Identification

Name
Insulin Human
Accession Number
DB00030  (BTD00105, BIOD00105, DB01383, DB05278, DB05215, DB05283, DB08914)
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones / Insulins
Description

Insulin human is a 51 residue peptide hormone, composed of two amino acid chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The structure is identical to native human insulin. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by recombinant DNA techncology. Inserting the human insulin gene into the Escherichia coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces insulin for human use.

Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin regular, delivered with a nebulizer into the lungs where it is absorbed. Exubera, developed by Inhale Therapeutics (later named Nektar Therapeutics), became the first inhaled insulin product to be marketed in 2006 by Pfizer, but poor sales led Pfizer to withdraw it in 2007. Afrezza, a monomeric inhaled insulin developed by Mannkind, was approved by the FDA in 2014.

Protein structure
Db00030
Protein chemical formula
C257H383N65O77S6
Protein average weight
5808.0 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • High molecular weight insulin human
  • Human insulin
  • human insulin (rDNA)
  • Insulin (human)
  • Insulin human [rDNA origin]
  • Insulin Human Regular
  • Insulin human regular (rDNA)
  • Insulin human, rDNA origin
  • Insulin recombinant human
  • Insulin recombinant purified human
  • Insulin regular
  • Insulin, human
  • Insulina regular
  • Regular Insulin, human
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Insulin human zinc suspensionNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
NPH insulinNot Available53027-39-7Not applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension40 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension40 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension40 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 FlexpenInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 FlexpenInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 FlexpenInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 InnoletInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Humalog 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-12-28Not applicableUs
Humulin 50/50Injection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1992-05-182010-05-31Us
Humulin 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1989-06-26Not applicableUs
Humulin 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousA-S Medication Solutions1989-06-26Not applicableUs
Humulin 70/30 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-01-082016-02-22Us
Humulin 70/30 KwikPenInjection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company2013-11-07Not applicableUs
Humulin LInjection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1985-09-302007-02-01Us
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousA-S Medication Solutions1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly and Company1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-10-24Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AfrezzaInsulin Human (8 1/1) + Insulin Human (12 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-11Not applicableUs
AfrezzaInsulin Human (4 1/1) + Insulin Human (8 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-112016-08-03Us
AfrezzaInsulin Human (4 1/1) + Insulin Human (8 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-112014-10-22Us
AfrezzaInsulin Human (4 1/1) + Insulin Human (8 1/1)KitSanofi Aventis2014-07-112017-11-07Us
AfrezzaInsulin Human (4 1/1) + Insulin Human (8 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-11Not applicableUs
AfrezzaInsulin Human (8 1/1) + Insulin Human (12 1/1)KitSanofi Aventis2014-07-112017-11-07Us
AfrezzaInsulin Human (8 1/1) + Insulin Human (12 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-11Not applicableUs
AfrezzaInsulin Human (8 1/1) + Insulin Human (4 1/1) + Insulin Human (12 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-11Not applicableUs
AfrezzaInsulin Human (4 1/1) + Insulin Human (8 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-112014-10-22Us
AfrezzaInsulin Human (8 1/1) + Insulin Human (4 1/1)KitMannkind Corporation2014-07-11Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (40 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
Insulin Human Winthrop BasalInsulin Human (100 IU/ml)Injection, suspensionSubcutaneousSanofi Aventis Deutschland Gmb H2007-01-172018-04-30Eu
International/Other Brands
Exubera (Pfizer (withdrawn)) / Humulin N Pen (Lilly) / lnsulatard (Leo) / Nasulin / Novolin N Relion (Novo Nordisk) / Novolin NPH (Novo Nordisk)
Categories
UNII
1Y17CTI5SR
CAS number
11061-68-0

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Insulin regular is a short-acting insulin. When subcutaneously administered, the onset of action (as evidenced by a decrease in glucose level) occurs 30 minutes post-dose. Maximal effect occurs between 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. The glucose-lowering effect occurs 8 hours post-dose. Compared to other rapid-acting insulin analogs, insulin regular has a slower onset of action and longer duration of action.

