Identification

Name
Insulin Human
Accession Number
DB00030  (BTD00105, BIOD00105, DB01383, DB05278, DB05215, DB05283, DB08914)
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones / Insulins
Description

Insulin human is a 51 residue peptide hormone, composed of two amino acid chains covalently linked by disulfide bonds. The structure is identical to native human insulin. Recombinant insulin is synthesized by recombinant DNA techncology. Inserting the human insulin gene into the Escherichia coli bacteria or Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces insulin for human use.

Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin regular, delivered with a nebulizer into the lungs where it is absorbed. Exubera, developed by Inhale Therapeutics (later named Nektar Therapeutics), became the first inhaled insulin product to be marketed in 2006 by Pfizer, but poor sales led Pfizer to withdraw it in 2007. Afrezza, a monomeric inhaled insulin developed by Mannkind, was approved by the FDA in 2014.

Protein structure
Db00030
Protein chemical formula
C257H383N65O77S6
Protein average weight
5808.0 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTPKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • High molecular weight insulin human
  • Human insulin
  • human insulin (rDNA)
  • Insulin (human)
  • Insulin human [rDNA origin]
  • Insulin Human Regular
  • Insulin human regular (rDNA)
  • Insulin human, rDNA origin
  • Insulin recombinant human
  • Insulin recombinant purified human
  • Insulin regular
  • Insulin, human
  • Regular Insulin, human
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Insulin human zinc suspensionNot AvailableNot AvailableNot applicable
NPH insulinNot Available53027-39-7Not applicable
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension40 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension40 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension40 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30Injection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 FlexpenInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 FlexpenInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 FlexpenInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Actraphane 30 InnoletInjection, suspension100 iu/mlSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Humulin 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1999-02-012015-10-31Us
Humulin 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2013-11-07Not applicableUs
Humulin 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1999-02-012015-10-31Us
Humulin 70/30Injection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1989-06-26Not applicableUs
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousA S Medication Solutions1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1999-02-012015-10-31Us
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-10-24Not applicableUs
Humulin NInjection, suspension100 [iU]/mLSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.2013-11-07Not applicableUs
Humulin RInjection, solution100 [iU]/mLParenteralEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1983-06-27Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
VelosulinInjection, solution100 IU/mlIntravenous; SubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
VelosulinInjection, solution100 IU/mlIntravenous; SubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
VelosulinInjection, solution100 IU/mlIntravenous; SubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2002-10-07Not applicableEu
International/Other Brands
Exubera (Pfizer (withdrawn)) / Humulin N Pen (Lilly) / lnsulatard (Leo) / Nasulin / Novolin N Relion (Novo Nordisk) / Novolin NPH (Novo Nordisk)
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Humulin 10/90 CartridgeInsulin Human (90 unit) + Insulin Human (10 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312001-08-03Canada
Humulin 10/90 CartridgeInsulin Human (90 unit) + Insulin Human (10 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312001-08-03Canada
Humulin 10/90 InjInsulin Human (90 unit) + Insulin Human (10 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312001-08-03Canada
Humulin 10/90 InjInsulin Human (90 unit) + Insulin Human (10 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312001-08-03Canada
Humulin 20/80 CartridgeInsulin Human (80 unit) + Insulin Human (20 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312006-07-27Canada
Humulin 20/80 CartridgeInsulin Human (80 unit) + Insulin Human (20 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312006-07-27Canada
Humulin 20/80 InjInsulin Human (80 unit) + Insulin Human (20 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312001-08-02Canada
Humulin 20/80 InjInsulin Human (80 unit) + Insulin Human (20 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1993-12-312001-08-02Canada
Humulin 30/70 CartridgeInsulin Human (70 unit) + Insulin Human (30 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Humulin 30/70 CartridgeInsulin Human (70 unit) + Insulin Human (30 unit)SuspensionSubcutaneousEli Lilly & Co. Ltd.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
1Y17CTI5SR
CAS number
11061-68-0

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults and children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Insulin regular is a short-acting insulin. When subcutaneously administered, the onset of action (as evidenced by a decrease in glucose level) occurs 30 minutes post-dose. Maximal effect occurs between 1.5 and 3.5 hours post-dose. The glucose-lowering effect occurs 8 hours post-dose. Compared to other rapid-acting insulin analogs, insulin regular has a slower onset of action and longer duration of action.

