Central Nervous System Depressants
- Central Nervous System Depressants
- Accession Number
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Drug Drug Description Sodium oxybate A central nervous system depressant used to treat cataplexy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy. Lorazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures. Tramadol A centrally-acting opioid agonist and SNRI (serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor) used for the management of moderate to severe pain in adults. Reserpine For the treatment of hypertension Pregabalin An anticonvulsant drug used to treat neuropathic pain conditions and fibromyalgia, and for the treatment of partial onset seizures in combination with other anticonvulsants. Temazepam A short-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and insomnia. Butabarbital A barbiturate drug used as a sedative and hypnotic. Ziprasidone An atypical antipsychotic used to manage schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and agitation in patients with schizophrenia. Morphine An opioid agonist used for the relief of moderate to severe acute and chronic pain. Pentobarbital A barbiturate drug used to induce sleep, cause sedation, and control certain types of seizures. Codeine An opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain when the use of an opioid is indicated. Hydromorphone An opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain when the use of an opioid is indicated. Methadone An opioid analgesic indicated for management of severe pain that is not responsive to alternative treatments. Also used to aid in detoxification and maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Olanzapine An antipsychotic drug used in the management of schizophrenia, bipolar 1 disorder, and agitation associated with these disorders. Clozapine An antipsychotic drug used in treatment resistant schizophrenia and to decrease suicide risk in schizophrenic patients. Meprobamate An anxiolytic drug used for the short-term management of anxiety symptoms. Eszopiclone A sedative-hypnotic used in the treatment of insomnia, improving both the latency phase and the maintenance phase of sleep. Alprazolam A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders and generalized anxiety in addition to anxiety associated with depression. Loxapine A antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia. Secobarbital A barbiturate used for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Promazine A phenothiazine used to manage schizophrenia. Zolpidem A sedative hypnotic used for the short-term treatment of insomnia to improve sleep latency. Prochlorperazine A phenothiazine derivative used in the treatment of schizophrenia and anxiety and to relieve severe nausea and vomiting. Droperidol A butyrophenone derivative and dopamine antagonist used to prevent and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting. Meperidine An opioid agonist with analgesic and sedative properties used to manage severe pain. Methohexital An anesthetic used to induce deep sedation. Chlordiazepoxide A benzodiazepine used to treat the withdrawal symptoms of acute alcoholism, to treat preoperative anxiety, and to treat anxiety over a short term period. Chlorpromazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used to treat nausea, vomiting, preoperative anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe behavioral problems in children. Oxycodone An opioid used in the management of moderate to severe pain. Haloperidol An antipsychotic agent used to treat schizophrenia and other psychoses, as well as symptoms of agitation, irritability, and delirium. Carbamazepine An anticonvulsant used to treat various types of seizures and pain resulting from trigeminal neuralgia. Butorphanol An opioid agonist-antagonist used to treat moderate to severe pain. Fluphenazine A phenothiazine used to treat patients requiring long-term neuroleptic therapy. Clorazepic acid A benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety, partial seizures, and alcohol withdrawal. Pentazocine An analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain. Thioridazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder. Midazolam A short-acting injectable benzodiazepine with rapid onset that is commonly used in seizures, anesthesia and anxiety disorders. Flurazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with a rapid onset of action that is commonly used to treat insomnia. Sufentanil An opioid used to induce and maintain anesthesia, to act as an analgesic in labor and delivery, and to treat severe, acute pain. Risperidone A second-generation antipsychotic medication used to treat a number of mental health disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar mania, psychosis, or as an adjunct in severe depression. Isoflurane An inhaled general anesthetic used in surgery. Alfentanil An opioid agonist used to induce and maintain anesthesia, as well as an analgesic. Fentanyl An opioid analgesic used in anesthesia, for breakthrough cancer pain, or round the clock pain management. Propofol A medication used in general anesthesia and for sedation. Diazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures. Trifluoperazine A phenothiazine used to treat depression, anxiety, and agitation. Oxazepam An intermediate-acting benzodiazepine with slow onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawals, and insomnia. Nalbuphine An opioid agonist-antagonist used to treat pain, for pre and postoperative analgesia, and for analgesia in labor and delivery. Perphenazine A phenothiazine used to treat schizophrenia as well as nausea and vomiting. Levorphanol An opioid analgesic used to treat moderate to severe pain. Flupentixol A thioxanthene neuroleptic used to treat schizophrenia and depression. Triazolam A benzodiazepine used for short term treatment of insomnia. Remifentanil An opioid analgesic used in anesthesia. Buprenorphine A partial opioid agonist used for management of severe pain that is not responsive to alternative treatments. Also used for maintenance treatment of opioid addiction. Cyclobenzaprine A skeletal muscle relaxant that works on the brainstem to treat muscle spasms of local origin. Hydrocodone An opioid agonist used as an analgesic and antitussive agent. Zaleplon A sedative used for short term treatment of insomnia in adults. Gabapentin An anticonvulsant medication used in the management of peripheral neuropathic pains, postherpetic neuralgia, and partial-onset seizures. Diphenhydramine A H1 receptor antihistamine used in the treatment of seasonal allergies, and various allergic reactions including sneezing, runny nose, itchy/watery eyes, itching of nose or throat, pruritus, urticaria, insect bites/stings, and allergic rashes. Diphenoxylate An antidiarrheal medication used with atropine to manage diarrhea. Pimozide An antipsychotic used to manage debilitating motor and phonic tics in patients with Tourette's Disorder. Phenobarbital A long-lasting barbiturate and anticonvulsant used in the treatment of all types of seizures, except for absent seizures. Desflurane A general inhalation anesthetic for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults. Oxymorphone An opioid analgesic used in the management of moderate-to-severe pain and for analgesic therapies. Zopiclone A nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic used for the short-term management of insomnia. Estazolam A benzodiazepine used for the short-term management of insomnia. Ketamine A rapid-acting general anesthetic and NMDA receptor antagonist used for induction of anesthesia diagnostic and surgical procedures typically in combination with a muscle relaxant. Quetiapine A psychotropic agent used for the management of bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. Sevoflurane A inhalation anaesthetic agent used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia during surgical procedures. Aripiprazole An atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of a wide variety of mood and psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar I, major depressive disorder, irritability associated with autism, and Tourette's syndrome. Paliperidone An atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other schizoaffective or delusional disorders. Amobarbital A barbiturate derivative used for the induction of sedation during procedures, short-term management of insomnia, and acute management of refractory tonic-clonic seizures. Methotrimeprazine A phenothiazine used in the management of psychosis, particular those of schizophrenia, and manic phases of bipolar disorder. