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Identification
NameAcarbose
Accession NumberDB00284  (APRD00656)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionAn inhibitor of alpha glucosidase that retards the digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine and hence reduces the increase in blood-glucose concentrations after a carbohydrate load. It is given orally to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients where diet modification or oral hypoglycemic agents do not control their condition. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Acarbosa
Acarbose
Acarbosum
Glucobay
Precose
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralAlvogen, Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralAlvogen, Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2008-01-30Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralAlvogen, Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
GlucobayTablet50 mgOralBayer Inc1996-02-02Not applicableCanada
GlucobayTablet100 mgOralBayer Inc1996-02-02Not applicableCanada
PrecoseTablet25 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-11-19Not applicableUs
PrecoseTablet50 mg/1OralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2008-01-30Not applicableUs
PrecoseTablet50 mg/1OralBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
PrecoseTablet100 mg/1OralBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
PrecoseTablet25 mg/1OralBayer Health Care Pharmaceuticals Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-07-30Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2015-02-01Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-06Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-10-03Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralImpax Generics2009-05-14Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2013-12-24Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralActavis Pharma, Inc.2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralStrides Arcolab Limited2011-07-28Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-07-30Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2013-10-09Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-06Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralImpax Generics2009-05-14Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralLibertas Pharma, Inc.2011-07-27Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralActavis Pharma, Inc.2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2015-02-01Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2013-12-24Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2013-10-09Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-01-06Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralStrides Arcolab Limited2011-07-28Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralLibertas Pharma, Inc.2011-07-27Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralHeritage Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-07-30Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2015-02-01Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2013-12-24Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2013-10-09Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralActavis Pharma, Inc.2008-05-07Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet50 mg/1OralStrides Arcolab Limited2011-07-28Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet25 mg/1OralImpax Generics2009-05-14Not applicableUs
AcarboseTablet100 mg/1OralLibertas Pharma, Inc.2011-07-27Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
PrandaseBayer AG
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIT58MSI464G
CAS number56180-94-0
WeightAverage: 645.6048
Monoisotopic: 645.248013577
Chemical FormulaC25H43NO18
InChI KeyXUFXOAAUWZOOIT-JMPDRRIHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C25H43NO18/c1-6-11(26-8-2-7(3-27)12(30)15(33)13(8)31)14(32)19(37)24(40-6)43-22-10(5-29)42-25(20(38)17(22)35)44-21-9(4-28)41-23(39)18(36)16(21)34/h2,6,8-39H,3-5H2,1H3/t6-,8+,9-,10-,11-,12+,13+,14+,15+,16-,17-,18-,19-,20-,21-,22-,23-,24-,25-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-{[(2R,3R,4R,5S,6R)-5-{[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-5-{[(1S,4S,5S,6S)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohex-2-en-1-yl]amino}oxan-2-yl]oxy}-3,4-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4-triol
SMILES
C[[email protected]]1O[[email protected]](O[C@@H]2[C@@H](CO)O[[email protected]](O[C@@H]3[C@@H](CO)O[C@@H](O)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]]3O)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]]2O)[[email protected]](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1N[[email protected]]1C=C(CO)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]]1O
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment and management of diabetes type II (used in combination therapy as a second or third line agent)
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsUsed to reduce blood gluose in patients with type 2 diabetes. Acarbose is a complex oligosaccharide that delays the digestion of ingested carbohydrates, thereby resulting in a smaller rise in blood glucose concentration following meals. Acarbose binds to and inhibits alpha amylase and alpha-gluocside hydrolases. In diabetic patients, this enzyme inhibition results in a delayed glucose absorption and a lowering of postprandial hyperglycemia.