Mechanism of action

The primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid uptake into muscle and adipose tissues, and other tissues except brain and liver. It also has an anabolic role in stimulating glycogen, fatty acid, and protein synthesis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.

TargetActionsOrganism
AInsulin receptor
agonist
Human
UInsulin-like growth factor 1 receptorNot AvailableHuman
URetinoblastoma-associated proteinNot AvailableHuman
UCathepsin DNot AvailableHuman
UInsulin-degrading enzymeNot AvailableHuman
UNeuroendocrine convertase 2Not AvailableHuman
UCarboxypeptidase ENot AvailableHuman
UNeuroendocrine convertase 1Not AvailableHuman
UProtein NOV homologNot AvailableHuman
ULow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2Not AvailableHuman
UInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7Not AvailableHuman
USynaptotagmin-like protein 4Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Insulin is generally well absorbed.

Volume of distribution

0.15 L/kg

Protein binding

5% protein bound

Metabolism

Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Hypoglycemia is one of the most frequent adverse events experienced by insulin users.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin Human is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be increased when used in combination with 5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline.
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin Human is combined with Acarbose.
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.
AcetazolamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be increased when used in combination with Acetazolamide.
AcetohexamideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin Human is combined with Acetohexamide.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be increased when used in combination with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.
AgmatineThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Agmatine is combined with Insulin Human.
AICA ribonucleotideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin Human is combined with AICA ribonucleotide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Humulin is synthesized in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce human insulin.

