You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameAluminum hydroxide
Accession NumberDB06723
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

Aluminum hydroxide is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
AlternaGelJ&J-Merck
Alu-Cap3M
AmphojelWyeth
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS numberNot Available
WeightAverage: 78.0036
Monoisotopic: 77.989757403
Chemical FormulaAlH3O3
InChI KeyWNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
aluminium(3+) ion trioxidanide
SMILES
[OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
SuperclassMixed Metal/Non-metal Compounds
ClassPost-transition Metal Oxoanionic Compounds
SubclassPost-transition Metal Hydroxides
Direct parentPost-transition Metal Hydroxides
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the post-transition metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor relief of heartburn and acid indigestion.
PharmacodynamicsGastric-peptic disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between protective factors, such as mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion, and aggressive factors, such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Antacids work by restoring acid-base balance, attenuating the pepsin activity and increasing bicarbonate and prostaglandin secretion.
Mechanism of actionAluminum hydroxide is a basic inorganic salt that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Aluminum hydroxide is slowly solubilized in the stomach and reacts with hydrochloric acid to form aluminum chloride and water. It also inhibits the action of pepsin by increasing the pH and via adsorption. Cytoprotective effects may occur through increases in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and prostaglandins.
AbsorptionApproximately 17-30% of the aluminum chloride formed is absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of eliminationAbsorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly eliminated by the kidneys in patients with normal renal function.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.5922
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8181
Caco-2 permeable - 0.5094
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.8274
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9892
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9783
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9433
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8282
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.8206
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9291
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9148
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9584
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9447
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9672
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9578
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8393
Carcinogenicity Carcinogens 0.5918
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.81
Rat acute toxicity 1.7247 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9592
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9742
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • 3m pharmaceuticals inc
  • Wyeth
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral475 mg
SuspensionOral320 mg/5 ml
SuspensionOral600 mg/5 ml
TabletOral300 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral600 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.45ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-1.8ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
number of rings0ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterNoChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Richard H. Goheen, William A. Nigro, Paul J. The, “Process for producing aluminum hydroxide of improved whiteness.” U.S. Patent US4915930, issued November, 1933.

US4915930
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 56:04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
CalcipotriolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations. Avoid chronic and/or excessive use of aluminum and aluminum-containing products in patients who are also taking vitamin D analogs. Any patients consuming such a combination should be monitored closely for aluminum status and signs/symptoms of aluminum-related toxicities.
CholecalciferolVitamin D analogs such as cholecalciferol may increase the serum concentration of aluminum hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations. Avoid chronic and/or excessive use of aluminum and aluminum-containing products in patients who are also taking vitamin D analogs. Any patients consuming such a combination should be monitored closely for aluminum status and signs/symptoms of aluminum-related toxicities.
DeferiproneDeferiprone may decrease gastrointestinal absorption by chelating to other ions. Interaction is significant so monitor closely.
EltrombopagDecreases levels of eltrombopag by GI absorption inhibition.
Food InteractionsNot Available
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on August 09, 2010 11:11 / Updated on September 16, 2013 18:04