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid Used as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance. Dihydrocodeine An opioid analgesic agent used for the management of pain severe enough to require an opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. Bromazepam A short-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders and severe anxiety. Quazepam A long -acting benzodiazepine used to manage insomnia. Nitrazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. Thiothixene An antipsychotic indicated for the management of schizophrenia. Zuclopenthixol An antipsychotic indicated for the management of schizophrenia. The acuphase formulation is indicated for initial treatment of acute psychosis or exacerbation of psychosis, while the depot formulation is best for maintenance. Asenapine An atypical antipsychotic used to treat patients with bipolar I disorder and patients with schizophrenia. Nitrous oxide An inhalatory gas used as an adjunct to improve oxygenation and reduce the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in certain neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure. Lurasidone An atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder. Paraldehyde A central nervous system depressant previously used to control convulsions due to various clinical causes, including tetanus, status epilepticus, and convulsive drugs. Baclofen A GABA-ergic agonist used to manage severe spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin in adult and pediatric patients. Butalbital A barbiturate drug used for symptomatic treatment of tension-type headache in various combinations with acetaminophen, aspirin, caffeine, and codeine. Phenytoin An anticonvulsant drug used in the prophylaxis and control of various types of seizures. Topiramate An anticonvulsant drug used in the control of epilepsy and in the prophylaxis and treatment of migraines. Clemastine An antihistamine with sedative and anticholinergic effects used to treat the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Amitriptyline A tricyclic antidepressant indicated in the treatment of depressive illness, either endogenous or psychotic, and to relieve depression associated anxiety. Tolcapone A catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor used as adjunct therapy in the symptomatic management of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Cetirizine A selective Histamine-1 antagonist drug used in allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. Protriptyline A tricyclic antidepressant that is indicated in the treatment of depression only under close clinical supervision. Clobazam A benzodiazepine used as adjunct treatment in seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Chlorzoxazone A drug with muscle relaxant properties that is used as an adjunct to physical therapy and analgesics to treat stiffness and pain caused by a variety of musculoskeletal conditions. Doxylamine An antihistamine used to treat insomnia and allergy symptoms and is used with pyridoxine in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Mirtazapine A tetracyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of major depression and is used off-label as a drug for insomnia and to increase appetite. Carisoprodol A centrally acting muscle relaxant used to relieve the discomfort associated with various musculoskeletal conditions. Dexbrompheniramine An antihistamine used to treat allergy symptoms including upper respiratory tract symptoms. Methocarbamol A CNS depressant indicated with rest, physical therapy and other treatments to control the discomfort associated with various acute musculoskeletal conditions. Triprolidine A sedating antihistamine combined with pseudoephedrine and guaifenesin in various types of cold and allergy medications to relieve allergy symptoms, hay fever and common cold symptoms, and to aid in sleep. Cyproheptadine A serotonin and histamine antagonist used in the treatment of allergy symptoms and in combination with epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis. Imipramine A tricyclic antidepressant indicated for the treatment of depression and to reduce childhood enuresis. Brimonidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat glaucoma and ocular hypertension, as well as facial erythema in rosacea. Entacapone A selective reversible catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Nortriptyline A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of depression. Amoxapine A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of neurotic or reactive depressive disorders and endogenous or psychotic depression. Lamotrigine A phenyltriazine antiepileptic used to treat some types of epilepsy and bipolar I disorder. Hydroxyzine An antihistamine used to treat anxiety and tension associated with psychoneuroses, as well as allergic conditions such as pruritus and chronic urticaria. Clonidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to treat hypertension and severe cancer pain, among other conditions, and to treat withdrawal symptoms from various substances. It is also used to aid in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and to prevent migraines. Fluticasone propionate A glucocorticoid used to treat asthma, inflammatory pruritic dermatoses, and nonallergic rhinitis. Ethosuximide An anticonvulsant used to treat petit mal seizures. Efavirenz A non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat HIV infection or prevent the spread of HIV. Metaxalone A muscle relaxant used to treat muscle pain or spasm. Tizanidine An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used for the short-term treatment of muscle spasticity. Trimipramine A tricyclic antidepressant used to treat depression. Meclizine A histamine H1 antagonist used to treat nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness. Scopolamine An anticholinergic used to treat excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, diverticulitis, IBS, and motion sickness. Carbinoxamine A first generation antihistamine used to treat allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic reactions, and mild allergic reactions. Ethotoin A hydantoin antiepileptic used to control tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures. Olopatadine A histamine H1 antagonist used to treat allergic conjunctivitis and rhinitis. Clidinium A synthetic anticholinergic used to treat peptic ulcer disease, colicky abdominal pain, diverticulitis, and IBS. Primidone An antiepileptic used to treat grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures. Brompheniramine A histamine H1 antagonist used to treat coughs, upper respiratory symptoms, and nasal congestion associated with allergies and the common cold. Tiagabine An antiepileptic used to treat partial seizures. Zonisamide A sulfonamide anticonvulsant used to treat partial seizures. Maprotiline A tetracyclic antidepressant used to treat depressive illness, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and anxiety associated with depression. Felbamate An anticonvulsant used to treat severe epilepsy. Desloratadine A second generation tricyclic antihistamine used to treat seasonal and non seasonal allergic rhinitis, pruritus, and urticaria. Azelastine A histamine H1-receptor antagonist used intranasally to treat allergic and vasomotor rhinitis and in an ophthalmic solution to treat allergic conjunctivitis. Dimenhydrinate A medication used to prevent and treat nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and motion sickness. Guanfacine An alpha-2A adrenergic receptor agonist used to treat ADHD. Thalidomide A medication used to treat newly diagnosed multiple myeloma and erythema nodosum leprosum. Clonazepam A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures. Promethazine A first-generation antihistamine used for the treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, and motion sickness. Vigabatrin An irreversible GABA transaminase inhibitor used as an adjunct therapy to treat refractory complex partial seizures in patients ≥2 years unresponsive to alternatives. May also be used as monotherapy to treat infantile spasms in infants 1 month to 2 years. Levocabastine A selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist indicated for the management of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis symptoms. Chlorpheniramine A histamine-H1 receptor antagonist indicated for the management of symptoms associated with upper respiratory allergies. Doxepin A psychotropic agent used for the treatment of depression, anxiety, manic-depressive disorder, and insomnia. Desipramine A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of depression. Orphenadrine A muscarinic antagonist used as an adjunct for the symptomatic relief of musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. Cyclizine An antihistamine and antiemetic drug used for the prevention and treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness associated with motion sickness, and vertigo. Levetiracetam A novel anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct medication to manage partial onset, myoclonic, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy. Dantrolene A direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxant used for the treatment of management of the fulminant hypermetabolism of skeletal muscle leading to malignant hyperthermia crisis. Levodopa A dopamine precursor used in the management of Parkinson's disease, often in combination with carbidopa, as well as other conditions associated with parkinsonism. Clomipramine A tricyclic antidepressant used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component, such as depression, schizophrenia, and Tourette’s disorder. Fosphenytoin An antiepileptic agent used for the management of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. Difenoxin An antidiarrheal agent used as an adjunct for the management of acute nonspecific diarrhea and acute exacerbations of chronic functional diarrhea. Pipotiazine An antipsychotic indicated for the management of chronic, non-agitated schizophrenic patients. Flunarizine A selective calcium-entry blocker used as migraine prophylaxis in patients with severe and frequent episodes who have not responded adequately to more common treatments. Flibanserin A 5-HT receptor modulator used for the treatment of selected premenopausal women with acquired, generalized hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Iloperidone An atypical antipsychotic agent used for the acute treatment of schizophrenia in adults. Ezogabine An antiepileptic agent used as an adjuvant treatment of partial-onset seizures. Methsuximide A succinimide anticonvulsant that increases the seizure threshold. Primarily used for childhood absence seizures. Functions by suppressing paroxysmal spike-and-wave patterns associated with lapses of consciousness in absence seizures. Pizotifen A serotonin and tryptamine antagonist indicated for migraine prophylaxis. Tapentadol An opioid used to manage severe pain that has not responded to non-opioid medications, and for which opioid analgesic therapy is appropriate. Levocetirizine An H1-receptor antagonist used to treat symptoms associated with chronic allergic rhinitis and uncomplicated cases of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ziconotide An N-type calcium channel antagonist used to manage patients