Identification

Name
Lithium cation
Accession Number
DB01356
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description

Lithium was used during the 19th century to treat gout. Lithium salts such as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3), lithium citrate, and lithium orotate are mood stabilizers. They are used in the treatment of bipolar disorder, since unlike most other mood altering drugs, they counteract both mania and depression. Lithium can also be used to augment other antidepressant drugs. It is also sometimes prescribed as a preventive treatment for migraine disease and cluster headaches. The active principle in these salts is the lithium ion Li+, which having a smaller diameter, can easily displace K+ and Na+ and even Ca+2, in spite of its greater charge, occupying their sites in several critical neuronal enzymes and neurotransmitter receptors.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Li(+)
  • Lithium ion
  • Lithium, ion
  • Lithium, ion (li1+)
Categories
UNII
8H8Z5UER66
CAS number
7439-93-2
Weight
Average: 6.941
Monoisotopic: 7.016004049
Chemical Formula
Li
InChI Key
HBBGRARXTFLTSG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Li/q+1
IUPAC Name
lithium(1+) ion
SMILES
[Li+]

Pharmacology

Indication

Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is used for treatment of depression and mania. It is often used in bipolar disorder treatment.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Although lithium has been used for over 50 years in treatment of bipolar disorder, the mechanism of action is still unknown. Lithium's therapeutic action may be due to a number of effects, ranging from inhibition of enzymes such as glycogen synthase kinase 3, inositol phosphatases, or modulation of glutamate receptors.

Mechanism of action

The precise mechanism of action of Li+ as a mood-stabilizing agent is currently unknown. It is possible that Li+ produces its effects by interacting with the transport of monovalent or divalent cations in neurons. An increasing number of scientists have come to the conclusion that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate is the key factor in understanding how lithium works. Lithium has been shown to change the inward and outward currents of glutamate receptors (especially GluR3), without a shift in reversal potential. Lithium has been found to exert a dual effect on glutamate receptors, acting to keep the amount of glutamate active between cells at a stable, healthy level, neither too much nor too little. It is postulated that too much glutamate in the space between neurons causes mania, and too little, depression. Another mechanism by which lithium might help to regulate mood include the non-competitive inhibition of an enzyme called inositol monophosphatase. Alternately lithium's action may be enhanced through the deactivation of the GSK-3B enzyme. The regulation of GSK-3B by lithium may affect the circadian clock. GSK-3 is known for phosphorylating and thus inactivating glycogen synthase. GSK-3B has also been implicated in the control of cellular response to damaged DNA. GSK-3 normally phosphorylates beta catenin, which leads to beta catenin degratation. When GSK-3 is inhibited, beta catenin increases and transgenic mice with overexpression of beta catenin express similar behaviour to mice treated with lithium. These results suggest that increase of beta catenin may be a possible pathway for the therapeutic action of lithium.

TargetActionsOrganism
UGlycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
inhibitor
Human
UInositol monophosphatase 1
inhibitor
Human
UInositol monophosphatase 2
inhibitor
Human
UGlutamate receptor 3
potentiator
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Galactose MetabolismMetabolic
Inner Membrane TransportMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(4R)-limoneneThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with (4R)-limonene.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineLithium may decrease the stimulatory activities of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline is combined with Lithium.
AceclofenacThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcemetacinThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Acemetacin.
AcepromazineLithium may increase the neurotoxic activities of Acepromazine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Avoid excessive quantities of coffee or tea (Caffeine).
  • Avoid iodine supplements.
  • Do not change your salt intake from day to day without telling your doctor.
  • Take with food to reduce irritation. Drink plenty of liquids.

References

Synthesis Reference

Jean-Paul Gabano, "Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte." U.S. Patent US4375502, issued 0000.