Mechanism of action

The primary activity of insulin is the regulation of glucose metabolism. Insulin promotes glucose and amino acid uptake into muscle and adipose tissues, and other tissues except brain and liver. It also has an anabolic role in stimulating glycogen, fatty acid, and protein synthesis. Insulin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver. Insulin binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor is able to autophosphorylate and phosphorylate numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. These activated proteins, in turn, lead to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC) which play a critical role in metabolism and catabolism.

TargetActionsOrganism
AInsulin receptor
agonist
Human
UInsulin-like growth factor 1 receptorNot AvailableHuman
URetinoblastoma-associated proteinNot AvailableHuman
UCathepsin DNot AvailableHuman
UInsulin-degrading enzymeNot AvailableHuman
UNeuroendocrine convertase 2Not AvailableHuman
UCarboxypeptidase ENot AvailableHuman
UNeuroendocrine convertase 1Not AvailableHuman
UProtein NOV homologNot AvailableHuman
ULow-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2Not AvailableHuman
UInsulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7Not AvailableHuman
USynaptotagmin-like protein 4Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Insulin is generally well absorbed.

Volume of distribution

0.15 L/kg

Protein binding

5% protein bound

Metabolism

Insulin is predominantly cleared by metabolic degradation via a receptor-mediated process.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Hypoglycemia is one of the most frequent adverse events experienced by insulin users.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
2,4-thiazolidinedione2,4-thiazolidinedione may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
AcarboseAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
AcetohexamideAcetohexamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational, Withdrawn
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
AICA ribonucleotideAICA ribonucleotide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental, Investigational
AlaproclateAlaproclate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
AlbiglutideAlbiglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
AllicinAllicin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
AlogliptinAlogliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
AloxiprinAloxiprin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
AlprenololAlprenolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Withdrawn
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
AmphetamineAmphetamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Illicit
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololArotinolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.Approved
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
AtenololAtenolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
AtorvastatinAtorvastatin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
BalaglitazoneBalaglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
BalsalazideBalsalazide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
BefunololBefunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
Bempedoic acidBempedoic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
BevantololBevantolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
BopindololBopindolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BrofaromineBrofaromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
BucindololBucindolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
BuforminBuformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational, Withdrawn
BufuralolBufuralol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental, Investigational
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.Approved
BupranololBupranolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.Approved
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
CarbutamideCarbutamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
CarteololCarteolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineCastanospermine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
CeliprololCeliprolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.Approved
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.Approved
CiglitazoneCiglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
CinoxacinCinoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
CloranololCloranolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.Approved
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Vet Approved
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.Approved
CyclopenthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Cyclopenthiazide.Experimental
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.Approved
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.Approved
DeoxyspergualinDeoxyspergualin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
dersalazinedersalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.Approved
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.Approved
DiflunisalDiflunisal may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Illicit
DisopyramideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.Approved
DulaglutideDulaglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
Edetic AcidEdetic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
EmpagliflozinEmpagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
EnoxacinEnoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
EpanololEpanolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
EsmololEsmolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Etacrynic acid.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol diacetate.Approved
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.Approved, Investigational
EtoperidoneEtoperidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.Approved
ExenatideExenatide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
FleroxacinFleroxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.Approved
FlumequineFlumequine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
FluoxymesteroneFluoxymesterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Illicit
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GarenoxacinGarenoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
GatifloxacinGatifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
GemifloxacinGemifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
GlibornurideGlibornuride may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational, Withdrawn
GliclazideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.Approved
GlimepirideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.Approved
GlipizideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.Approved
GliquidoneGliquidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
GLPG-0492GLPG-0492 may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
GlyburideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.Approved
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.Approved
GrepafloxacinGrepafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational, Withdrawn
GuacetisalGuacetisal may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
GusperimusGusperimus may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
HarmalineHarmaline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
Hemoglobin crosfumarilHemoglobin crosfumaril may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.Approved
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved, Investigational
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.Approved
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.Approved