Mechanism of actionAcarbose reversibly bind to pancreatic alpha-amylase and membrane-bound intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolases. These enzymes inhibit hydrolysis of complex starches to oligosaccharides in the lumen of the small intestine and hydrolysis of oligosaccharides, trisaccharides, and disaccharides to glucose and other monosaccharides in the brush border of the small intestine.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Maltase-glucoamylase, intestinalProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanO43451 details
Lysosomal alpha-glucosidaseProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP10253 details
Sucrase-isomaltase, intestinalProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP14410 details
Pancreatic alpha-amylaseProteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP04746 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionExtremely low bioavailability. Less than 2% of an oral dose of acarbose was absorbed as active drug. Peak plasma concentrations of the active drug were achieved 1 hour after dosing. Drug accumulation does not occur with multiple doses.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Acarbose is only metabolized within the gastrointestinal tract by intestinal bacteria and also digestive enzymes to a lesser extent. 4-methylpyrogallol derivatives (sulfate, methyl, and glucuronide conjugates) are the major metabolites. One metabolite (formed by cleavage of a glucose molecule from acarbose) also has alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.

Route of eliminationThe fraction of acarbose that is absorbed as intact drug is almost completely excreted by the kidneys. A fraction of the metabolites (approximately 34% of the dose) was absorbed and subsequently excreted in the urine. The active metabolite is excreted into the urine and accounts for less than 2% of the total administered dose. When given intravenously, 89% of the dose was excreted into the urine as the active drug. When given orally, less than 2% of the oral dose was recovered into the urine as active (parent compound and active metabolite) drug.
Half lifeHealthy volunteers = 2 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityGastrointestinal symptoms are the most common reactions to acarbose.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Experimental
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Vet Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
AripiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Aripiprazole.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Arsenic trioxide.Approved, Investigational
ArticaineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Articaine.Approved
AsenapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Asenapine.Approved
AtazanavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
BalsalazideBalsalazide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenmoxinBenmoxin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BrexpiprazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Brexpiprazole.Approved
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Bumetanide.Approved
BuserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Buserelin.Approved
CaroxazoneCaroxazone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
CeritinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ceritinib.Approved
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpropamideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Chlorthalidone.Approved
CinoxacinCinoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Withdrawn
CiprofloxacinCiprofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
ClozapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Clozapine.Approved
CorticotropinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Corticotropin.Approved, Vet Approved
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.Approved
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
DabrafenibThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Dabrafenib.Approved
DanazolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Danazol.Approved
DapoxetineDapoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
DarunavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Darunavir.Approved
dersalazinedersalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Desogestrel.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DiazoxideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Diazoxide.Approved
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.Approved
DiflunisalDiflunisal may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Acarbose.Approved
DihydrotestosteroneDihydrotestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Illicit
DisopyramideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Disopyramide.Approved
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Drospirenone.Approved
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
EnoxacinEnoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
EpinephrineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Epinephrine.Approved, Vet Approved
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Etacrynic acid.Approved
Ethinyl EstradiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
Ethynodiol diacetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ethynodiol diacetate.Approved
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.Approved, Investigational
EtoperidoneEtoperidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
EverolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Everolimus.Approved
FleroxacinFleroxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.Approved
FlumequineFlumequine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Vet Approved
FluoxymesteroneFluoxymesterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Illicit
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
FosamprenavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Fosamprenavir.Approved
FurazolidoneFurazolidone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
GarenoxacinGarenoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
GatifloxacinGatifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
GemifloxacinGemifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
GliclazideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.Approved
GlimepirideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.Approved
GlipizideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.Approved
GlyburideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.Approved
GoserelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Goserelin.Approved
GrepafloxacinGrepafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
HistrelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Histrelin.Approved
HydracarbazineHydracarbazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroflumethiazide.Approved
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.Approved
IloperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Iloperidone.Approved
IndalpineIndalpine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational, Withdrawn
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Indapamide.Approved
IndinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Indinavir.Approved
Insulin AspartAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.Approved
Insulin DetemirAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Detemir.Approved
Insulin GlargineAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glargine.Approved
Insulin GlulisineAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Glulisine.Approved
Insulin HumanAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Human.Approved, Investigational
Insulin LisproAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Lispro.Approved