US4375502
General References
  1. Quiroz JA, Machado-Vieira R, Zarate CA Jr, Manji HK: Novel insights into lithium's mechanism of action: neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. Neuropsychobiology. 2010;62(1):50-60. doi: 10.1159/000314310. Epub 2010 May 7. [PubMed:20453535]
  2. ILO: Lithium [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0005949
KEGG Compound
C15473
PubChem Compound
28486
PubChem Substance
46505392
ChemSpider
26502
ChEBI
49713
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1234004
Therapeutic Targets Database
DNC000879
PharmGKB
PA450243
HET
LI
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Lithium
AHFS Codes
  • 28:28.00 — Antimanic Agents
PDB Entries
1dgd / 1e5k / 1h4c / 1h4d / 1h4e / 1hjj / 1hjl / 1knw / 1mgw / 1nqj
show 66 more
FDA label
Download (200 KB)
MSDS
Download (72.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableSchizophrenic Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentAdult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7) / Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a) / Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2) / Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4) / Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a) / Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b) / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia1
1CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
1CompletedTreatmentDepression / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
1CompletedTreatmentSpinocerebellar Ataxia Type I1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceDrug Mechanism1
1TerminatedSupportive CareBrain and Central Nervous System Tumors / Cognitive/Functional Effects / Neurotoxicity / Tumors, Solid1
1WithdrawnNot AvailableGeneralized Anxiety Disease1
1WithdrawnBasic ScienceCombat Posttraumatic Stess Disorder / Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI)1
1, 2CompletedSupportive CareSmall Cell Lung Carcinoma1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Dependence, Cocaine1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCorticobasal Degeneration / Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)3
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNiemann-Pick Disease, Type C11
2CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder Without Psychotic Symptoms1
2CompletedTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD) / Depression Not Otherwise Specified / Dysthymic Disorder / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence / Substance Withdrawal Syndrome1
2CompletedTreatmentDifferentiated Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentNeuroendocrine Tumors1
2CompletedTreatmentNeurocostal neuralgia / Pain, Neuropathic / Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Cord Injuries (SCI)1
2CompletedTreatmentSpinocerebellar ataxia 21
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Agitation / Alzheimer's Disease (AD) / Psychosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentFracture Bone1
2RecruitingTreatmentFrontotemporal Dementia (FTD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentBrain Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentMedullary Thyroid Cancer (MTC)1
2TerminatedTreatmentMultiple System Atrophy (MSA)1
2Unknown StatusPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Cognitive Impairments1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentDepression, Bipolar1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Suicide, Attempted1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMachado Joseph Disease / Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31
2, 3RecruitingPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depressive Disorders / Suicide / Suicide, Attempted1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
3CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedPreventionBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3CompletedPreventionBipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Bipolar Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentAggressive Behavior / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependence / Bipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)5
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder Mania1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
3CompletedTreatmentMania1
3CompletedTreatmentManic or Mixed Episode Associated With Bipolar I Disorder1
3CompletedTreatmentStrokes1
3TerminatedTreatmentAnxiety Disorders / Dementias / Depression / Psychosomatic Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania1
4Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBipolar I Disorder1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4CompletedPreventionDepression, Bipolar1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Mania1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Mania in Bipolar Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)7
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression2
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression / Depressive Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania2
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Psychotic Disorder NOS / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Schizoaffective Disorders1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar I Disorder / Bipolar II Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentBipolar Type II Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentDepression4
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Neurocognitive Disturbance1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)2
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Suicidal Ideation1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4RecruitingDiagnosticAsthma Bronchial / Asthma: [Nos] or [Attack] / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingPreventionMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
4RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)2
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant1
4RecruitingTreatmentDepressive Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentGeriatric Depression / Late Life Depression (LLD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) / Treatment-Refractory Depression1
4RecruitingTreatmentSarcoma, Osteogenic1
4RecruitingTreatmentThe Use of Antidepressants in Patients With Bipolar Depression1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcute Bipolar Mania1
4TerminatedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4TerminatedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4Unknown StatusNot AvailableBipolar Affective Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBipolar I Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDepression1
4WithdrawnBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)2
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBipolar Disorder (BD) / Mania1