IndalpineIndalpine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.Approved
IndenololIndenolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.Approved
Insulin AspartInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.Approved
Insulin DetemirInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.Approved
Insulin GlargineInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.Approved
Insulin GlulisineInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.Approved
Insulin LisproInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.Approved
Insulin PorkInsulin Pork may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
LandiololLandiolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
LanreotideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Lanreotide.Approved
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinLevofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.Approved, Investigational
LinagliptinLinagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Nutraceutical
LiraglutideLiraglutide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.Approved
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.Approved
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
MecaserminInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.Approved, Investigational
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MepindololMepindolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
MesalazineMesalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MesteroloneMesterolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.Approved
MetforminMetformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.Approved
Methyl salicylateMethyl salicylate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyltestosteroneMethyltestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.Approved
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
MetreleptinMetreleptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MifepristoneInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MiglitolMiglitol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MiglustatMiglustat may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
MitiglinideMitiglinide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
NadololNadolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
Nalidixic AcidNalidixic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
NandroloneNandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental, Investigational
Nandrolone decanoateNandrolone decanoate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Illicit
NateglinideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.Approved, Investigational
NebivololNebivolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
NefazodoneNefazodone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.Approved
NemonoxacinNemonoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitroaspirinNitroaspirin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Norethisterone.Approved
NorfloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.Approved
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
OctreotideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Octreotide.Approved, Investigational
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineOlsalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
Oxolinic acidOxolinic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
OxprenololOxprenolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
OxymetholoneOxymetholone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Illicit
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
PasireotideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pasireotide.Approved
PazufloxacinPazufloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
PefloxacinPefloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
PenbutololPenbutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
PentamidineInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Pentamidine.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
PhenforminPhenformin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
PindololPindolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
PioglitazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pioglitazone is combined with Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
Pipemidic acidPipemidic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
PiperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Piperazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.Approved, Investigational
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
Piromidic acidPiromidic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
Platelet Activating FactorPlatelet Activating Factor may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Polythiazide.Approved
PractololPractolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
PramlintidePramlintide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineProcarbazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PropranololPropranolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
PrulifloxacinPrulifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Quinethazone.Approved
QuinineInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
RepaglinideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneRosiglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
RosiglitazoneThe risk or severity of myocardial ischemia can be increased when Insulin Human is combined with Rosiglitazone.Approved, Investigational
RosoxacinRosoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
RufloxacinRufloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SaxagliptinSaxagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineSertraline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SitafloxacinSitafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental, Investigational
SitagliptinSitagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
SotagliflozinSotagliflozin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
SotalolSotalol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
StanozololStanozolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfadiazineInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SulodexideSulodexide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
SunitinibInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TalinololTalinolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational
TemafloxacinTemafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.Approved
TertatololTertatolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
Testosterone PropionateTestosterone Propionate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Vet Approved
TimololTimolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TolazamideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.Approved
TolbutamideInsulin Human may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.Approved
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.Approved, Vet Approved
TroglitazoneTroglitazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Investigational, Withdrawn
Trolamine salicylateTrolamine salicylate may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
TrovafloxacinTrovafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved
VildagliptinVildagliptin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
VogliboseVoglibose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.Approved, Investigational
ZimelidineZimelidine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Human can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Humulin is synthesized in a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of Escherichia coli bacteria that has been genetically altered to produce human insulin.