with severe chronic pain who cannot tolerate, or who have not responded adequately to other treatments such as intrathecal morphine and systemic analgesics. Gabapentin enacarbil A gabapentin prodrug used to treat Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Perampanel A non-competitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist used to treat partial-onset seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures, and as adjunctive treatment of primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients with epilepsy. Pomalidomide A thalidomide analogue used in combination with dexamethasone to treat patients with multiple myeloma. Stiripentol An anticonvulsant agent used with clobazam and valproate as an adjunct to treat refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Dravet syndrome. Brexpiprazole A serotonin–dopamine activity modulator used in the treatment of major depressive disorder as an adjunct and schizophrenia. Fluvoxamine A selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. Ethchlorvynol A sedative hypnotic agent used for the short-term management of insomnia. Enflurane A halogenated inhalational anesthetic agent used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for analgesia during labor and delivery. Etomidate A short-acting intravenous anesthetic indicated for the induction of anesthesia and supplementation of subpotent anesthesia during short operative procedures. Dapiprazole Used in the treatment of iatrogenically induced mydriasis produced by adrenergic (phenylephrine) or parasympatholytic (tropicamide) agents used in certain eye examinations. Valproic acid An anticonvulsant used to control complex partial seizures and both simple and complex absence seizures. Sulpiride Sulpiride is indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia. Remoxipride An discontinued atypical antipsychotic selective for dopamine D2 receptors. Nabilone A synthetic delta-9-THC used in the treatment of anorexia and weight loss in HIV patients as well as nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy. Triflupromazine Used mainly in the management of psychoses. Also used to control nausea and vomiting. Thiopental A barbiturate used to induce general anesthesia, treat convulsions, and reduce intracranial pressure. Dexmedetomidine An alpha-2 agonist used for sedation during various procedures. Dyclonine An topical anesthetic used prior to examination to suppress the gag reflex or for pain relief from canker sores and fever blisters. Dextropropoxyphene An opioid analgesic used to treat mild to moderate pain. Magnesium sulfate A drug used to treat convulsions during pregnancy, nephritis in children, magnesium deficiency, and tetany. Trazodone A serotonin uptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder. Procaine A local anesthetic used for anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal nerve block. Tranylcypromine A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder. Halazepam Used to relieve anxiety, nervousness, and tension associated with anxiety disorders. Methylphenobarbital For the relief of anxiety, tension, and apprehension, also used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of epilepsy. Ethanol For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical... Ondansetron A serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used to prevent nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy and postoperatively. Mesoridazine A phenothiazine antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, organic brain disorders, alcoholism, and psychoneuroses. Methoxyflurane For use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia Melatonin An endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland that regulates sleep-wake cycles and when provided exogenously has beneficial effects on sleep-onset latency; available as an over-the-counter supplement. Thiamylal Used for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state. Halothane A general inhalation anesthetic used for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Chlormezanone Used in the management of anxiety and in the treatment of muscle spasm. Dezocine Indicated in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Levacetylmethadol For the treatment and management of opiate dependence. It is sometimes used to treat severe pain in terminal patients. Chlorprothixene For treatment of psychotic disorders (e.g. schizophrenia) and of acute mania occuring as part of bipolar disorders. Butobarbital For the treatment of insomnia. Hexobarbital For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful... Lithium cation Lithium is used as a mood stabilizer, and is used for treatment of depression and mania. It is often used in bipolar disorder treatment. Methadyl acetate Used mainly in the treatment of narcotic dependence. Glutethimide For the treatment of insomnia. Dihydroetorphine Not Available Diamorphine An opioid analgesic agent used in the relief of severe pain associated with surgical procedures, myocardial infarction or pain in the terminally ill and for the relief of dyspnea in acute pulmonary edema. Fencamfamin For the the treatment of depressive fatigue in convalescence and other debilitated states as well as in the treatment of depressive day-time fatigue, lack of concentration and lethargy. Ethylmorphine Ethylmorphine is an analgesic used for pain relief. Barbital A long-acting barbiturate that depresses most metabolic processes at high doses. It is used as a hypnotic and sedative and may induce dependence. Barbital is also used in veterinary practice... Dextromoramide An opioid analgesic structurally related to methadone and used in the treatment of severe pain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1070) Carfentanil Carfentanil is similar (but more potent) to the opioid analgesic fentanyl. It is used as a tranquilizer for large animals. Flunitrazepam For short-term treatment of severe insomnias, that are not responsive to other hypnotics. Ethyl loflazepate Not Available Drotebanol Not Available Alphacetylmethadol A narcotic analgesic with a long onset and duration of action. It is used mainly in the treatment of narcotic dependence. [PubChem] Chloral hydrate A mild hypnotic used for experimental purposes that was previously used for the treatment of insomnia. Dihydromorphine Dihydromorphine is an opioid analgesic used for moderate to severe pain relief. Fludiazepam Used for the short-term treatment of anxiety disorders. Oxprenolol A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist used to treat hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety. Ketazolam A long-acting benzodiazepine used to manage anxiety and insomnia. Prazepam For the treatment of anxiety disorders. Acepromazine Acepromazine was first used in humans in the 1950s as an antipsychotic agent. It is now rarely used in humans. Acepromazine is frequently used in animals as a sedative and... Aceprometazine Aceprometazine is often used in combination with meprobamate for the treatment of sleep disorders. Molindone An antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia. 7-Nitroindazole Not Available Methapyrilene Methapyrilene, formerly marketed in many drug products, was shown to be a potent carcinogen. Manufacturers voluntarily withdrew methapyriline drug products from the market in May and June 1979. Urethane Urethane, formerly marketed as an inactive ingredient in Profenil injection, was determined to be carcinogenic and was removed from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1963. Methaqualone For the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant. Fluspirilene An antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Osanetant Potential therapy for schizophrenia, depression and visceral pain. Tetrodotoxin For the treatment of chronic and breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients as well as for the treatment of opioid dependence. Sertindole Used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Amisulpride Investigated for use/treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, mania in bipolar disorder, and depression. Clomethiazole Investigated for use/treatment in strokes. Deramciclane Investigated for use/treatment in anxiety disorders. Adipiplon Investigated for use/treatment in insomnia and sleep disorders. Agomelatine Agomelatine is indicated to treat major depressive episodes in adults. Fospropofol A sedative-hypnotic agent indicated for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) sedation in adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Ketobemidone For the treatment of all types of severe pain, such as postoperative, cancer, kidney stones and fractures. Benzyl alcohol An antiparasitic agent used for the topical treatment of head lice infestation in patients 6 months of age and older. DPDPE A heterodetic cyclic peptide that is a cyclic enkephalin analogue, having D-penicillaminyl residues located at positions 2 and 5, which form the heterocycle via a disulfide bond. Perospirone For the treatment of schizophrenia and acute cases of bipolar mania. Amperozide Amperozide is a diphenylbutylpiperazine atypical antipsychotic which antagonizes 5-HT2A receptors. It inhibits dopamine release and alters the firing of dopaminergic neurons. Investigations regarding the use of the agent revolved primarily... Etifoxine Etifoxine is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug developed by Hoechst in the 1960s. It is used in anxiety disorders and to promote peripheral nerve healing. It does not bind to... Brotizolam Brotizolam is indicated for 2-4 weeks in the treatment of severe or debilitating insomnia. Vortioxetine An atypical antipsychotic and antidepressant indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Etizolam Indicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with depression, panic disorder and insomnia. Lofentanil Lofentanil is an analog of fentanyl and is one of the most potent opioids available today. It displays