Muromonab

Identification

Name
Muromonab
Accession Number
DB00075  (BTD00005, BIOD00005)
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Monoclonal antibody (mAb)
Description

Murine monoclonal antibody specific to CD3 T-cell lymphocyte antigens. More specifically it is a purified murine (mouse) monoclonal antibody, directed against the CD3 (T3) receptor on the surface of human T-cells (T-lymphocytes) cultured using the murine ascites method. Muromonab is 93% monomeric immune globulin G type 2a (IgG2a).

Protein structure
Db00075
Protein chemical formula
C6460H9946N1720O2043S56
Protein average weight
146189.7 Da
Sequences
>Muromonab-CD3 light chain
QIVLTQSPAIMSASPGEKVTMTCSASSSVSYMNWYQQKSGTSPKRWIYDTSKLASGVPAH
FRGSGSGTSYSLTISGMEAEDAATYYCQQWSSNPFTFGSGTKLEINRADTAPTVSIFPPS
SEQLTSGGASVVCFLNNFYPKDINVKWKIDGSERQNGVLNSWTDQDSKDSTYSMSSTLTL
TKDEYERHNSYTCEATHKTSTSPIVKSFNRNEC
>Muromonab-CD3 heavy chain
QVQLQQSGAELARPGASVKMSCKASGYTFTRYTMHWVKQRPGQGLEWIGYINPSRGYTNY
NQKFKDKATLTTDKSSSTAYMQLSSLTSEDSAVYYCARYYDDHYCLDYWGQGTTLTVSSA
KTTAPSVYPLAPVCGGTTGSSVTLGCLVKGYFPEPVTLTWNSGSLSSGVHTFPAVLQSDL
YTLSSSVTVTSSTWPSQSITCNVAHPASSTKVDKKIEPRPKSCDKTHTCPPCPAPELLGG
PSVFLFPPKPKDTLMISRTPEVTCVVVDVSHEDPEVKFNWYVDGVEVHNAKTKPREEQYN
STYRVVSVLTVLHQDWLNGKEYKCKVSNKALPAPIEKTISKAKGQPREPQVYTLPPSRDE
LTKNQVSLTCLVKGFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYKTTPPVLDSDGSFFLYSKLTVDKSRW
QQGNVFSCSVMHEALHNHYTQKSLSLSPGK
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Anti-CD3
  • Muromonab-CD3
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Okt3Injection, solution5 mg/5mLIntravenousCentocor Ortho Biotech Products, L.P.1986-07-192017-11-16Us
Orthoclone Okt 3 Sterile Solution IV 1mg/mlSolution1 mgIntravenousJanssen Pharmaceuticals1987-12-312007-07-09Canada
International/Other Brands
Orthoclone OKT3 (Janssen-Cilag)
Categories
UNII
JGA39ICE2V
CAS number
140608-64-6

Pharmacology

Indication

For treatment of organ transplant recipients, prevention of organ rejection

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Used in organ transplant prophylaxis, Muromonab or OKT-3 binds specifically to the CD-3 complex, which is involved in antigen recognition and cell stimulation, on the surface of T lymphocytes. Immediately after administration CD-3-positive T lymphocytes are abruptly removed from circulation. It has been effective in reversing corticosteroid-resistant acute rejection in renal, liver, and cardiac transplant recipients.

Mechanism of action

Muromonab binds to the T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain. It appears to kill CD-3 positive cells by inducing Fc mediated apoptosis, antibody mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity.