General References
  1. Herrmann BL, Kasser C, Keuthage W, Huptas M, Dette H, Klute A: Comparison of insulin aspart vs. regular human insulin with or without insulin detemir concerning adipozytokines and metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013 Apr;121(4):210-3. doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334905. Epub 2013 Mar 19. [PubMed:23512415]
  2. Lepore M, Pampanelli S, Fanelli C, Porcellati F, Bartocci L, Di Vincenzo A, Cordoni C, Costa E, Brunetti P, Bolli GB: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneous injection of long-acting human insulin analog glargine, NPH insulin, and ultralente human insulin and continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin lispro. Diabetes. 2000 Dec;49(12):2142-8. [PubMed:11118018]
  3. Owens DR, Coates PA, Luzio SD, Tinbergen JP, Kurzhals R: Pharmacokinetics of 125I-labeled insulin glargine (HOE 901) in healthy men: comparison with NPH insulin and the influence of different subcutaneous injection sites. Diabetes Care. 2000 Jun;23(6):813-9. [PubMed:10841002]
  4. Danne T, Lupke K, Walte K, Von Schuetz W, Gall MA: Insulin detemir is characterized by a consistent pharmacokinetic profile across age-groups in children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Nov;26(11):3087-92. [PubMed:14578244]
  5. Owens DR, Bolli GB: Beyond the era of NPH insulin--long-acting insulin analogs: chemistry, comparative pharmacology, and clinical application. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008 Oct;10(5):333-49. doi: 10.1089/dia.2008.0023. [PubMed:18715209]
External Links
UniProt
Q8HXV2
Genbank
AY137503
KEGG Drug
D03230
KEGG Compound
C00723
PubChem Substance
46506231
ChEBI
5931
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000802
PharmGKB
PA164744571
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Insulin
ATC Codes
A10AB01 — Insulin (human)A10AC01 — Insulin (human)A10AF01 — Insulin (human)A10AE01 — Insulin (human)A10AD01 — Insulin (human)
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08 — Insulins
FDA label
Download (133 KB)
MSDS
Download (47 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0WithdrawnOtherBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hyperinsulinemia1
1CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedBasic ScienceSarcopenia1
1CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedHealth Services ResearchDiabetes Mellitus (DM)4
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentPost-Prandial Hyperglycemia / Post-Prandial Hypoglycemia1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceAortic Aneurysms / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
1RecruitingTreatmentType1 Diabetes Mellitus1
1TerminatedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1, 2CompletedPreventionDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentHIV Dementia / HIV-Associated Cognitive Motor Complex1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
2CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedNot AvailableType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias1
2CompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple System Atrophy (MSA) / Parkinson's Disease (PD)1
2CompletedTreatmentNon Insulin Dependent Diabetes / Pregnancy1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND)1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2, 3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypercholesterolaemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)4
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 13
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus, Insulin-Dependent1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 13
3CompletedTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus in Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentHypercholesterolaemia1
3CompletedTreatmentSevere Sepsis / Shock, Septic1
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus5
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Moderate Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentHyperglycemias1
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentType I Diabetes1
4CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchHypoglycemia1
4CompletedTreatmentCancer Cachexia1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)3
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Hyperglycemias3
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4CompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentInpatient Hyperglycemia / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentInsufficient Metabolic Control / OAD Treatment / Type 2 Diabetic Patients1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus14
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingDiagnosticHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingScreeningDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4SuspendedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4TerminatedTreatmentPost-Transplant Glucocorticoid Induced Diabetes1
4TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Unknown StatusTreatmentInsulin-requiring Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIntracranial Hemorrhages / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Sarcopenia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Hypoglycemia1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Ketoacidosis1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableCompletedOtherCognitive Impairments / Hypoglycemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHeart Defects,Congenital / Hyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Macrosomia, Fetal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRenal Failure / Respiratory Failure / Sepsis / Surgical Site Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceSarcopenia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCognitive Decline / Delirium / Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableArterial Hypertension / Diabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHuman Physiology of Energy Homeostasis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionSurgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentIntracranial Aneurysms1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Novo nordisk inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kit
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)12 1/1
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)4 1/1
Powder, meteredRespiratory (inhalation)8 1/1
SolutionSubcutaneous500 unit
Injection, solutionParenteral100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous500 [iU]/mL
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 IU/ml
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous40 IU/ml
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 IU/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 IU/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous40 IU/ml
Injection, solutionIntraperitoneal400 IU/ml
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 [USP'U]/mL
SuspensionSubcutaneous
SuspensionSubcutaneous100 unit
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous100 unit
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 [iU]/mL
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous; Subcutaneous100 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
NovoLIN R PenFill 100 unit/ml Solution Five 3ml Cartridges Per Box = 15ml162.26USD cartridge
NovoLIN R 100 unit/ml Solution 10ml Vial73.19USD vial
Novolin r 100 unit/ml cartridg33.33USD ml
NovoLIN R InnoLet 100 unit/ml Solution 3ml Cartridge24.17USD cartridge
Humulin N Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Humulin R Cartridge 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.99USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.8USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph Penfill 100 unit/ml Cartridge2.78USD cartridge
Humulin N 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Humulin R 100 unit/ml2.29USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Nph 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
Novolin Ge Toronto 100 unit/ml2.14USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
USRE37872No1993-02-122010-02-12Us
CA2183577No2007-10-302015-02-07Canada
CA2253393No2007-10-092017-05-07Canada
US7291132No2004-08-092024-08-09Us
US6257233No1999-05-142019-05-14Us
US6546929No1999-05-142019-05-14Us
US6685967No1998-09-112018-09-11Us
US6582728No2000-06-242020-06-24Us
US8912193No2009-06-122029-06-12Us
US7648960No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6652885No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US8258095No2009-08-112029-08-11Us
US8778403No2010-06-112030-06-11Us
US6444226No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US7943572No2006-08-102026-08-10Us
US8119593No2009-08-112029-08-11Us
US7943178No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US8889099No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US8623817No2009-09-182029-09-18Us
US8389470No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US9192675No2009-06-122029-06-12Us
US8215300No2002-11-242022-11-24Us
US8146588No2003-04-242023-04-24Us
US8950397No2001-07-202021-07-20Us
US8485180No2010-03-252030-03-25Us
US9283193No2006-09-142026-09-14Us
US8636001No2012-07-122032-07-12Us
US8424518No2011-10-172031-10-17Us
US8551528No2010-06-112030-06-11Us
US7464706No2003-03-022023-03-02Us
US8729019No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US7305986No2003-01-162023-01-16Us
US8499757No2012-02-192032-02-19Us
US8156936No2003-01-162023-01-16Us
US8734845No2010-06-112030-06-11Us
US8227409No2011-03-082031-03-08Us
US9393372No2009-07-042029-07-04Us
US9339615No2009-10-202029-10-20Us
US9511198No2010-02-162030-02-16Us
US9597374No2011-10-082031-10-08Us
US9358352No2011-02-152031-02-15Us
US9446133No2009-06-122029-06-12Us
US9662461No2009-06-122029-06-12Us
US9717689No2006-09-142026-09-14Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)81 °CKhachidze, D.G. et al., J. Biol. Phys. Chem. 1:64-67 (2001)
hydrophobicity0.218Not Available