most similarity to carfentanil (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) and is considered to be slightly more... Melperone For the treatment of schizophrenia, sleep, disorders, agitation and mentally confused states [L1317, L1319, L1322]. Zotepine Zotepine, like other atypical antipsychotics, is considered as the first-line treatment in newly diagnosed schizophrenia. It is usually thought to be an option of choice for managing acute schizophrenic episodes... Pipamperone Treatment of chronic psychoses and states of aggressiveness of various origins . Opium A medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. Alfaxalone Alfaxalone, also known as alphaxalone or alphaxolone, is a neuroactive steroid and general anaesthetic. It is used in veterinary practice under the trade name Alfaxan, and is licensed for use... Azaperone Azaperone is a pyridinylpiperazine and butyrophenone agent that is capable of eliciting neuroleptic sedative and antiemetic effects. It is subsequently employed predominantly as a veterinary tranquilizer and mainly for pigs... Doramectin Doramectin is a veterinary drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of parasites such as gastrointestinal roundworms, lungworms, eyeworms, grubs, sucking lice and mange mites in... Medetomidine Medetomidine is a synthetic compound used as a surgical anesthetic and analgesic. It is normally found as its hydrochloride salt, medetomidine hydrochloride. Medetomidine is an intravenously available alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.... Xylazine Xylazine is a clonidine analog which acts as an agonist at α2 adrenoceptors. Veterinarians also use xylazine as an emetic, especially in cats. Romifidine Romifidine is a veterinary drug utilized as a sedative primarily in large animals, most frequently horses. It is also used less commonly in a wide variety of other animal species.... Tiletamine This drug is a dissociative anesthetic agent that falls under the drug category of NMDA receptor antagonists. Tiletamine is chemically similar to another dissociative anesthetic, ketamine. Tiletamine hydrochloride, the salt... Tricaine Tricaine (as tricaine methanesulfonate) is white powder used for anesthesia, sedation, or euthanasia of fish. It is also the only anesthetic licensed in the United States for use in fin... Zolazepam Zolazepam is a pyrazolodiazepinone derivative used as an anaesthetic in veterinary medicine. Zolazepam is typically used in combination with the NMDA antagonist tiletamine or the α2 adrenoceptor agonist xylazine. It... Detomidine Used as a large animal sedative, primarily in horses. Normethadone An opioid antitussive used to treat a cough associated with inflamed mucosa. Brexanolone Brexanolone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(a)) receptor positive modulator indicated for the treatment of postpartum depression (PPD) in adult women [FDA Label][A176080, A176083, F4063, F4066, F4072]. Tetrahydropalmatine Tetrahydropalmatine is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02118610 (Treatment of Schizophrenia With L-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP): a Novel Dopamine Antagonist With Anti-inflammatory and Antiprotozoal Activity). Gepirone Gepirone has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cocaine-Related Disorders. Ecopipam Ecopipam has been used in trials studying the treatment of Tourette's Syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan Disease, Pathological Gambling, and Self-injurious Behavior. Eltanolone Eltanolone is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02603926 (Treatment of Fragile-X Associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) With Allopregnanolone). Bromperidol Bromperidol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders, among others. Piritramide Piritramide is under investigation for the treatment of Colon Cancer and Minimal Residual Disease. Piritramide has been investigated for the supportive care of Pain, Postoperative and Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting. Raclopride Raclopride has been used in trials studying Parkinson Disease. Indiplon Indiplon has been used in trials studying the treatment of Insomnia and Depression. Ritanserin Ritanserin has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cocaine-Related Disorders. Perazine Perazine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders, among others. Tandospirone Tandospirone has been used in trials studying the treatment of Schizophrenia. Benperidol Benperidol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders, among others. Tiapride Tiapride is indicated for the treatment of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including dyskinesia, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, negative symptoms of psychosis, and agitation and aggression in the elderly. Alphaprodine Not Annotated Propanidid An intravenous anesthetic that has been used for rapid induction of anesthesia and for maintenance of anesthesia of short duration. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p918) Proxibarbal Proxibarbal is a derivative of barbiturates, which has been used to treat migraines. Proxibarbal was approved in France but was withdrawn from the market due to the risk of inducing... Clothiapine Clothiapine has been approved in European countries and is an atypical antipsychotic, shown to be useful in some treatment-resistant patients. Ethyl chloride Ethyl chloride, or chloroethane, has a chemical formula C2H5Cl. It was commonly used in the production of tetraethyllead (TEL), which is an additive for gasoline. It was also used in... Sultopride Sultopride is used in Japan, Hong Kong, and Europe to treat schizophrenia. It is of the drug class atypical antipsychotics . Trichloroethylene Trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent, not to be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, also known as chlorothene. It has been sold under a variety of... Bromisoval Not Annotated Medazepam Not Annotated Phenibut Not Annotated Meptazinol Not Annotated Mebicar Not Annotated Veralipride Not Annotated Trifluperidol Not Annotated Diethyl ether Not Annotated Phenoperidine Not Annotated Phenazocine Not Annotated Loprazolam Loprazolam is an imidazobenzodiazepine with anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia including difficulty in falling asleep and/or frequent... Fluanisone Not Annotated Vinyl ether Not Annotated Dixyrazine Not Annotated Tilidine Not Annotated Penfluridol Not Annotated Clopenthixol Clopenthixol is a thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. Lormetazepam For the treatment of short-term insomnia Cyclopropane Cyclopropane was initially investigated because it was thought to be the toxic element in ethylene. Instead, it turned out to be an excellent anesthetic with very rapid onset and recovery... Nordazepam An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam. Tryptophan An amino acid commonly found as a component of total parenteral nutrition. Citalopram A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used in the treatment of depression. Reboxetine For the treatment of clinical depression. Venlafaxine A selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used for the treatment of major depression. Fluoxetine A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder, bulimia, OCD, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, panic disorder, and bipolar I. Duloxetine A serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor used to treat generalized anxiety disorder, neuropathic pain, osteoarthritis, and stress incontinence. Paroxetine A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder, panic disorder, OCD, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, the vasomotor symptoms of menopause, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Phenelzine A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat atypical, nonendogenous, or neurotic depression. Sertraline A selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) indicated to treat major depressive disorder, social anxiety disorder and many other psychiatric conditions. Nefazodone An antidepressant used in the treatment of depression. Bupropion A norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), seasonal affective disorder (SAD), and as an aid to smoking cessation. Moclobemide A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Escitalopram A selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor used in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and other select psychiatric disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Isocarboxazid A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat enduring and debilitating symptoms of depression following inadequate clinical response to other antidepressant drugs. Oxitriptan For use as an antidepressant, appetite suppressant, and sleep aid. Nialamide Withdrawn from the Canadian, US, and UK markets in 1963 due to interactions with food products containing tyrosine. Amineptine For the treatment of depression. Milnacipran A selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used for the treatment of fibromyalgia and a short-term treatment of major depressive disorder. Mianserin For the treatment of depression. Vilazodone An antidepressant agent used for the treatment of major depressive disorder that targets the 5-HT transporter and 5-HT1A receptors. Desvenlafaxine An antidepressant agent and SNRI used for the treatment of major depressive disorders in adults. Viloxazine Indicated for the treatment of clinical depression. Toloxatone For the treatment of major depressive disorder. Tianeptine Used primarily in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety . It is currently being studied for fibromyalgia pain treatment . Opipramol Opipramol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders. Dibenzepin Dibenzepin is approved for use in Europe. Lofepramine Not Annotated Iprindole Not Annotated Alaproclate Alaproclate