IproclozideIproclozide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
IproniazidIproniazid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
IsocarboxazidIsocarboxazid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
LanreotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Lanreotide.Approved
LeuprolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Leuprolide.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinLevofloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.Approved, Investigational
Lipoic AcidLipoic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Nutraceutical
LomefloxacinLomefloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
LopinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Lopinavir.Approved
LurasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Lurasidone.Approved
MebanazineMebanazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
MecaserminAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mecasermin.Approved, Investigational
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone acetate.Approved, Investigational
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.Approved, Vet Approved
MesalazineMesalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
MestranolThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Mestranol.Approved
MethotrimeprazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Methotrimeprazine.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Methyclothiazide.Approved
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MethyltestosteroneMethyltestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Metolazone.Approved
MifepristoneAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
MinaprineMinaprine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
MoclobemideMoclobemide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
MoxifloxacinMoxifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
Nalidixic AcidNalidixic Acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
NateglinideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Nateglinide.Approved, Investigational
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
NefazodoneNefazodone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Nelfinavir.Approved
NemonoxacinNemonoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
NeomycinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Neomycin is combined with Acarbose.Approved, Vet Approved
NiacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Niacin.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
NialamideNialamide may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
NilotinibThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Nilotinib.Approved, Investigational
NitroaspirinNitroaspirin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Norethisterone.Approved
NorfloxacinNorfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
NorgestimateThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Norgestimate.Approved
OctamoxinOctamoxin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
OctreotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Octreotide.Approved, Investigational
OfloxacinOfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
OlanzapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Olanzapine.Approved, Investigational
OlsalazineOlsalazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
OxandroloneOxandrolone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
OxymetholoneOxymetholone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Illicit
PaliperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Paliperidone.Approved
PargylinePargyline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
PasireotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Pasireotide.Approved
PazufloxacinPazufloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
PefloxacinPefloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
PegvisomantPegvisomant may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
PentamidineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Pentamidine.Approved
PhenelzinePhenelzine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
PheniprazinePheniprazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
PhenoxypropazinePhenoxypropazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
PiperazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Piperazine.Approved, Vet Approved
PipotiazineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Pipotiazine.Approved
PirlindolePirlindole may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
PivhydrazinePivhydrazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Polythiazide.Approved
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrulifloxacinPrulifloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Investigational
QuetiapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Quinethazone.Approved
QuinineAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Quinine.Approved
RasagilineRasagiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
RepaglinideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Repaglinide.Approved, Investigational
RisperidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RitonavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RosoxacinRosoxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
SafrazineSafrazine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Vet Approved
SaquinavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SelegilineSelegiline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SertralineSertraline may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
SirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Sirolimus.Approved, Investigational
SparfloxacinSparfloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
StanozololStanozolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfadiazineAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfadiazine.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfamethoxazoleAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfamethoxazole.Approved
SulfisoxazoleAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sulfisoxazole.Approved, Vet Approved
SunitinibAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Sunitinib.Approved, Investigational
TacrolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TemafloxacinTemafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
TemsirolimusThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Temsirolimus.Approved
TestosteroneTestosterone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Investigational
TipranavirThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TolazamideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.Approved
TolbutamideAcarbose may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.Approved
ToloxatoneToloxatone may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Torasemide.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineTrans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Experimental
TranylcypromineTranylcypromine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
TriptorelinThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Triptorelin.Approved, Vet Approved
TrovafloxacinTrovafloxacin may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved, Withdrawn
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Approved
VorinostatThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Vorinostat.Approved, Investigational
ZimelidineZimelidine may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acarbose.Withdrawn
ZiprasidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acarbose can be decreased when used in combination with Ziprasidone.Approved
Food Interactions
  • Take with food, at beginning of each meal.