Not AvailableCompletedOtherMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareAccelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Acute, secondary Myeloid Leukemia / Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(15;17)(q22;q12) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(16;16)(p13;q22) / Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With T(8;21)(q22;q22) / Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL Negative / Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, Breakpoint Cluster Region-abl Translocation (BCR-ABL) Negative / Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Remission / Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission / Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL) / Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Refractory / Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia / Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / De Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Disseminated Neuroblastoma / Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue / Gastrointestinal Complications / Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable / Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Poor Prognosis Metastatic Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor / Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma / Primary Myelofibrosis / Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Hodgkin's Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia / Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma / Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome / Recurrent Neuroblastoma / Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor / Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Recurrent Wilm's Tumor / Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors / Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia / Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia / Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage I Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Multiple Myeloma / Stage II Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor / Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage III Multiple Myeloma / Stage III Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIC Breast Cancer / Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma / Stage IV Breast Cancer / Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia / Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma / Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma / Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma / Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer / Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)5
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoporosis Pseudoglioma1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBipolar Disorder (BD) / Bipolar II Depression / Depression / Depression, Bipolar / Major Depressive Episode1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceAffective Disorders1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar / Unipolar Depression1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDepression / Suicidal Ideation/Behavior1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionDepressive Disorders / Suicide1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentLung Cancer Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentTreatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Anip Acquisition Co.
  • Apotex Inc.
  • Biotech Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Caremark LLC
  • Comprehensive Consultant Services Inc.
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Dept Health Central Pharmacy
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Goldline Laboratories Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hetero Drugs Ltd.
  • Hikma Pharmaceuticals
  • J T Baker
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Neuman Distributors Inc.
  • Noven Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pharmacy Service Center
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Roxane Labs
  • Sandhills Packaging Inc.
  • Solvay Pharmaceuticals
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Vangard Labs Inc.
  • West-Ward Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Eskalith cr 450 mg tablet0.8USD tablet
Lithium Carbonate 450 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.56USD tab
Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.5USD tab
Lithium Carbonate 600 mg capsule0.44USD capsule
Lithium Carbonate 300 mg capsule0.29USD capsule
Lithium Carbonate 300 mg tablet0.29USD tablet
Lithate 20 mg capsule0.28USD capsule
Lithium carb powder reagent0.27USD g
Lithium carbonate 300 mg tab0.22USD each
Lithium Carbonate 150 mg capsule0.21USD capsule
Lithium Citrate 8meq/5ml Syrup0.15USD ml
Lithium citrate 8 meq/5 ml sol0.14USD ml
Pms-Lithium Carbonate 600 mg Capsule0.14USD capsule
Carbolith 150 mg Capsule0.13USD capsule
Lithate 5 mg capsule0.12USD capsule
Lithane 150 mg Capsule0.11USD capsule
Lithane 300 mg Capsule0.11USD capsule
Carbolith 300 mg Capsule0.1USD capsule
Apo-Lithium Carbonate 150 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Apo-Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Pms-Lithium Carbonate 150 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Pms-Lithium Carbonate 300 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)180.5International Labour Organization
boiling point (°C)1336International Labour Organization
water solubilityViolent reactionInternational Labour Organization
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8382
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9708
Caco-2 permeable+0.7056
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8831
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9869
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9855
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9199
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8465
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.823
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8094
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8854
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9224
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9559
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9487
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9853
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9015
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9663
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.623
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9031
Rat acute toxicity2.0881 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9462
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9716
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d37172edddcf6ff27879
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d37172edddcf6ff27879
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-d37172edddcf6ff27879
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-00619c7d65eb4b7f8f3d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-00619c7d65eb4b7f8f3d
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-00619c7d65eb4b7f8f3d