was developed as one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants by Astra AB (now AstraZeneca) in the 1970s. Development was discontinued due to concerns over hepatotoxicity... Bifemelane Not Annotated Adinazolam For the treatment of anxiety and status epilepticus. Progabide Indicated for the treatment of epilepsy. Sibutramine A norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake inhibitor indicated to assist with weight loss in obesity. Rolipram A phosphodiesterase inhibitor with antidepressant properties. Aniracetam Compound with anti-depressive properties used as a mental performance enhancer. Iproniazid For the treatment of depression (originally intended to treat tuberculosis). Dextofisopam Investigated for use/treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Saredutant Investigated for use/treatment in depression and anxiety disorders. Esmirtazapine Investigated for use/treatment in insomnia and sleep disorders. Tofisopam For the treatment of anxiety and alcohol withdrawal. Levomilnacipran A selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). Indalpine Indalpine was one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to reach the American market. It was initially marketed by Pharmuka. However, after the emergence of widespread concern regarding adverse... Benactyzine Benactyzine is an anticholinergic drug used as an antidepressant in the treatment of depression and associated anxiety. Benactyzine is no longer widely used in medicine, although it is still a... Pirlindole For the treatment of major depression. It is being studied in the treatment of fibromyalgia pain syndrome. One study determined that the effect of pirlindole on sensorimotor performance while driving... Oxaprotiline Investigated for the treatment of depression. Lanicemine Lanicemine has been used in trials studying the treatment and basic science of Depression, Major Depressive Disorder, and Treatment Resistant Major Depressive Disorder. Orvepitant Orvepitant has been used in trials studying the treatment of Depressive Disorder, Depressive Disorder, Major, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Hypericin Hypericin is under investigation for the treatment of Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma. Deanol Deanol is commonly referred to as 2-(dimethylamino)ethanol, dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) or dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). It holds tertiary amine and primary alcohol groups as functional groups. Deanol has been used in the treatment... St. John's Wort An herbal ingredient used in non-prescription therapeutic products for the short-term treatment of minor skin irritations, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Nomifensine Nomifensine, formerly marketed as Merital capsules, was associated with an increased incidence of hemolytic anemia. The approved application holder removed Merital capsules from the market on January 23, 1986. FDA... Zimelidine For the treatment of depression. Dimetacrine Dimetacrine is also known as dimethacrine or acripamine. It is marketed under the names Istonil, Istonyl, Linostil, and Miroistonil. Dimetacrine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) with imipramine-like effects used in... Butriptyline Butriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant which has been used in Europe since 1974. It is the isobutyl side chain homologue of amitriptyline. Etoperidone Etoperidone has been studied for the treatment of depression , tremors in Parkinson, extrapyramidal symptoms and male impotence . It is not certain if it was ever approved and marketed... Iproclozide For the treatment of depression. Pivagabine Pivagabine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Stress and Anxiety. Medifoxamine Medifoxamine was marketed as an atypical antidepressant, with anxiolyitc properties in France, Spain, and Morrocco in the 1990s but was later withdrawn from the market due to it causing cases... Quinupramine Quinupramine has been approved in France under the brand name Kinupril, as an antidepressant . Melitracen Not Annotated Oxaflozane Not Annotated Imipramine oxide Not Annotated Dapoxetine For the treatment of premature ejaculation. Amphetamine A CNS stimulant and sympathomimetic agent indicated for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Mazindol A sympathomimetic used to treat obesity in combination with lifestyle modifications. Benzphetamine A sympathomimetic used to manage exogenous obesity short term. Midomafetamine Clinical trials are now testing the therapeutic potential of MDMA for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety associated with terminal cancer. MDMA is one of the four most widely used... Tenamfetamine An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons... Metamfetamine A sympathomimetic agent used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and exogenous obesity. Edivoxetine Edivoxetine is a drug which acts as a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor and is currently under development by Eli Lilly for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as an antidepressant treatment.... Amitriptylinoxide Amitriptylinoxide has been used in trials studying Major Depression. Selegiline A monoamine oxidase inhibitor used to treat major depressive disorder and Parkinson's. Rasagiline An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase used for the symptomatic management of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as initial monotherapy and as adjunct therapy to levodopa. Pargyline For the treatment of moderate to severe hypertension. Hydracarbazine Was used for the treatment of hypertension . Methylene blue An oxidation-reduction agent used for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with acquired methemoglobinemia. Benmoxin For the treatment of depression. Mebanazine For the treatment of depression. Octamoxin For the treatment of depression. Pheniprazine For the treatment of depression, schizophrenia, and angina pectoris. Phenoxypropazine For the treatment of depression. Pivhydrazine For the treatment of depression. Safrazine For the treatment of depression. Caroxazone For the treatment of depression. Furazolidone For the specific and symptomatic treatment of bacterial or protozoal diarrhea and enteritis caused by susceptible organisms. 7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline Potent reversible inhibitor of phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase. Harmaline Not Annotated Brofaromine Not Annotated Procarbazine An antineoplastic agent indicated for the treatment of stage III and stage IV Hodgkin's disease in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Dronabinol A synthetic delta-9-THC used in the treatment of anorexia and weight loss in HIV patients as well as nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy. Bufotenine A hallucinogenic serotonin analog found in frog or toad skins, mushrooms, higher plants, and mammals, especially in the brains, plasma, and urine of schizophrenics. Bufotenin has been used as a... 4-Methoxyamphetamine Not Available 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine Not Available Dimethyltryptamine Some people use this compound as a psychedelic inducing agent. Cathinone Cathinone is a monoamine alkaloid found in the shrub Catha edulis (Khat). Closely related to ephedrine, cathine and other amphetamines, it is probably the main contributor to the stimulant effect... Phencyclidine A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to ketamine in structure and in many of its effects. Like... Phenethylamine Not Available Lysergic acid diethylamide Debate continues over the nature and causes of chronic flashbacks. Explanations in terms of LSD physically remaining in the body for months or years after consumption have been discounted by... Psilocybin Psilocybin has been investigated for the treatment of Anxiety and Stage IV Melanoma. In November, 2019, it was granted Breakthrough Therapy status by the FDA. Nefiracetam Nefiracetam has been used in trials studying the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. Oxiracetam Not Annotated Cyamemazine Cyamemazine (Tercian), also known as cyamepromazine, is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine class used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis-associated anxiety. Cyamemazine actually behaves like an... Imagabalin Imagabalin has been investigated in Generalized Anxiety Disorder. MRK-409 MRK-409 is a GABA-A receptor agonist . Camazepam Camazepam has been used in placebo controlled studies for the treatment of patients suffering from anxiety and depression. Cloxazolam Used primarily as an anti-anxiety agent. Typically used short term, and may be given as a single dose of up to 100mcg/kg to reduce anxiety and tension experienced prior to... Clotiazepam For the treatment of anxiety disorders. Mebutamate Mebutamate is a sedative and anxiolytic drug with anti-hypertensive (blood pressure lowering) effects comparable to those of other barbiturates but is only around 1/3rd the potency of secobarbital as a... Captodiame Captodiame is indicated for the treatment of anxiety. Benzoctamine Benzoctamine is a drug with two main uses. It can be used as a sedative which does not depress the respiratory system, but rather stimulates it. It can also be... Pinazepam Not Annotated Gedocarnil Not Annotated Emylcamate Not Annotated Fabomotizole Not Annotated Mephenoxalone Not Annotated Delorazepam Mainly used as an anti-anxiety agent. Studies have found delorazepam to be more effective in the first 4 weeks of use than antidepressants; however, after 4 weeks, antidepressants showed superior... Doxefazepam Not Annotated Cinolazepam For the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety or anxiety associated with depressive symptoms. AZD-3043 AZD3043 has been used in trials studying the treatment and basic science of Safety, Sedation, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics. Talbutal