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Identification
NameAluminum hydroxide
Accession NumberDB06723
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Aluminum hydroxide is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
Al(OH)3Not AvailableNot Available
AluminiumhydroxidNot AvailableNot Available
Aluminum hydroxideNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aluminum Hydroxideliquid320 mg/5mLoralRugby Laboratories, Inc.2005-02-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Aluminum Hydroxidegel320 mg/5mLoralLLC Federal Solutions2013-08-12Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Dermadroxointment1.2 g/100gtopicalGeritrex Corp2013-01-30Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Dermadroxointment1.2 g/100gtopicalGeritrex Corp2013-10-15Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
International Brands
NameCompany
AlternaGelJ&J-Merck
Alu-Cap3M
AmphojelWyeth
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS numberNot Available
WeightAverage: 78.0036
Monoisotopic: 77.989757403
Chemical FormulaAlH3O3
InChI KeyWNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
aluminium(3+) ion trihydroxide
SMILES
[OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassMixed metal/non-metal compounds
ClassPost-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassPost-transition metal hydroxides
Direct ParentPost-transition metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Post-transition metal hydroxide
  • Inorganic post-transition metal salt
  • Inorganic hydride
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Inorganic salt
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor relief of heartburn and acid indigestion.
PharmacodynamicsGastric-peptic disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between protective factors, such as mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion, and aggressive factors, such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Antacids work by restoring acid-base balance, attenuating the pepsin activity and increasing bicarbonate and prostaglandin secretion.
Mechanism of actionAluminum hydroxide is a basic inorganic salt that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Aluminum hydroxide is slowly solubilized in the stomach and reacts with hydrochloric acid to form aluminum chloride and water. It also inhibits the action of pepsin by increasing the pH and via adsorption. Cytoprotective effects may occur through increases in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and prostaglandins.
AbsorptionApproximately 17-30% of the aluminum chloride formed is absorbed.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of eliminationAbsorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly eliminated by the kidneys in patients with normal renal function.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5922
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8181
Caco-2 permeable-0.5094
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8274
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9892
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9433
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8282
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8206
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9291
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9584
CYP450 2C19 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9447
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9672
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9578
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8393
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5918
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.81
Rat acute toxicity1.7247 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9592
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9742
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Geloral320 mg/5mL
Liquidoral320 mg/5mL
Ointmenttopical1.2 g/100g
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Richard H. Goheen, William A. Nigro, Paul J. The, “Process for producing aluminum hydroxide of improved whiteness.” U.S. Patent US4915930, issued November, 1933.

US4915930
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 56:04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AlfacalcidolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
AllopurinolMay decrease the absorption of Allopurinol. Exceptions: Sodium Bicarbonate.
AmphetamineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
AtazanavirMay decrease the absorption of Atazanavir.
AtorvastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
BenzphetamineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
BiotinMay decrease the absorption of Tetracycline Derivatives.
BisacodylAntacids may diminish the therapeutic effect of Bisacodyl. Antacids may cause the delayed-release bisacodyl tablets to release drug prior to reaching the large intestine. Gastric irritation and/or cramps may occur.
BosutinibMay decrease the serum concentration of Bosutinib.
CalcipotriolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
CalcitriolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
CaptoprilMay decrease the serum concentration of Captopril.
CathinoneAntacids may decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
CefditorenMay decrease the serum concentration of Cefditoren.
CefpodoximeMay decrease the serum concentration of Cefpodoxime.
CefuroximeMay decrease the serum concentration of Cefuroxime.
Chenodeoxycholic acidMay decrease the serum concentration of Chenodiol.
ChloroquineMay decrease the serum concentration of Chloroquine.
ChlorpromazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
CholecalciferolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
Cholic AcidMay decrease the absorption of Cholic Acid.
ClodronateMay decrease the serum concentration of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
Cortisone acetateMay decrease the bioavailability of Corticosteroids (Oral).
Dabigatran etexilateMay decrease the serum concentration of Dabigatran Etexilate.
DabrafenibAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Dabrafenib.
DasatinibMay decrease the absorption of Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Deferasirox.
DeferiproneAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Deferiprone.
DelavirdineMay decrease the serum concentration of Delavirdine.
DexmethylphenidateMay increase the absorption of Dexmethylphenidate. Specifically, antacids may interfere with the normal release of drug from the extended-release capsules (Focalin XR brand), which could result in both increased absorption (early) and decreased delayed absorption.
DextroamphetamineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
DolutegravirAluminum Hydroxide may decrease the serum concentration of Dolutegravir.
DoxercalciferolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
DoxycyclineMay decrease the absorption of Tetracycline Derivatives.
EltrombopagMay decrease the serum concentration of Eltrombopag.
ErgocalciferolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
ErlotinibMay decrease the serum concentration of Erlotinib.
EthambutolMay decrease the absorption of Ethambutol.
FexofenadineMay decrease the serum concentration of Fexofenadine.
FludrocortisoneMay decrease the bioavailability of Corticosteroids (Oral).
FluvastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
FosinoprilMay decrease the serum concentration of Fosinopril.
GabapentinMay decrease the serum concentration of Gabapentin.
GemifloxacinMay decrease the absorption of Quinolone Antibiotics. Of concern only with oral administration of quinolones. Exceptions: Sodium Bicarbonate.
HyoscyamineMay decrease the serum concentration of Hyoscyamine.
IbandronateMay decrease the serum concentration of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
IsoniazidMay decrease the absorption of Isoniazid.
ItraconazoleMay decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
LedipasvirAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Ledipasvir.
LevothyroxineMay decrease the serum concentration of Levothyroxine.
LisdexamfetamineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
LovastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
MequitazineAluminum Hydroxide may decrease the absorption of Mequitazine.
MesalazineMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Mesalamine. Antacid-mediated increases in gastrointestinal pH may cause the premature release of mesalamine from specific sustained-release mesalamine products.
MethamphetamineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
Methenamine hippurateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Methenamine.
Methenamine mandelateMay diminish the therapeutic effect of Methenamine.
MethotrimeprazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
MethylphenidateMay increase the absorption of Methylphenidate. Specifically, antacids may interfere with the normal release of drug from the extended-release capsules (Ritalin LA brand), which could result in both increased absorption (early) and decreased delayed absorption.
MethylprednisoloneMay decrease the bioavailability of Corticosteroids (Oral).
MinocyclineMay decrease the absorption of Tetracycline Derivatives.
MisoprostolMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Misoprostol. More specifically, concomitant use with magnesium-containing antacids may increase the risk of diarrhea.
Mycophenolate mofetilMay decrease the absorption of Mycophenolate.
Mycophenolic acidMay decrease the absorption of Mycophenolate.
NilotinibMay decrease the serum concentration of Nilotinib.
NorfloxacinMay decrease the absorption of Quinolone Antibiotics. Of concern only with oral administration of quinolones. Exceptions: Sodium Bicarbonate.
ParicalcitolVitamin D Analogs may increase the serum concentration of Aluminum Hydroxide. Specifically, the absorption of aluminum may be increased, leading to increased serum aluminum concentrations.
PazopanibMay decrease the serum concentration of PAZOPanib.
PenicillamineMay decrease the serum concentration of PenicillAMINE.
PerphenazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
PhendimetrazineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
PhentermineMay decrease the excretion of Amphetamines.
PipotiazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
PitavastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
Polystyrene sulfonateCalcium Polystyrene Sulfonate may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Aluminum Hydroxide. More specifically, concomitant use of these agents may increase the risk for intestinal obstruction.
PravastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
PrednisoneMay decrease the bioavailability of Corticosteroids (Oral).
ProchlorperazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
PromazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
QuinidineMay decrease the excretion of QuiNIDine. Exceptions: Aluminum Hydroxide.
QuinineMay decrease the serum concentration of QuiNINE. Exceptions: Calcium Carbonate; Sodium Bicarbonate.
RaltegravirAluminum Hydroxide may decrease the serum concentration of Raltegravir.
RilpivirineAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Rilpivirine.
RiociguatAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Riociguat.
RisedronateMay decrease the serum concentration of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
RosuvastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
SimvastatinMay decrease the serum concentration of HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors.
SulpirideAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Sulpiride.
TetracyclineMay decrease the absorption of Tetracycline Derivatives.
ThioridazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
TiludronateMay decrease the serum concentration of Bisphosphonate Derivatives.
Trientine hydrochlorideMay decrease the absorption of Trientine.
TrifluoperazineMay decrease the absorption of Antipsychotic Agents (Phenothiazines).
Ursodeoxycholic acidMay decrease the serum concentration of Ursodiol.
VismodegibAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Vismodegib.
Vitamin CMay increase the absorption of Aluminum Hydroxide.
Food InteractionsNot Available
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Drug created on August 09, 2010 11:11 / Updated on September 16, 2013 18:04