General References
  1. Herrmann BL, Kasser C, Keuthage W, Huptas M, Dette H, Klute A: Comparison of insulin aspart vs. regular human insulin with or without insulin detemir concerning adipozytokines and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):210-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334905. Epub 2013 Mar 19. [PubMed:23512415]
  2. Lepore M, Pampanelli S, Fanelli C, Porcellati F, Bartocci L, Di Vincenzo A, Cordoni C, Costa E, Brunetti P, Bolli GB: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneous injection of long-acting human insulin analog glargine, NPH insulin, and ultralente human insulin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin lispro. Diabetes. 2000 Dec;49(12):2142-8. [PubMed:11118018]
  3. Owens DR, Coates PA, Luzio SD, Tinbergen JP, Kurzhals R: Pharmacokinetics of 125I-labeled insulin glargine (HOE 901) in healthy men: comparison with NPH insulin and the influence of different subcutaneous injection sites. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):813-9. [PubMed:10841002]
  4. Danne T, Lupke K, Walte K, Von Schuetz W, Gall MA: Insulin detemir is characterized by a consistent pharmacokinetic profile across age-groups in children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3087-92. [PubMed:14578244]
  5. Owens DR, Bolli GB: Beyond the era of NPH insulin--long-acting insulin analogs: chemistry, comparative pharmacology, and clinical application. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008 Oct;10(5):333-49. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0023. [PubMed:18715209]
External Links
UniProt
Q8HXV2
Genbank
AY137503
KEGG Drug
D03230
KEGG Compound
C00723
PubChem Substance
46506231
ChEBI
5931
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000802
PharmGKB
PA164744571
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Insulin
ATC Codes
A10AF01 — Insulin (human)A10AB01 — Insulin (human)A10AE01 — Insulin (human)A10AC01 — Insulin (human)A10AD01 — Insulin (human)
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08 — Insulins
FDA label
Download (133 KB)
MSDS
Download (47 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0WithdrawnOtherBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia1
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedBasic ScienceSarcopenia1
1CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchDiabetes Mellitus (DM)4
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAortic Aneurysms / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
1RecruitingTreatmentPost-Prandial Hyperglycemia / Post-Prandial Hypoglycemia1
1RecruitingTreatmentType1 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1, 2CompletedPreventionDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHIV Dementia / HIV-Associated Cognitive Motor Complex1
2CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias1
2CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentNon Insulin Dependent Diabetes / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2RecruitingTreatmentHIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)1
2TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2, 3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)4
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 13
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 14
3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus as Antepartum Condition1
3CompletedTreatmentSevere Sepsis / Shock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentHyperglycemias1
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentType I Diabetes1
4CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHypoglycemia1
4CompletedScreeningDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer Cachexia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)3
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperglycemias3
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentInpatient Hyperglycemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentInsufficient Metabolic Control / OAD Treatment / Type 2 Diabetic Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentKetoacidosis, Diabetic1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus15
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentHyperglycemia Steroid-induced / Insulin Resistance, Diabetes1
4SuspendedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4TerminatedTreatmentPost-Transplant Glucocorticoid Induced Diabetes1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInsulin-requiring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIntracranial Hemorrhages / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Sarcopenia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Ketoacidosis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceSarcopenia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableCompletedOtherCognitive Impairments / Hypoglycemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Defects,Congenital / Hyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Macrosomia, Fetal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Failure / Respiratory Failure / Sepsis / Surgical Site Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCognitive Decline / Delirium / Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionDelirium / Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m22
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableArterial Hypertension / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHuman Physiology of Energy Homeostasis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Novo nordisk inc
Packagers
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • DispenseXpress Inc.
  • Eli Lilly & Co.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Intervet International
  • Novo Nordisk Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)12 1/1
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)4 1/1
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)8 1/1
SolutionSubcutaneous500 unit
Aerosol, powderRespiratory (inhalation)1 mg/1
Aerosol, powderRespiratory (inhalation)3 mg/1
Kit
SuspensionSubcutaneous
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 [iU]/1mL
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100
SuspensionSubcutaneous100 unit
Injection, solutionParenteral100 [iU]/1mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 [iU]/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Subcutaneous100 unit
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous500 [iU]/1mL
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 IU/ml
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous40 IU/ml
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 IU/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 IU/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 IU/ml
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal400 IU/ml
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 [USP'U]/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous100 unit