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous alkali metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a alkali metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous alkali metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous alkali metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous alkali metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
alkali metal cation, monovalent inorganic cation, monoatomic monocation (CHEBI:49713) / a cation (LI+)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by pho...
Gene Name
GSK3B
Uniprot ID
P49841
Uniprot Name
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta
Molecular Weight
46743.865 Da
References
  1. Borsotto M, Cavarec L, Bouillot M, Romey G, Macciardi F, Delaye A, Nasroune M, Bastucci M, Sambucy JL, Luan JJ, Charpagne A, Jouet V, Leger R, Lazdunski M, Cohen D, Chumakov I: PP2A-Bgamma subunit and KCNQ2 K+ channels in bipolar disorder. Pharmacogenomics J. 2007 Apr;7(2):123-32. Epub 2006 May 30. [PubMed:16733521]
  2. Adli M, Hollinde DL, Stamm T, Wiethoff K, Tsahuridu M, Kirchheiner J, Heinz A, Bauer M: Response to lithium augmentation in depression is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta -50T/C single nucleotide polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Dec 1;62(11):1295-302. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17628506]
  3. O'Brien WT, Klein PS: Validating GSK3 as an in vivo target of lithium action. Biochem Soc Trans. 2009 Oct;37(Pt 5):1133-8. doi: 10.1042/BST0371133. [PubMed:19754466]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the provision of inositol required for synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and polyphosphoinositides and has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lithium action in brain....
Gene Name
IMPA1
Uniprot ID
P29218
Uniprot Name
Inositol monophosphatase 1
Molecular Weight
30188.59 Da
References
  1. Sarkar S, Rubinsztein DC: Inositol and IP3 levels regulate autophagy: biology and therapeutic speculations. Autophagy. 2006 Apr-Jun;2(2):132-4. Epub 2006 Apr 6. [PubMed:16874097]
  2. Trinquet E, Fink M, Bazin H, Grillet F, Maurin F, Bourrier E, Ansanay H, Leroy C, Michaud A, Durroux T, Maurel D, Malhaire F, Goudet C, Pin JP, Naval M, Hernout O, Chretien F, Chapleur Y, Mathis G: D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate as a surrogate of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris phosphate to monitor G protein-coupled receptor activation. Anal Biochem. 2006 Nov 1;358(1):126-35. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:16965760]
  3. Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Seo KC, Im J, Sato Y, Iwayama Y, Furuichi T, Chung SK, Yoshikawa T: Spatial expression patterns and biochemical properties distinguish a second myo-inositol monophosphatase IMPA2 from IMPA1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):637-46. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17068342]
  4. Tanizawa Y, Kuhara A, Inada H, Kodama E, Mizuno T, Mori I: Inositol monophosphatase regulates localization of synaptic components and behavior in the mature nervous system of C. elegans. Genes Dev. 2006 Dec 1;20(23):3296-310. [PubMed:17158747]
  5. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Ohba H, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Hattori E, Inada T, Kunugi H, Tatsumi M, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Sakamoto K, Iijima Y, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Nanko S, Osumi N, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Kato T, Yoshikawa T: A promoter haplotype of the inositol monophosphatase 2 gene (IMPA2) at 18p11.2 confers a possible risk for bipolar disorder by enhancing transcription. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Aug;32(8):1727-37. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17251911]
  6. Li Z, Stieglitz KA, Shrout AL, Wei Y, Weis RM, Stec B, Roberts MF: Mobile loop mutations in an archaeal inositol monophosphatase: modulating three-metal ion assisted catalysis and lithium inhibition. Protein Sci. 2010 Feb;19(2):309-18. doi: 10.1002/pro.315. [PubMed:20027624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Can use myo-inositol monophosphates, scylloinositol 1,4-diphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, and 2'-AMP as substrates. Has been implicated as the pharmacological target for lith...
Gene Name
IMPA2
Uniprot ID
O14732
Uniprot Name
Inositol monophosphatase 2
Molecular Weight
31320.525 Da
References
  1. Cryns K, Shamir A, Shapiro J, Daneels G, Goris I, Van Craenendonck H, Straetemans R, Belmaker RH, Agam G, Moechars D, Steckler T: Lack of lithium-like behavioral and molecular effects in IMPA2 knockout mice. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Apr;32(4):881-91. Epub 2006 Jul 12. [PubMed:16841073]
  2. Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Seo KC, Im J, Sato Y, Iwayama Y, Furuichi T, Chung SK, Yoshikawa T: Spatial expression patterns and biochemical properties distinguish a second myo-inositol monophosphatase IMPA2 from IMPA1. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jan 5;282(1):637-46. Epub 2006 Oct 26. [PubMed:17068342]
  3. Ohnishi T, Yamada K, Ohba H, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Hattori E, Inada T, Kunugi H, Tatsumi M, Ozaki N, Iwata N, Sakamoto K, Iijima Y, Iwata Y, Tsuchiya KJ, Sugihara G, Nanko S, Osumi N, Detera-Wadleigh SD, Kato T, Yoshikawa T: A promoter haplotype of the inositol monophosphatase 2 gene (IMPA2) at 18p11.2 confers a possible risk for bipolar disorder by enhancing transcription. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Aug;32(8):1727-37. Epub 2007 Jan 24. [PubMed:17251911]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Potentiator
General Function
Extracellular-glutamate-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function
Receptor for glutamate that functions as ligand-gated ion channel in the central nervous system and plays an important role in excitatory synaptic transmission. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory ne...
Gene Name
GRIA3
Uniprot ID
P42263
Uniprot Name
Glutamate receptor 3
Molecular Weight
101155.975 Da
References
  1. Karkanias NB, Papke RL: Lithium modulates desensitization of the glutamate receptor subtype gluR3 in Xenopus oocytes. Neurosci Lett. 1999 Dec 31;277(3):153-6. [PubMed:10626836]

Drug created on July 06, 2007 13:50 / Updated on October 15, 2018 04:36