TargetActionsOrganism
AT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chainNot AvailableHuman
AT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain
binder
Human
AT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chainNot AvailableHuman
AT-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chainNot AvailableHuman
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-BNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1r subcomponentNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit ANot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit BNot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1q subcomponent subunit CNot AvailableHuman
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-ANot AvailableHuman
UComplement C1s subcomponentNot AvailableHuman
UHigh affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor INot AvailableHuman
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-aNot AvailableHuman
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-bNot AvailableHuman
ULow affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-cNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Most likely removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system when bound to T lymphocytes, or by human antimurine antibody production

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

0.8 hours (mammalian reticulocytes, in vitro)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
BCG vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of BCG vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
BelimumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Muromonab is combined with Belimumab.Approved
Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)The therapeutic efficacy of Clostridium tetani toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated)The therapeutic efficacy of Corynebacterium diphtheriae toxoid antigen (formaldehyde inactivated) can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Muromonab.Approved
FingolimodMuromonab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Fingolimod.Approved, Investigational
G17DTThe therapeutic efficacy of G17DT can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
GI-5005The therapeutic efficacy of GI-5005 can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
Hepatitis A VaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Hepatitis A Vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)The therapeutic efficacy of Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant) can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved, Withdrawn
INGN 201The therapeutic efficacy of INGN 201 can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
INGN 225The therapeutic efficacy of INGN 225 can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Muromonab is combined with Leflunomide.Approved, Investigational
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Muromonab is combined with Natalizumab.Approved, Investigational
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Muromonab.Approved, Investigational
Rabies virus inactivated antigen, AThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies virus inactivated antigen, A can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
RindopepimutThe therapeutic efficacy of Rindopepimut can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Muromonab.Approved
Rotavirus VaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rotavirus Vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Rubella virus vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rubella virus vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Salmonella typhi ty21a live antigenThe therapeutic efficacy of Salmonella typhi ty21a live antigen can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
SRP 299The therapeutic efficacy of SRP 299 can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Muromonab.Approved, Investigational
TecemotideThe therapeutic efficacy of Tecemotide can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
TG4010The therapeutic efficacy of TG4010 can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Investigational
TofacitinibMuromonab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.Approved, Investigational
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Muromonab.Approved, Investigational
Yellow fever vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Yellow fever vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Zoster vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Zoster vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Muromonab.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D05092
PubChem Substance
46507837
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201608
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001301
PharmGKB
PA164743097
Wikipedia
Muromonab
ATC Codes
L04AA02 — Muromonab-cd3