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous100 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
NovoLIN R PenFill 100 unit/ml Solution Five 3ml Cartridges Per Box = 15ml162.26USD cartridge
NovoLIN R 100 unit/ml Solution 10ml Vial73.19USD vial
Novolin r 100 unit/ml cartridg33.33USD ml
NovoLIN R InnoLet 100 unit/ml Solution 3ml Cartridge24.17USD cartridge
Humulin N Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Humulin R Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.8USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.78USD cartridge
Humulin N 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Humulin R 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
USRE37872No2002-10-082010-02-12Us
CA2183577No2007-10-302015-02-07Canada
CA2253393No2007-10-092017-05-07Canada
US7291132No2007-11-062024-08-09Us
US6257233No2001-07-102019-05-14Us
US6546929No2003-04-152019-05-14Us
US6685967No2004-02-032018-09-11Us
US6582728No2003-06-242020-06-24Us
US8912193No2014-12-162029-06-12Us
US7648960No2010-01-192020-06-29Us
US6652885No2003-11-252020-06-29Us
US8258095No2012-09-042029-08-11Us
US8778403No2014-07-152030-06-11Us
US6444226No2002-09-032020-06-29Us
US7943572No2011-05-172026-08-10Us
US8119593No2012-02-212029-08-11Us
US7943178No2011-05-172020-06-29Us
US8889099No2014-11-182020-06-29Us
US8623817No2014-01-072029-09-18Us
US8389470No2013-03-052020-06-29Us
US9192675No2015-11-242029-06-12Us
US8215300No2012-07-102022-11-24Us
US8146588No2012-04-032023-04-24Us
US8950397No2015-02-102021-07-20Us
US8485180No2013-07-162030-03-25Us
US9283193No2016-03-152026-09-14Us
US8636001No2014-01-282032-07-12Us
US8424518No2013-04-232031-10-17Us
US8551528No2013-10-082030-06-11Us
US7464706No2008-12-162023-03-02Us
US8729019No2014-05-202028-12-26Us
US7305986No2007-12-112023-01-16Us
US8499757No2013-08-062032-02-19Us
US8156936No2012-04-172023-01-16Us
US8734845No2014-05-272030-06-11Us
US8227409No2012-07-242031-03-08Us
US9393372No2016-07-192029-07-04Us
US9339615No2016-05-172029-10-20Us
US9511198No2016-12-062030-02-16Us
US9597374No2017-03-212031-10-08Us
US9358352No2016-06-072031-02-15Us
US9446133No2016-09-202029-06-12Us
US9662461No2017-05-302029-06-12Us
US9717689No2017-08-012026-09-14Us
US9943571No2018-04-172029-08-11Us
US10046031No2009-08-112029-08-11Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)81 °CKhachidze, D.G. et al., J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 1:64-67 (2001)
hydrophobicity0.218Not Available
isoelectric point5.39Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (...
Gene Name
INSR
Uniprot ID
P06213
Uniprot Name
Insulin receptor
Molecular Weight
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Desbuquois B, Chauvet G, Kouach M, Authier F: Cell itinerary and metabolic fate of proinsulin in rat liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5308-21. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970169]
  2. Chen LM, Yang XW, Tang JG: Acidic residues on the N-terminus of proinsulin C-Peptide are important for the folding of insulin precursor. J Biochem. 2002 Jun;131(6):855-9. [PubMed:12038982]
  3. Bell DS: Insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus: how can the currently available injectable insulins be most prudently and efficaciously utilised? Drugs. 2007;67(13):1813-27. [PubMed:17722952]
  4. Tanti JF, Jager J: Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;9(6):753-62. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Aug 13. [PubMed:19683471]
  5. Chiu SL, Cline HT: Insulin receptor signaling in the development of neuronal structure and function. Neural Dev. 2010 Mar 15;5:7. doi: 10.1186/1749-8104-5-7. [PubMed:20230616]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin (INS) with a lower affinity. The activated IGF1R is involv...
Gene Name
IGF1R
Uniprot ID
P08069
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
Molecular Weight
154791.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Key regulator of entry into cell division that acts as a tumor suppressor. Promotes G0-G1 transition when phosphorylated by CDK3/cyclin-C. Acts as a transcription repressor of E2F1 target genes. Th...
Gene Name
RB1
Uniprot ID
P06400
Uniprot Name
Retinoblastoma-associated protein
Molecular Weight
106158.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Acid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown. Involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease.
Gene Name
CTSD
Uniprot ID
P07339
Uniprot Name
Cathepsin D
Molecular Weight
44551.845 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by A...
Gene Name
IDE
Uniprot ID
P14735
Uniprot Name
Insulin-degrading enzyme
Molecular Weight
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Responsible for the release of glucagon from proglucagon in pancreatic A...
Gene Name
PCSK2
Uniprot ID
P16519
Uniprot Name
Neuroendocrine convertase 2
Molecular Weight
70564.735 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Removes residual C-terminal Arg or Lys remaining after initial endoprotease cleavage during prohormone processing. Processes proinsulin.
Gene Name
CPE
Uniprot ID
P16870
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase E
Molecular Weight
53150.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Substrates include POMC, renin, enkephalin, dynorphin, somatostatin, ins...
Gene Name
PCSK1
Uniprot ID
P29120
Uniprot Name
Neuroendocrine convertase 1
Molecular Weight
84150.92 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Notch binding
Specific Function
Immediate-early protein playing a role in various cellular processes including proliferation, adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival (PubMed:15181016, PubMed:15611078, PubMed:12695522, P...
Gene Name
NOV
Uniprot ID
P48745
Uniprot Name
Protein NOV homolog
Molecular Weight
39161.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function
Acts together with cubilin to mediate HDL endocytosis (By similarity). May participate in regulation of parathyroid-hormone and para-thyroid-hormone-related protein release.
Gene Name
LRP2
Uniprot ID
P98164
Uniprot Name
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2
Molecular Weight
521952.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Binds IGF-I and IGF-II with a relatively low affinity. Stimulates prostacyclin (PGI2) production. Stimulates cell adhesion.
Gene Name
IGFBP7
Uniprot ID
Q16270
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7
Molecular Weight
29130.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Modulates exocytosis of dense-core granules and secretion of hormones in the pancreas and the pituitary. Interacts with vesicles containing negatively charged phospholipids in a Ca(2+)-independent ...
Gene Name
SYTL4
Uniprot ID
Q96C24
Uniprot Name
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4
Molecular Weight
76022.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 18, 2018 09:04