For use as a sedative and hypnotic. Propiomazine Propiomazine is largely used for its antihistamininc sleep inducing effects in treating insomnia. Methyprylon For the treatment of insomnia. Aprobarbital Aprobarbital is a barbiturate derivative synthesized in the 1920s by Ernst Preiswerk. It was determined that the substance was capable of demonstrating sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. A primary treatment... Heptabarbital Used mainly for sedation and hypnosis. Dichloralphenazone Dichloralphenazone is a sedative composed of chloral hydrate and phenazone. It is typically found in combination products Nodolor and Midrin containing isometheptene and acetaminophen used for the relief of tension... Triclofos Not Annotated Valnoctamide Valnoctamide has been used in trials studying the treatment of Mania and Schizoaffective Disorder, Manic Type. Valerian A plant used in some non-prescription natural health products. Apronalide Apronalide is approved in Japan. Apronalide has been withdrawn from the market in many other countries due to patient development of thrombocytopenic purpura . Pyrithyldione Not Annotated Vinbarbital Not Annotated Acetylglycinamide chloral hydrate Not Annotated Allobarbital Not Annotated Hexapropymate Not Annotated Niaprazine Niaprazine is a selective brain catecholamine depletor. Methylpentynol Not Annotated Cyclobarbital Not Annotated Vinylbital Not Annotated Reposal Reposal is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1960s in Denmark that has sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties. It was used primarily in the treatment of insomnia. Carbromal Not Annotated Emepronium Not Annotated Trimethadione An anticonvulsant agent indicated for the control of treatment-refractory petit mal seizures. Mephenytoin A phenylhydantoin used to treat refractory partial epilepsy. Oxcarbazepine An anti-epileptic used in the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Valpromide Not Available Lacosamide An antiepileptic drug used to treat partial onset seizures in adults. Eslicarbazepine acetate An anticonvulsant agent used as an adjunct to treat partial-onset seizures in patients with inadequate clinical response to conventional antiepileptic therapy. Sulthiame Not Available Pheneturide Not Annotated Riluzole A glutamate antagonist used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acetazolamide A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used to treat edema from heart failure or medications, certain types of epilepsy, and glaucoma. Remacemide Investigated for use/treatment in epilepsy, huntington's disease, and parkinson's disease. Tramiprosate Investigated for use/treatment in strokes and alzheimer's disease. Gaboxadol Investigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders and insomnia. Ifenprodil Ifenprodil is a selective NMDA receptor (glutamate) antagonist. Eperisone Eperisone is an antispasmodic drug which relaxes both skeletal muscles and vascular smooth muscles, and demonstrates a variety of effects such as reduction of myotonia, improvement of circulation, and suppression... Etiracetam Etiracetam is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01137110 (Comparison of Short Duration Levetiracetam to Extended Course for Seizure Prophylaxis After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)). Vinpocetine Vinpocetine has been investigated for the treatment of Epilepsy. Metharbital Metharbital is used for the treatment of epilepsy. Paramethadione Used for the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications. Phensuximide For the treatment of epilepsy. Phenacemide Used to control certain seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. Brivaracetam An anticonvulsant used for the treatment of partial-onset seizures that functions by binding to synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A) in the brain. Rufinamide An antiepileptic drug used as adjunctive therapy to treat seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome (LGS). Barbexaclone Created for the treatment for epilepsy, with the intent of creating an antiepileptic with less sedative properties than phenobarbital. Beclamide Has been used in the management of epilepsy and epilepsy related behavioural disorders. It was used for generalised tonic-clonic seizures, and was not effective for absence seizures. More recently focus... Carisbamate Carisbamate has been investigated in Alcohol Abuse, Substance Abuse, and Alcohol Dependence. Neocitrullamon Not Annotated Ethadione Not Annotated Succinylcholine A depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant used as an adjunct to anesthesia and for skeletal muscle relaxation during intubation, mechanical ventilation, and surgical procedures. Cisatracurium A skeletal muscle relaxant used to facilitate tracheal intubation, muscle relaxation in surgery, or mechanical ventilation. Rocuronium A vecuronium analog used to facilitate tracheal intubation and to relax skeletal muscles during surgery. Atracurium besylate A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker used to facilitate endotracheal intubation and relax skeletal muscles during surgery. Pancuronium A neuromuscular blocker used as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. Vecuronium A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to relax muscles or as an adjunct in general anesthesia during surgical procedures. Metocurine iodide For use as an anesthesia adjunct to induce skeletal muscle relaxation and to reduce the intensity of muscle contractions in convulsive therapy. Gallamine triethiodide A nondepolarizing nerve blocker used in addition to anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation. Doxacurium A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgical procedures. Tubocurarine Tubocurarine is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent and the first identified curare alkaloid. Curare is one of the names used to describe plant-derived poisons used by indigenous South Americans to... Mivacurium A short-acting non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to induce anesthesia during intubation and promote skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. Decamethonium For use as a skeletal muscle relaxant Metocurine Metocurine is a muscle relaxant. Pipecuronium A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used to relax muscles during anesthesia and surgical procedures. Rapacuronium A nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent used as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgical procedures. Neosaxitoxin Neosaxitoxin is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01786655 (Safety Study of Long-Acting Local Anesthetic). Atracurium Not Annotated Gallamine Not Annotated Alcuronium A non-depolarizing skeletal muscle relaxant similar to tubocurarine. It is used as an anesthesia adjuvant. Pyrantel An anthelmintic used to treat helminth infections. Bifeprunox Bifeprunox is being evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia, psychosis, and Parkinson's disease. Acetophenazine For the treatment of disorganized and psychotic thinking. Also used to help treat false perceptions (e.g. hallucinations or delusions.) Periciazine A phenothiazine used with other medications to treat aggressiveness, impulsiveness, and hostility associated with psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia. Thioproperazine An antipsychotic indicated for the management of acute and chronic schizophrenia, including cases that are refractory to more common neuroleptics. May also be used to treat manic syndromes. Cariprazine An atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia and acute manic or mixed episodes due to bipolar I disorder. Prothipendyl Prothipendyl has been used in trials studying the treatment of Dementia, Depression, Schizophrenia, Anxiety Disorders, and Psychosomatic Disorders. Butaperazine Butaperazine was approved in 1967 , and possibly discontinued in the 1980s . Chlorproethazine Not Annotated Oxypertine Not Annotated Moperone Not Annotated Thiopropazate Not Annotated Mosapramine Not Annotated Botulinum Toxin Type B A purified form of botulinum toxin type B used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of cervical dystonia and sialorrhea. Botulinum toxin type A A purified form of botulinum toxin type A used to block acetylcholine release in the treatment of chronic sialorrhea, muscle spasticity, and dystonia, as well as in cosmetic applications. Hexafluronium Used as an adjunct with succinylcholine (or suxamethonium chloride) to prolong muscle relaxation and to prevent succinylcholine-induced muscle fasciculations. Thiocolchicoside Thiocolchicoside is a skeletal muscle-relaxant drug used in the treatment of orthopedic, traumatic and rheumatologic disorders . It is indicated as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of painful muscle... Febarbamate Not Annotated Tetrazepam Not Annotated Phenprobamate Not Annotated Styramate Not Annotated Fenyramidol Not Annotated Mephenesin A cresol glyceryl ether used to treat muscle spasticity in Parkinson's and Multiple Sclerosis. Pridinol Not Annotated Fazadinium bromide Not Annotated Tolperisone Investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, spinal cord injuries, muscle spasm, back pain, and multiple sclerosis. Thiethylperazine For the treatment or relief of nausea and vomiting. Moricizine An antiarrhythmic used to treat arrhythmias. Alimemazine An antihistamine agent used to prevent and relieve allergic conditions which cause pruritus and other allergic skin conditions, including urticaria. BL-1020 Investigated for use/treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Propiopromazine Not Annotated Thiazinam Not Annotated Blonanserin Used for the treatment of schizophrenia . Lumateperone A novel 2nd generation antipsychotic used to manage both positive and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Pimavanserin A second generation atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions caused by Parkinson's Disease. Brilaroxazine Investigated for the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Cannabidivarin Cannabidivarin does not currently have any FDA or Health Canada approved indications, however in October 2017 CBDV was given orphan designation by the European Medicines Agency for use in Rett... Esreboxetine Esreboxetine has been used in trials studying the treatment and basic science of Fibromyalgia. Lortalamine Lortalamine (LM-1404) is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor developed in the 1980s. This drug never made it past clinical trials, likely due to ocular toxicity in animals, but has been... Nisoxetine Nisoxetine is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) developed in the 1970s. It was originally investigated as an antidepressant but has no current clinical applications aside from being a research... Talopram Talopram is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) that is structurally similar to citalopram and melitracen. It was researched in the 1960s and 1970s but never marketed. Arbaclofen Placarbil Investigated for the treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, acute back spasms, and GERD. Donepezil An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used to treat the behavioral and cognitive effects of Alzheimer's Disease and other types of dementia. Quinine An alkaloid used to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Gantacurium Investigated for use/treatment in anesthesia (unspecified). Hexamethonium A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been... Etorphine Etorphine is only available for its use in veterinary. This main usage is related to the immobilization of large mammals. Ramelteon A melatonin receptor agonist used to treat insomnia. Tasimelteon A melatonin receptor agonist used to treat Non- 24-Hour Sleep-Wake Disorder. Aripiprazole lauroxil An antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia in adults. Chlorphenesin A phenol ether used to treat painful muscular conditions. Domoic Acid Not Available Lithium carbonate A medication used to treat manic episodes of bipolar disorder. Linezolid An oxazolidinone antibiotic used to treat susceptible strains of multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Safinamide A MAO-B inhibitor used as an add-on treatment to levodopa/carbidopa for Parkinson's disease during "off" episodes. Eletriptan A triptan used for the treatment of migraines. Methysergide An ergot alkaloid used for the prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. Zolmitriptan A member of the triptan class of 5-HT(1B/1D/1F) receptor agonist drugs used for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults. Palonosetron A serotonin antagonist used in the prophylaxis or management of vomiting that results from emetogenic chemotherapy, and for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Fenfluramine Fenfluramine is a phenethylamine that is structurally similar to serotonin. Due to its ability to increase extracellular serotonin levels, modulate serotonergic and other neurologic receptors, and control neurotransmission, it is effective in treating pharmacoresistant seizures. Lisuride For the management of Parkinson's Disease Sumatriptan A serotonin receptor agonist used to treat migraines and cluster headaches. Ergotamine A alpha-1 selective adrenergic agonist vasoconstrictor used to treat migraines with or without aura and cluster headaches. Dolasetron An antinauseant and antiemetic used in chemotherapy and postoperatively. Granisetron A 5HT3 antagonist used to treat nausea and vomiting in cancer therapy and postoperatively. Almotriptan A 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used to treat migraines. Naratriptan A 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used to treat migraines. Rizatriptan A 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used to treat migraines. Pindolol A beta adrenoceptor antagonist used to treat hypertension, edema, ventricular tachycardias, and atrial fibrillation. Alosetron A 5-HT3 antagonist used to treat diarrhea-predominant IBS. Frovatriptan A 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist used to treat migraines. Renzapride For the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). APD791 For the treatment and prophylaxis of arterial thrombosis. Naronapride Investigated for use/treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastroparesis. Naluzotan Investigated for use/treatment in anxiety disorders and depression. YKP-1358 Investigated for use/treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Dotarizine Investigated for use/treatment in migraine and cluster headaches. Serotonin For temporary relief of nervousness, anxiety, mood swings, joint pains, weakness, drowsiness, itching and lethargy. Not evaluated by the FDA, homeopathic product. Ramosetron For the treatment of nausea and vomiting and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in males. Mosapride Mosapride is under investigation for the treatment and prevention of Postoperative Ileus and Gastric Peroral Endoscopic Pyloromyotomy (G-POEM). Mosapride has been investigated for the treatment and diagnostic of Constipation, Type... Tropisetron For the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by cytotoxic therapy and postoperative. m-Chlorophenylpiperazine m-Chlorophenylpiperazine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Alcoholism. MK-212 MK-212 has been used in trials studying the treatment of Alcoholism. Sarpogrelate Sarpogrelate has been investigated for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetic Nephropathy, Coronary Artery Disease, and Renal Insufficiency, Chronic. Eplivanserin Eplivanserin has been used in trials studying the treatment of Sleep, Insomnia, Chronic Pain, Fibromyalgia, and Primary Insomnia, among others. Piclozotan Piclozotan has been investigated for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease. Ketanserin Ketanserin has been investigated for the treatment of Septic Shock, Severe Sepsis, and Diabetic Foot Ulcer. Urapidil Urapidil has been investigated for the treatment of Hypertension During Pre-Eclampsia. Eltoprazine Eltoprazine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Schizophrenia and Cognitive Impairment. Metergoline Metergoline is an ergot-derived psychoactive drug that acts as a ligand for serotonin and dopamine receptors. Metergoline is an antagonist at various 5-HT receptor subtypes at a relatively low concentration... Iprazochrome Not Annotated Naftidrofuryl Not Annotated Wortmannin Wortmannin is a steroid metabolite of Penicillium funiculosum and Talaromyces wortmannii fungi. This drug acts as a nonspecific, covalent inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase enzymes (PI3Ks). Dextromethorphan An NMDA receptor antagonist used to treat cases of dry cough. Dihydroergotamine An ergot alkaloid used in the acute treatment of migraine headache and cluster headache. Cabergoline A dopamine receptor agonist used for the treatment of hyperprolactinemic conditions due to various causes. Ropinirole A non-ergoline dopamine agonist used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and Restless Legs Syndrome. Rotigotine A non-selective dopamine agonist used for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and Restless Leg Syndrome. Cinitapride It is indicated to treat gastrointestinal disorders associated with motility disturbances like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), non-ulcer dyspepsia and delayed gastric emptying. 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) is a tryptamine with psychedelic properties. It is found in a wide variety of plant species, and a single psychoactive toad species, the Colorado River toad. This drug,... Tetrahydrocannabivarin THCV does not currently have any FDA, Health Canada, or EMA approved indications. Pergolide A long-acting dopamine agonist that is uncommonly used for the management of Parkinson's disease, due to the risk for cardiac valvulopathy. Bromocriptine A dopamine D2 receptor agonist used for the treatment of galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinemia and other prolactin-related conditions, as well as in early Parkinsonian Syndrome. MMDA MMDA is a recreational drug. It has no current medical uses and is a Schedule I controlled substance in the USA at present. 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine (ALEPH-2) is a phenylisopropylamine derivative with alleged anxiolytic and hallucinogenic properties. N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine 25CN-NBOH (N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-cyanophenylethylamine) is a newly developed selective 5-HT2A agonist. It has been tested with regard to the head-twitch-response (HTR) model of 5-HT2A activity and effects on locomotion . It was... Lofexidine A centrally acting alpha2-adrenergic agonist used for the symptomatic treatment of acute opioid withdrawal syndrome to facilitate abrupt opioid discontinuation in adults. TD-8954 TD-8954 has been used in trials studying the treatment of Enteral Feeding Intolerance and Gastrointestinal Motility Disorder. Lorcaserin A serotonin 2C receptor agonist used in conjunction with physical activity and calorie restriction for weight loss in obese patients with a body mass index (BMI) of 30 and above, and in overweight patients with weight-related comorbidities. Vabicaserin Vabicaserin has been used in trials studying the health services research and treatment of Schizophrenia. Cannabidiol An active cannabinoid used as an adjunctive treatment for the management of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome and symptomatic relief of moderate to severe neuropathic pain or other painful conditions, like cancer. Iferanserin Iferanserin has been investigated for the treatment of Hemorrhoids. Idalopirdine Idalopirdine has been used in trials studying the treatment of