References
Synthesis Reference

Anneliese Crueger, Wolfgang Piepersberg, Jurgen Distler, Ansgar Stratmann, “Acarbose biosynthesis genes from actinoplanes sp., process for the isolation thereof and the use thereof.” U.S. Patent US5753501, issued December, 1977.

US5753501
General References
  1. Clissold SP, Edwards C: Acarbose. A preliminary review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential. Drugs. 1988 Mar;35(3):214-43. [PubMed:3286212 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA10BF01A10BD17
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.02
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (268 KB)
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8467
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9723
Caco-2 permeable-0.725
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5316
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5421
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8656
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8647
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7581
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8505
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5683
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8791
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8677
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8974
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8392
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.986
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7163
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8054
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.967
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6447
Rat acute toxicity1.4610 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8586
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8288
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral100 mg/1
TabletOral25 mg/1
TabletOral50 mg/1
TabletOral100 mg
TabletOral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Acarbose 100 100 mg tablet Bottle120.62USD bottle
Acarbose 100 50 mg tablet Bottle100.71USD bottle
Acarbose 100 25 mg tablet Bottle93.54USD bottle
Precose 100 mg tablet1.28USD tablet
Acarbose 100 mg tablet1.17USD tablet
Precose 50 mg tablet1.11USD tablet
Precose 25 mg tablet1.01USD tablet
Acarbose 25 mg tablet0.91USD tablet
Acarbose 50 mg tablet0.88USD tablet
Glucobay 100 mg Tablet0.4USD tablet
Glucobay 50 mg Tablet0.29USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-6.8Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility148.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-7.6ChemAxon
logS-0.64ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.23ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.03ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count19ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count14ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area321.17 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity137.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability62.39 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligosaccharides. These are carbohydrates made up of 3 to 10 monosaccharide units linked to each other through glycosidic bonds.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassOligosaccharides
Direct ParentOligosaccharides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Glucosamine
  • O-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Cyclitol derivative
  • Amino saccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hemiacetal
  • 1,2-diol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Maltose alpha-glucosidase activity
Specific Function:
May serve as an alternate pathway for starch digestion when luminal alpha-amylase activity is reduced because of immaturity or malnutrition. May play a unique role in the digestion of malted dietary oligosaccharides used in food manufacturing.
Gene Name:
MGAM
Uniprot ID:
O43451
Molecular Weight:
209850.8 Da
References
  1. Okumiya T, Keulemans JL, Kroos MA, Van der Beek NM, Boer MA, Takeuchi H, Van Diggelen OP, Reuser AJ: A new diagnostic assay for glycogen storage disease type II in mixed leukocytes. Mol Genet Metab. 2006 May;88(1):22-8. Epub 2005 Dec 15. [PubMed:16359900 ]
  2. Zhang H, Kallwass H, Young SP, Carr C, Dai J, Kishnani PS, Millington DS, Keutzer J, Chen YT, Bali D: Comparison of maltose and acarbose as inhibitors of maltase-glucoamylase activity in assaying acid alpha-glucosidase activity in dried blood spots for the diagnosis of infantile Pompe disease. Genet Med. 2006 May;8(5):302-6. [PubMed:16702880 ]
  3. Gelb MH, Turecek F, Scott CR, Chamoles NA: Direct multiplex assay of enzymes in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry for the newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Apr-Jun;29(2-3):397-404. [PubMed:16763908 ]
  4. Yamagishi S, Matsui T, Ueda S, Fukami K, Okuda S: Clinical utility of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor in cardiometabolic disorders. Curr Drug Metab. 2009 Feb;10(2):159-63. [PubMed:19275550 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Maltose alpha-glucosidase activity
Specific Function:
Essential for the degradation of glygogen to glucose in lysosomes.
