Identification

Name
Apraclonidine
Accession Number
DB00964  (APRD00012)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Apraclonidine, also known as iopidine, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy. It is an alpha2-adrenergic agonist.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 4-Aminoclonidine
  • Apraclonidina
  • Apraclonidinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Apraclonidine HydrochlorideD2VW67N38H73218-79-8OTQYGBJVDRBCHC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ApraclonidineSolution5.75 mg/mLOphthalmicSandoz2009-07-19Not applicableUs
IopidineSolution1 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
IopidineSolution / drops10 mg/mLOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1988-05-15Not applicableUs
IopidineSolution.5 %OphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
IopidineSolution5 mg/mLOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1993-10-01Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apraclonidine OphthalmicSolution / drops5 mg/mLOphthalmicAkorn2009-08-12Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
843CEN85DI
CAS number
66711-21-5
Weight
Average: 245.109
Monoisotopic: 244.028251754
Chemical Formula
C9H10Cl2N4
InChI Key
IEJXVRYNEISIKR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H10Cl2N4/c10-6-3-5(12)4-7(11)8(6)15-9-13-1-2-14-9/h3-4H,1-2,12H2,(H2,13,14,15)
IUPAC Name
2,6-dichloro-N1-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)benzene-1,4-diamine
SMILES
NC1=CC(Cl)=C(NC2=NCCN2)C(Cl)=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For prevention or reduction of intraoperative and postoperative increases in intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after ocular laser surgery when used prophylactically. Also used as a short-term adjunctive therapy in patients with open-angle glaucoma who are on maximally tolerated medical therapy requiring additional IOP reduction.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Apraclonidine significantly lowers intraocular pressure with minimal effects on cardiovascular and pulmonary parameters. It lowers intraocular pressure by reducing aqueous humor production and increasing uveoscleral outflow.

Mechanism of action

Apraclonidine is a relatively selective alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonist that stimulates alpha1 receptors to a lesser extent. It has a peak ocular hypotensive effect occurring at two hours post-dosing. The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but fluorophotometric studies in animals and humans suggest that Apraclonidine has a dual mechanism of action by reducing aqueous humor production through the constriction of afferent ciliary process vessels, and increasing uveoscleral outflow.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
AAlpha-1A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Topical use of apraclonidine ophthalmic solution leads to systemic absorption. Studies of apraclonidine (0.5% ophthalmic solution) dosed one drop three times a day in both eyes for 10 days in normal volunteers yielded mean peak and trough concentrations of 0.9 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