Cognition, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's Disease. Cerlapirdine Cerlapirdine has been investigated for the treatment of Alzheimer Disease. Cilansetron For the treatment of symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome. Yohimbine An alpha-2-adrenergic blocker and sympatholytic found in supplements used to. PRX-08066 Investigated for use/treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension. Epinastine An H1 receptor antagonist used to prevent itching in allergic conjunctivitis. Alprenolol For the treatment of hypertension, angina, and arrhythmia Alverine Used to relieve cramps or spasms of the stomach and intestines. It is also useful in treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and similar conditions. It can also be used to... Penbutolol A beta-adrenergic antagonist used for the management of mild to moderate arterial hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. Ergoloid mesylate A nootropic with an unknown mechanism of action indicated in individuals over sixty who manifest signs and symptoms of an idiopathic decline in mental capacity. Ergometrine An ergot alkaloid used for the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage and post abortion hemorrhage in patients with uterine atony. Tedizolid phosphate An oxazolidinone class antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis and is proven to be effective in the treatment of certain Gram-positive bacterial infections. Dexmethylphenidate A norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor used in the treatment of ADHD in conjunction with other therapies. Eslicarbazepine Adjunctive Therapy for Adults with Partial-Onset Seizures Ocinaplon Investigated for use/treatment in anxiety disorders. Pagoclone For the potential treatment of panic and anxiety disorders. Oxazepam acetate Not Annotated Perphenazine enanthate Not Annotated Minaprine For the treatment of depression Dosulepin Indicated in the treatment of symptoms of depressive illness, especially where an anti-anxiety effect is required. Cisapride A medication used to treat heartburn associated with GERD. Apomorphine A morphine derivative D2 dopamine agonist used to treat hypomobile "off" episodes of advanced Parkinson's disease. Cinazepam Not Annotated Benzodiazepine Benzodiazepine is under investigation for the prevention of Delirium and C.Surgical Procedure; Cardiac. Benzodiazepine has been investigated for the treatment of Obesity, Sleep Apnea, Obstructive, and Disorders of Gallbladder, Biliary... Bentazepam Not Annotated Clorgiline An antidepressive agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor related to PARGYLINE. Seproxetine Seproxetine is also known as (S)-norfluoxetine. It is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is an active metabolite of fluoxetine. Seproxetine was being investigated by Eli Lilly as an... S-Ethylisothiourea S-Ethylisothiourea is a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Chlorhexadol Chlorhexadol is a sedative and hypnotic which is regulated in the United States as a Schedule III controlled substance. It is a derivative of chloral hydrate. Trimethobenzamide An antiemetic used to treat postoperative nausea and vomiting and nausea associated with gastroenteritis. Diethylpropion An appetite suppressant used for the short term treatment of exogenous obesity in addition to calorie restriction. Suvorexant A orexin receptor antagonist used to treat insomnia that is characterized by difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance. Esketamine A NMDA receptor antagonist used for treatment-resistant depression. Atomoxetine A selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the management of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Solriamfetol Solriamfetol is indicated for treatment of daytime sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea and narcolepsy, but is not a treatment for the underlying airway obstruction in apnea patients[FDA Label][A176534,A176744]. Carfentanil, C-11 Carfentanil, C-11 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01899170 (Towards Individualized Deep Brain Stimulation Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain). JNJ-26489112 JNJ-26489112 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00579384 (A Study of the Effects of JNJ-26489112 on the Photic Induced Paroxysmal Electroencephalogram (EEG) Response in Patients With Photosensitive Epilepsy). Desomorphine Not Available Mepyramine An antihistamine agent used for the symptomatic treatment of allergy, hypersensitivity reactions, and pruritic skin disorders. Nicomorphine Not Annotated Pyrazolam Not Annotated Salvinorin A Salvinorin A has been investigated for the basic science of Pharmaceutical Preparations. Lithium citrate f Zuranolone Not Annotated Mexazolam A benzodiazepine indicated to treat anxiety with or without psychoneurotic conditions. Metoclopramide An antiemetic agent and dopamine D2 antagonist used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, prevention of nausea and vomiting, and to stimulate gastric emptying. Lorpiprazole In 2016, lorpiprazole was classified in the "Chemical structure-related drug-like criteria of global approved drugs" as an antipsychotic and anxiolytic. An antipsychotic is a medication used to treat a state... Lasmiditan An oral 5HT1F agonist used for the acute treatment of migraine headache with or without aura. Cenobamate A small molecule drug indicated to treat partial onset seizures in adults. Lemborexant A dual orexin antagonist indicated for the treatment of sleep-onset and/or sleep maintenance insomnia. Y-27632 Y-27632 is an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase. It inhibits calcium sensitization to affect smooth muscle relaxation. Harmine Not Available Amibegron Investigated for use/treatment in depression, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and obesity. Ephedrine An alpha and beta-adrenergic agonist indicated to treat hypotension under anesthesia, allergic conditions, bronchial asthma, and nasal congestion. Tegaserod A serotonin-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of constipation predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) specifically in women under the age of 65. There is currently no safety or efficacy data for use of tegaserol in men. Remimazolam An ultra short-acting benzodiazepine used for the induction and maintenence of procedural sedation during short procedures. Lidocaine A local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures. Ropivacaine An analgesic drug used for local or regional anesthesia for surgery and short-term management of pain. Bupivacaine A local anesthetic used in a wide variety of superficial and invasive procedures. Buspirone An anxiolytic agent used for short-term treatment of generalized anxiety and second-line treatment of depression. Cinchocaine An anesthetic used for local or regional anesthesia. Prilocaine A local anesthetic used in dental procedures. Proparacaine A topical anesthetic used for ophthalmic practice. Oxybuprocaine A local anesthetic used in ophthalmology. Cocaine An ester local anesthetic used during diagnostic procedures and surgeries in or through the nasal cavities. Mepivacaine A local anesthetic used for local or regional analgesia or anesthesia. Levobupivacaine For the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management Benzocaine A topical local anesthetic used for the temporary relief of pain and itching associated with minor burns, sunburn, scrapes and insect bites or minor skin irritations. Chloroprocaine A local anesthetic agent indicated for intrathecal injection in adults for the production of subarachnoid block, or spinal anesthesia. Ecgonine Not Available Methylecgonine Not Available Canertinib Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer and lung cancer. Etidocaine Etidocaine is marketed under the name Duranest. It is an injectable local anesthetic during surgery, labor, and delivery. Etidocaine has a long duration of activity, but has the main disadvantage... Articaine A local anesthetic used for inducing local, infiltrative, or conductive anesthesia in both simple and complex dental procedures. Tetracaine A local anaesthetic agent used to induce local analgesia in the eyes and skin during medical procedures. Propoxycaine Propoxycaine is a local anesthetic medication. It was used beginning in the 1950s during dental procedures . It has been combined with procaine to accelerate its onset of action and... Pramocaine A local anesthetic and antipruritic agent found in various topical preparations. Butamben Anesthesia of mucus membranes other than the eyes. Phenoxyethanol An antiseptic used as a hand disinfectant or preservative in medications. Butacaine Not Annotated Sepranolone Sepranolone has been investigated for the treatment of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder. Norflurane Norflurane is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01673061 (Vapocoolant Spray for Numbing Small Boils Before Incision and Drainage). Xenon Not Annotated Quinisocaine Not Annotated Dexfenfluramine For the management of obesity including weight loss and maintenance of weight loss in patients on a reduced calorie diet 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine Not Available SUVN-502 Investigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders. Xaliproden Investigated for use/treatment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and alzheimer's disease. Prucalopride A P2Y12 platelet receptor antagonist used during percutaneous coronary intervention to reduce the risk for periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI), repeat coronary revascularization, and stent thrombosis (ST). Repinotan Investigated for use/treatment in strokes, cerebral ischemia, and depression. Tolfenamic acid In the information for tolfenamic acid, it is stated that this drug, being an NSAID, is effective in treating the pain associated with the acute attack of migraines in adults.
- Drugs & Drug Targets