Gene Name:
GAA
Uniprot ID:
P10253
Molecular Weight:
105322.935 Da
References
  1. Salehi A, Fan BG, Ekelund M, Nordin G, Lundquist I: TPN-evoked dysfunction of islet lysosomal activity mediates impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Jul;281(1):E171-9. [PubMed:11404235 ]
  2. Li Y, Scott CR, Chamoles NA, Ghavami A, Pinto BM, Turecek F, Gelb MH: Direct multiplex assay of lysosomal enzymes in dried blood spots for newborn screening. Clin Chem. 2004 Oct;50(10):1785-96. Epub 2004 Aug 3. [PubMed:15292070 ]
  3. Lundquist I, Panagiotidis G: The relationship of islet amyloglucosidase activity and glucose-induced insulin secretion. Pancreas. 1992;7(3):352-7. [PubMed:1594557 ]
  4. Zhang H, Kallwass H, Young SP, Carr C, Dai J, Kishnani PS, Millington DS, Keutzer J, Chen YT, Bali D: Comparison of maltose and acarbose as inhibitors of maltase-glucoamylase activity in assaying acid alpha-glucosidase activity in dried blood spots for the diagnosis of infantile Pompe disease. Genet Med. 2006 May;8(5):302-6. [PubMed:16702880 ]
  5. Gelb MH, Turecek F, Scott CR, Chamoles NA: Direct multiplex assay of enzymes in dried blood spots by tandem mass spectrometry for the newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Apr-Jun;29(2-3):397-404. [PubMed:16763908 ]
  6. Lullmann-Rauch R, Watermann D: Fusion of storage lysosomes in experimental lipidosis and glycogenosis. Exp Mol Pathol. 1987 Feb;46(1):136-43. [PubMed:3467980 ]
  7. Bourbon JR, Doucet E, Rieutort M: Role of alpha-glucosidase in fetal lung maturation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1987 Jan 13;917(1):203-10. [PubMed:3539207 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sucrose alpha-glucosidase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the final stage of carbohydrate digestion. Isomaltase activity is specific for both alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-oligosaccharides.
Gene Name:
SI
Uniprot ID:
P14410
Molecular Weight:
209451.49 Da
References
  1. Juretic D, Bernik S, Cop L, Hadzija M, Petlevski R, Lukac-Bajalo J: Short-term effect of acarbose on specific intestinal disaccharidase activities and hyperglycaemia in CBA diabetic mice. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2003 Aug;87(7-8):263-8. [PubMed:12864906 ]
  2. Meyer H, Wieczorek H, Zeiske W: K+ transport in the caterpillar intestine epithelium: role of osmolytes for the K+-secretory capacity of the tobacco hornworm midgut. J Comp Physiol B. 2004 Oct;174(7):527-39. Epub 2004 Aug 20. [PubMed:15322845 ]
  3. Karley AJ, Ashford DA, Minto LM, Pritchard J, Douglas AE: The significance of gut sucrase activity for osmoregulation in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. J Insect Physiol. 2005 Dec;51(12):1313-9. Epub 2005 Sep 15. [PubMed:16169004 ]
  4. Samulitis BK, Goda T, Lee SM, Koldovsky O: Inhibitory mechanism of acarbose and 1-deoxynojirimycin derivatives on carbohydrases in rat small intestine. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1987;13(8):517-24. [PubMed:2962844 ]
  5. Newbrun E, Hoover CI, Walker GJ: Inhibition by acarbose, nojirimycin and 1-deoxynojirimycin of glucosyltransferase produced by oral streptococci. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28(6):531-6. [PubMed:6226260 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Chloride ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMY2A
Uniprot ID:
P04746
Molecular Weight:
57706.51 Da
References
  1. Jonas L, Mikkat U, Lehmann R, Schareck W, Walzel H, Schroder W, Lopp H, Pussa T, Toomik P: Inhibitory effects of human and porcine alpha-amylase on CCK-8-stimulated lipase secretion of isolated rat pancreatic acini. Pancreatology. 2003;3(4):342-8. [PubMed:12890998 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23