may diminish the therapeutic effect of Antidiabetic Agents.
Vitamin CMay increase the serum concentration of Estrogen Derivatives.
VoriconazoleMay increase the serum concentration of Contraceptives (Progestins). Contraceptives (Progestins) may increase the serum concentration of Voriconazole.
WarfarinEstrogen Derivatives may diminish the anticoagulant effect of Anticoagulants. More specifically, the potential prothrombotic effects of some estrogens and progestin-estrogen combinations may counteract anticoagulant effects.
Food Interactions
  • Food reduces the rate of absorption, but not the extent of absorption.

Targets

1. Progesterone receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Progesterone receptor P06401 Details

References:

  1. Krattenmacher R: Drospirenone: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of a unique progestogen. Contraception. 2000 Jul;62(1):29-38. Pubmed
  2. Bray JD, Jelinsky S, Ghatge R, Bray JA, Tunkey C, Saraf K, Jacobsen BM, Richer JK, Brown EL, Winneker RC, Horwitz KB, Lyttle CR: Quantitative analysis of gene regulation by seven clinically relevant progestins suggests a highly similar mechanism of action through progesterone receptors in T47D breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005 Dec;97(4):328-41. Epub 2005 Sep 12. Pubmed
  3. Fuhrmann U, Krattenmacher R, Slater EP, Fritzemeier KH: The novel progestin drospirenone and its natural counterpart progesterone: biochemical profile and antiandrogenic potential. Contraception. 1996 Oct;54(4):243-51. Pubmed
  4. Arias-Loza PA, Hu K, Schafer A, Bauersachs J, Quaschning T, Galle J, Jazbutyte V, Neyses L, Ertl G, Fritzemeier KH, Hegele-Hartung C, Pelzer T: Medroxyprogesterone acetate but not drospirenone ablates the protective function of 17 beta-estradiol in aldosterone salt-treated rats. Hypertension. 2006 Nov;48(5):994-1001. Epub 2006 Sep 25. Pubmed
  5. Sitruk-Ware R: New progestagens for contraceptive use. Hum Reprod Update. 2006 Mar-Apr;12(2):169-78. Epub 2005 Nov 16. Pubmed
  6. Sitruk-Ware R: New progestogens: a review of their effects in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Drugs Aging. 2004;21(13):865-83. Pubmed

2. Mineralocorticoid receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Mineralocorticoid receptor P08235 Details

References:

  1. Krattenmacher R: Drospirenone: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of a unique progestogen. Contraception. 2000 Jul;62(1):29-38. Pubmed
  2. Fuhrmann U, Krattenmacher R, Slater EP, Fritzemeier KH: The novel progestin drospirenone and its natural counterpart progesterone: biochemical profile and antiandrogenic potential. Contraception. 1996 Oct;54(4):243-51. Pubmed
  3. Muhn P, Fuhrmann U, Fritzemeier KH, Krattenmacher R, Schillinger E: Drospirenone: a novel progestogen with antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Jun 12;761:311-35. Pubmed
  4. Oelkers WK: Effects of estrogens and progestogens on the renin-aldosterone system and blood pressure. Steroids. 1996 Apr;61(4):166-71. Pubmed
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

3. Androgen receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Androgen receptor P10275 Details

References:

  1. Krattenmacher R: Drospirenone: pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of a unique progestogen. Contraception. 2000 Jul;62(1):29-38. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2 P35354 Details

References:

  1. Maia H Jr, Casoy J, Athayde C, Valente Filho J, Coutinho EM: The effect of a continuous regimen of drospirenone 3 mg/ethinylestradiol 30 microg on Cox-2 and Ki-67 expression in the endometrium. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2010 Feb;15(1):35-40. Pubmed

2. Cholinesterase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholinesterase P06276 Details

References:

  1. Koitka M, Hochel J, Gieschen H, Borchert HH: Improving the ex vivo stability of drug ester compounds in rat and dog serum: inhibition of the specific esterases and implications on their identity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Feb 5;51(3):664-78. Epub 2009 Sep 23. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on July 08, 2007 11:03 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:14