isoelectric point5.39Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (...
Gene Name
INSR
Uniprot ID
P06213
Uniprot Name
Insulin receptor
Molecular Weight
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Desbuquois B, Chauvet G, Kouach M, Authier F: Cell itinerary and metabolic fate of proinsulin in rat liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology. 2003 Dec;144(12):5308-21. Epub 2003 Sep 11. [PubMed:12970169]
  2. Chen LM, Yang XW, Tang JG: Acidic residues on the N-terminus of proinsulin C-Peptide are important for the folding of insulin precursor. J Biochem. 2002 Jun;131(6):855-9. [PubMed:12038982]
  3. Bell DS: Insulin therapy in diabetes mellitus: how can the currently available injectable insulins be most prudently and efficaciously utilised? Drugs. 2007;67(13):1813-27. [PubMed:17722952]
  4. Tanti JF, Jager J: Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance: role of stress-regulated serine kinases and insulin receptor substrates (IRS) serine phosphorylation. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Dec;9(6):753-62. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Aug 13. [PubMed:19683471]
  5. Chiu SL, Cline HT: Insulin receptor signaling in the development of neuronal structure and function. Neural Dev. 2010 Mar 15;5:7. doi: 10.1186/1749-8104-5-7. [PubMed:20230616]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 and insulin (INS) with a lower affinity. The activated IGF1R is involv...
Gene Name
IGF1R
Uniprot ID
P08069
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor
Molecular Weight
154791.73 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Key regulator of entry into cell division that acts as a tumor suppressor. Promotes G0-G1 transition when phosphorylated by CDK3/cyclin-C. Acts as a transcription repressor of E2F1 target genes. Th...
Gene Name
RB1
Uniprot ID
P06400
Uniprot Name
Retinoblastoma-associated protein
Molecular Weight
106158.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Aspartic-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Acid protease active in intracellular protein breakdown. Involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases such as breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease.
Gene Name
CTSD
Uniprot ID
P07339
Uniprot Name
Cathepsin D
Molecular Weight
44551.845 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Plays a role in the cellular breakdown of insulin, IAPP, glucagon, bradykinin, kallidin and other peptides, and thereby plays a role in intercellular peptide signaling. Degrades amyloid formed by A...
Gene Name
IDE
Uniprot ID
P14735
Uniprot Name
Insulin-degrading enzyme
Molecular Weight
117967.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Responsible for the release of glucagon from proglucagon in pancreatic A...
Gene Name
PCSK2
Uniprot ID
P16519
Uniprot Name
Neuroendocrine convertase 2
Molecular Weight
70564.735 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Removes residual C-terminal Arg or Lys remaining after initial endoprotease cleavage during prohormone processing. Processes proinsulin.
Gene Name
CPE
Uniprot ID
P16870
Uniprot Name
Carboxypeptidase E
Molecular Weight
53150.185 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
Involved in the processing of hormone and other protein precursors at sites comprised of pairs of basic amino acid residues. Substrates include POMC, renin, enkephalin, dynorphin, somatostatin, ins...
Gene Name
PCSK1
Uniprot ID
P29120
Uniprot Name
Neuroendocrine convertase 1
Molecular Weight
84150.92 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Notch binding
Specific Function
Immediate-early protein playing a role in various cellular processes including proliferation, adhesion, migration, differentiation and survival (PubMed:15181016, PubMed:15611078, PubMed:12695522, P...
Gene Name
NOV
Uniprot ID
P48745
Uniprot Name
Protein NOV homolog
Molecular Weight
39161.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Calcium ion binding
Specific Function
Acts together with cubilin to mediate HDL endocytosis (By similarity). May participate in regulation of parathyroid-hormone and para-thyroid-hormone-related protein release.
Gene Name
LRP2
Uniprot ID
P98164
Uniprot Name
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2
Molecular Weight
521952.77 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Binds IGF-I and IGF-II with a relatively low affinity. Stimulates prostacyclin (PGI2) production. Stimulates cell adhesion.
Gene Name
IGFBP7
Uniprot ID
Q16270
Uniprot Name
Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7
Molecular Weight
29130.055 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Modulates exocytosis of dense-core granules and secretion of hormones in the pancreas and the pituitary. Interacts with vesicles containing negatively charged phospholipids in a Ca(2+)-independent ...
Gene Name
SYTL4
Uniprot ID
Q96C24
Uniprot Name
Synaptotagmin-like protein 4
Molecular Weight
76022.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 10, 2017 17:18