98.7%

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

8 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Accidental or intentional ingestion of oral apraclonidine has been reported to cause apnea, arrhythmias, asthenia, bradycardia, conduction defects, diminished or absent reflexes, dryness of the mouth, hypotension, hypothermia, hypoventilation, irritability, lethargy, miosis, pallor, respiratory depression, sedation or coma, seizure, somnolence, transient hypertension, and vomiting.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Apraclonidine.Experimental
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Acebutolol.Approved
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AlfuzosinAlfuzosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AmifostineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amifostine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AmineptineAmineptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Illicit, Withdrawn
AmiodaroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiodarone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Illicit
AmoxapineAmoxapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Illicit
Amphotericin BThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphotericin B is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Amyl Nitrite.Approved
ApomorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apomorphine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arotinolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
Arsenic trioxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arsenic trioxide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.Approved
BarbexacloneBarbexaclone may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Experimental
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Illicit
BarnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barnidipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
Benzylpenicilloyl PolylysineApraclonidine may decrease effectiveness of Benzylpenicilloyl Polylysine as a diagnostic agent.Approved
BepridilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bepridil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Withdrawn
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
BortezomibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bortezomib is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Bretylium.Approved
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brimonidine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
BrofaromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brofaromine is combined with Apraclonidine.Experimental
BromocriptineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromocriptine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
BucindololBucindolol may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Investigational
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
BunazosinBunazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Investigational
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
CabergolineCabergoline may increase the hypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Canagliflozin.Approved
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan cilexetil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Captopril.Approved
CarbetocinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbetocin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CilnidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilnidipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Clevidipine.Approved
ClofarabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clofarabine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
ClomipramineClomipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
ConivaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Conivaptan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
CyclobenzaprineCyclobenzaprine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Dapagliflozin.Approved
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
DesipramineDesipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
DibenzepinDibenzepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Experimental
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Diclofenamide.Approved
DihydroergotamineDihydroergotamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Dinutuximab.Approved
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Dipyridamole.Approved
DosulepinDosulepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
DoxepinDoxepin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
DuloxetineApraclonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.Approved
EfonidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efonidipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Empagliflozin.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
Ergoloid mesylateErgoloid mesylate may increase the hypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
ErgonovineErgonovine may increase the hypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
ErgotamineErgotamine may increase the hypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
EsmirtazapineEsmirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Investigational
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Felodipine.Approved, Investigational
FenoldopamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoldopam is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Guanfacine.Approved, Investigational
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
HarmalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Harmaline is combined with Apraclonidine.Experimental
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
HyaluronidaseHyaluronidase may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Experimental
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydroflumethiazide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Imidapril is combined with Apraclonidine.Investigational
ImipramineImipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
IndoraminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoramin is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
IprindoleIprindole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Experimental
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproclozide is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Irbesartan.Approved, Investigational
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Isosorbide Mononitrate.Approved
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Isoxsuprine.Approved, Withdrawn
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
LacidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lacidipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
LercanidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lercanidipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Levobunolol.Approved
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
LevodopaApraclonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.Approved
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
LevosimendanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levosimendan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
LofepramineLofepramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Experimental
LofexidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofexidine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Methyldopa.Approved
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
MethylergometrineMethylergometrine may increase the hypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Apraclonidine can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.Approved, Investigational
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the tachycardic activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MirtazapineMirtazapine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moclobemide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
MoxonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moxonidine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabilone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Nadolol.Approved
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Nesiritide.Approved, Investigational
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Nifedipine.Approved
NilvadipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nilvadipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
NitrendipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrendipine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
NortriptylineNortriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Obinutuzumab is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
OpipramolOpipramol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Investigational
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Papaverine.Approved
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
PhenoxybenzamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxybenzamine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
PhentolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentolamine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
PramipexoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramipexole is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
ProcarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procarbazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Quetiapine.Approved
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Riociguat.Approved
RisperidoneApraclonidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.Approved, Investigational
RopiniroleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropinirole is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
RotigotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rotigotine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Withdrawn
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
SilodosinSilodosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium Nitrite is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
StreptokinaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Streptokinase is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
TamsulosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tamsulosin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Telmisartan.Approved, Investigational
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Terazosin.Approved
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Withdrawn
TianeptineTianeptine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
TolazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolazoline is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Vet Approved
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Withdrawn
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Apraclonidine.Experimental
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
TretinoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tretinoin is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
TrimazosinTrimazosin may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Experimental
TrimipramineTrimipramine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
UrapidilUrapidil may decrease the vasoconstricting activities of Apraclonidine.Investigational
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved, Investigational
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the tachycardic activities of Apraclonidine.Approved
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Apraclonidine.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Chen PL, Chen JT, Lu DW, Chen YC, Hsiao CH: Comparing efficacies of 0.5% apraclonidine with 4% cocaine in the diagnosis of horner syndrome in pediatric patients. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Jun;22(3):182-7. [PubMed:16808679]
  2. Aslanides lM, Tsiklis NS, Ozkilic E, Coskunseven E, Pallikaris lG, Jankov MR: The effect of topical apraclonidine on subconjunctival hemorrhage and flap adherence in LASIK patients. J Refract Surg. 2006 Jun;22(6):585-8. [PubMed:16805122]
  3. Koc F, Kansu T, Kavuncu S, Firat E: Topical apraclonidine testing discloses pupillary sympathetic denervation in diabetic patients. J Neuroophthalmol. 2006 Mar;26(1):25-9. [PubMed:16518162]
  4. Garibaldi DC, Hindman HB, Grant MP, Iliff NT, Merbs SL: Effect of 0.5% apraclonidine on ptosis in Horner syndrome. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jan-Feb;22(1):53-5. [PubMed:16418668]
  5. Onal S, Gozum N, Gucukoglu A: Effect of apraclonidine versus dorzolamide on intraocular pressure after phacoemulsification. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2005 Nov-Dec;36(6):457-62. [PubMed:16355950]
  6. Costa VP, Harris A, Stefansson E, Flammer J, Krieglstein GK, Orzalesi N, Heijl A, Renard JP, Serra LM: The effects of antiglaucoma and systemic medications on ocular blood flow. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2003 Nov;22(6):769-805. [PubMed:14575724]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15099
KEGG Compound
C07668
PubChem Compound
2216
PubChem Substance
46505614
ChemSpider
2130
BindingDB
50021812
ChEBI
2788
ChEMBL
CHEMBL647
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000236
PharmGKB
PA164748866
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Apraclonidine
ATC Codes
S01EA03 — Apraclonidine
AHFS Codes
  • 52:92.00 — EENT Drugs, Miscellaneous
FDA label
Download (119 KB)
MSDS
Download (57.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentGlaucoma / Ocular Hypertension1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Akorn inc
  • Alcon laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionOphthalmic5.75 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/mL
SolutionOphthalmic.5 %
SolutionOphthalmic1 %
SolutionOphthalmic5 mg/mL
Solution / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Iopidine 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle196.37USD bottle
Iopidine 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle98.84USD bottle
Iopidine 1 Box = 24 Packets Plastic Container16.44USD plastic
Iopidine 1% eye drops15.81USD each
Iopidine 0.5 % Solution4.79USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5212196No1993-05-182010-05-18Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.4Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.409 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.14ALOGPS
logP1.66ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area62.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity63.79 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.27 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9685
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9398
Caco-2 permeable+0.8503
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.625
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9406
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9142
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7327
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8621
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7005
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6636
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7046
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8713
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8947
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8937
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9263
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9954
Rat acute toxicity3.4656 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8192
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.891
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dichlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing a benzene with exactly two chlorine atoms attached to it.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Dichlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aniline and substituted anilines / Aryl chlorides / Imidazolines / Guanidines / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Azacyclic compounds / Primary amines / Organopnictogen compounds / Organochlorides
show 1 more
Substituents
1,3-dichlorobenzene / Aniline or substituted anilines / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / 2-imidazoline / Guanidine / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Carboximidamide / Azacycle
show 10 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
guanidines, dichlorobenzene, imidazolines (CHEBI:2788)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wikberg-Matsson A, Simonsen U: Potent alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction by brimonidine in porcine ciliary arteries. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Aug;42(9):2049-55. [PubMed:11481271]
  4. Moodley AA, Spooner RB: Apraclonidine in the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome. S Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;97(7):506-7. [PubMed:17824139]
  5. Mirzai H, Baser EF: Congenital Horner's syndrome and the usefulness of the apraclonidine test in its diagnosis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep;54(3):197-9. [PubMed:16921219]
  6. Authors unspecified: New topical drugs for open-angle glaucoma. Drug Ther Bull. 2003 Feb;41(2):12-4. [PubMed:12630335]
  7. Costa VP, Harris A, Stefansson E, Flammer J, Krieglstein GK, Orzalesi N, Heijl A, Renard JP, Serra LM: The effects of antiglaucoma and systemic medications on ocular blood flow. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2003 Nov;22(6):769-805. [PubMed:14575724]
  8. Scheinfeld N: The use of apraclonidine eyedrops to treat ptosis after the administration of botulinum toxin to the upper face. Dermatol Online J. 2005 Mar 1;11(1):9. [PubMed:15748550]
  9. Sueke H, Chandna A: Using apraclonidine in diagnosing Horner syndrome in children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May;149(5):869; author reply 870. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2010.01.023. [PubMed:20399934]
  10. Watts P, Satterfield D, Lim MK: Adverse effects of apraclonidine used in the diagnosis of Horner syndrome in infants. J AAPOS. 2007 Jun;11(3):282-3. [PubMed:17572343]
  11. Chen PL, Hsiao CH, Chen JT, Lu DW, Chen WY: Efficacy of apraclonidine 0.5% in the diagnosis of Horner syndrome in pediatric patients under low or high illumination. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep;142(3):469-74. [PubMed:16935593]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) prot...
Gene Name
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID
P35348
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Moodley AA, Spooner RB: Apraclonidine in the diagnosis of Horner's syndrome. S Afr Med J. 2007 Jul;97(7):506-7. [PubMed:17824139]
  2. Mirzai H, Baser EF: Congenital Horner's syndrome and the usefulness of the apraclonidine test in its diagnosis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep;54(3):197-9. [PubMed:16921219]
  3. Sueke H, Chandna A: Using apraclonidine in diagnosing Horner syndrome in children. Am J Ophthalmol. 2010 May;149(5):869; author reply 870. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2010.01.023. [PubMed:20399934]
  4. Kawasaki A, Borruat FX: False negative apraclonidine test in two patients with Horner syndrome. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2008 May;225(5):520-2. doi: 10.1055/s-2008-1027349. [PubMed:18454417]
  5. Watts P, Satterfield D, Lim MK: Adverse effects of apraclonidine used in the diagnosis of Horner syndrome in infants. J AAPOS. 2007 Jun;11(3):282-3. [PubMed:17572343]
  6. Chen PL, Hsiao CH, Chen JT, Lu DW, Chen WY: Efficacy of apraclonidine 0.5% in the diagnosis of Horner syndrome in pediatric patients under low or high illumination. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 Sep;142(3):469-74. [PubMed:16935593]
  7. Freedman KA, Brown SM: Topical apraclonidine in the diagnosis of suspected Horner syndrome. J Neuroophthalmol. 2005 Jun;25(2):83-5. [PubMed:15937427]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Liu JH, Dacus AC, Bartels SP: Adrenergic mechanism in circadian elevation of intraocular pressure in rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Jul;32(8):2178-83. [PubMed:1676991]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 19, 2017 20:34