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
1TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Kidney1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentUlcerative Colitis (UC)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentUnspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal Nocturnal (PNH) / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia (JMML) / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Leukemia, Acute Lymphocytic (ALL) / Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic(CML) / Lymphoma, Hodgkins / Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin (NHL) / Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) / Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) / Histiocytosis / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Myelodysplasia1
2CompletedTreatmentBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentGiant Cell Myocarditis / Myocarditis1
2CompletedTreatmentGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) / Leukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentNonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Myeloproliferative Disorders / Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) / Leukemias / Malignant Lymphomas / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentRenal Cancers1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLymphoblastic Leukemia, Acute, Childhood2
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocarditis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous5 mg/5mL
SolutionIntravenous1 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Orthoclone okt-3 5 mg/5 ml261.75USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61 °C (FAB fragment), 71 °C (whole mAb)Vermeer, A.W.P. & Norde, W., Biophys. J. 78:394-404 (2000)
hydrophobicity-0.513Not Available
isoelectric point8.31Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
The CD3 complex mediates signal transduction.
Gene Name
CD3D
Uniprot ID
P04234
Uniprot Name
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 delta chain
Molecular Weight
18929.38 Da
References
  1. Todd PA, Brogden RN: Muromonab CD3. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential. Drugs. 1989 Jun;37(6):871-99. [PubMed:2503348]
  2. Wilde MI, Goa KL: Muromonab CD3: a reappraisal of its pharmacology and use as prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. Drugs. 1996 May;51(5):865-94. [PubMed:8861551]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Binder
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
The CD3 complex mediates signal transduction, resulting in T cell activation and proliferation. Required for normal immune responses (PubMed:15546002, PubMed:8490660).
Gene Name
CD3E
Uniprot ID
P07766
Uniprot Name
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 epsilon chain
Molecular Weight
23147.09 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
The CD3 complex mediates signal transduction.
Gene Name
CD3G
Uniprot ID
P09693
Uniprot Name
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 gamma chain
Molecular Weight
20469.335 Da
References
  1. Todd PA, Brogden RN: Muromonab CD3. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential. Drugs. 1989 Jun;37(6):871-99. [PubMed:2503348]
  2. Wilde MI, Goa KL: Muromonab CD3: a reappraisal of its pharmacology and use as prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. Drugs. 1996 May;51(5):865-94. [PubMed:8861551]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Probable role in assembly and expression of the TCR complex as well as signal transduction upon antigen triggering.
Gene Name
CD247
Uniprot ID
P20963
Uniprot Name
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD3 zeta chain
Molecular Weight
18696.275 Da
References
  1. Todd PA, Brogden RN: Muromonab CD3. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential. Drugs. 1989 Jun;37(6):871-99. [PubMed:2503348]
  2. Wilde MI, Goa KL: Muromonab CD3: a reappraisal of its pharmacology and use as prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. Drugs. 1996 May;51(5):865-94. [PubMed:8861551]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. Binds complexed or aggregated IgG and also monomeric IgG. Contrary to III-A, is not capable to mediate antibody-dependent...
Gene Name
FCGR3B
Uniprot ID
O75015
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-B
Molecular Weight
26215.64 Da
References
  1. Pellegrini P, Berghella AM, Del Beato T, Adorno D, Casciani CU: Immunological directives for biotherapy improvement in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1996 Apr;11(2):113-8. [PubMed:10851527]
  2. Contasta I, Pellegrini P, Berghella AM, Del Beato T, Canossi A, Di Rocco M, Adorno D, Casciani CU: Necessity of biotherapeutic treatments inducing TH1 cell functions in colorectal cancer. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 1996 Dec;11(6):373-83. [PubMed:10851498]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type peptidase activity
Specific Function
C1r B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1s to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system.
Gene Name
C1R
Uniprot ID
P00736
Uniprot Name
Complement C1r subcomponent
Molecular Weight
80118.04 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QA
Uniprot ID
P02745
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit A
Molecular Weight
26016.47 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QB
Uniprot ID
P02746
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit B
Molecular Weight
26721.62 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
C1q associates with the proenzymes C1r and C1s to yield C1, the first component of the serum complement system. The collagen-like regions of C1q interact with the Ca(2+)-dependent C1r(2)C1s(2) proe...
Gene Name
C1QC
Uniprot ID
P02747
Uniprot Name
Complement C1q subcomponent subunit C
Molecular Weight
25773.56 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of IgG. Binds complexed or aggregated IgG and also monomeric IgG. Mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and other antibody-dependent responses, such as...
Gene Name
FCGR3A
Uniprot ID
P08637
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor III-A
Molecular Weight
29088.895 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific Function
C1s B chain is a serine protease that combines with C1q and C1r to form C1, the first component of the classical pathway of the complement system. C1r activates C1s so that it can, in turn, activat...
Gene Name
C1S
Uniprot ID
P09871
Uniprot Name
Complement C1s subcomponent
Molecular Weight
76683.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
High affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. Functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses.
Gene Name
FCGR1A
Uniprot ID
P12314
Uniprot Name
High affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc receptor I
Molecular Weight
42631.525 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Binds to the Fc region of immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. By binding to IgG it initiates cellular responses against pathogens and soluble antigens. Promotes phagocytosis of opsonized ...
Gene Name
FCGR2A
Uniprot ID
P12318
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-a
Molecular Weight
35000.42 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of complexed or aggregated immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. Involved in a variety of effector and regulatory functions such as phagocytosis of immune complex...
Gene Name
FCGR2B
Uniprot ID
P31994
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-b
Molecular Weight
34043.355 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for the Fc region of complexed immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. Involved in a variety of effector and regulatory functions such as phagocytosis of immune complexes and modulat...
Gene Name
FCGR2C
Uniprot ID
P31995
Uniprot Name
Low affinity immunoglobulin gamma Fc region receptor II-c
Molecular Weight
35577.96 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 06, 2017 06:43