Diabetic Neuropathies

Also known as: Diabetic neuropathy / Neuropathy, Diabetic

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00321AmitriptylineAmitriptyline hydrochloride is a dibenzocycloheptene-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and analgesic. TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, amitriptyline does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, amitriptyline exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake than secondary amine TCAs, such as nortriptyline. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. Amitriptyline may be used to treat depression, chronic pain (unlabeled use), irritable bowel syndrome (unlabeled use), diabetic neuropathy (unlabeled use), post-traumatic stress disorder (unlabeled use), and for migraine prophylaxis (unlabeled use).
DB00215CitalopramCitalopram belongs to a class of antidepressant agents known as selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). In spite of structural differences between compounds in this class, the SSRIs possess similar pharmacological activity. As with other antidepressant agents, several weeks of therapy may be indicated before a clinical effect is noticed. SSRIs are potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake in the neurons. They have little to no effect on norepinephrine or dopamine reuptake and do not antagonize α- or β-adrenergic, dopamine D2 or histamine H1 receptors. During acute usage, SSRIs inhibit serotonin reuptake and increase serotonin stimulation of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. Chronic use leads to desensitization of somatodendritic 5-HT1A and terminal autoreceptors. The general clinical effect of increased mood and decreased anxiety is thought to be due to adaptive changes in neuronal function that leads to enhanced serotonergic neurotransmission. Side effects include dry mouth, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, sexual dysfunction, and headache. Side effects generally occur within the first two weeks of therapy and are usually less severe and frequent than those observed with tricyclic antidepressants. Citalopram is approved for treatment of depression. Unlabeled indications include mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, smoking cessation, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy [A325, FDA label].
DB01151DesipramineDesipramine hydrochloride is a dibenzazepine-derivative tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). TCAs are structurally similar to phenothiazines. They contain a tricyclic ring system with an alkyl amine substituent on the central ring. In non-depressed individuals, desipramine does not affect mood or arousal, but may cause sedation. In depressed individuals, desipramine exerts a positive effect on mood. TCAs are potent inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Secondary amine TCAs, such as desipramine and nortriptyline, are more potent inhibitors of norepinephrine reuptake than tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline and doxepine. TCAs also down-regulate cerebral cortical β-adrenergic receptors and sensitize post-synaptic serotonergic receptors with chronic use. The antidepressant effects of TCAs are thought to be due to an overall increase in serotonergic neurotransmission. TCAs also block histamine-H1 receptors, α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic receptors, which accounts for their sedative, hypotensive and anticholinergic effects (e.g. blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, urinary retention), respectively. See toxicity section below for a complete listing of side effects. Desipramine exerts less anticholinergic and sedative side effects compared to tertiary amine TCAs, such as amitriptyline and clomipramine. Desipramine may be used to treat depression, neuropathic pain (unlabeled use), agitation and insomnia (unlabeled use) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (unlabeled use).
DB00996GabapentinGabapentin (brand name Neurontin) is a medication originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy. Presently, gabapentin is widely used to relieve pain, especially neuropathic pain. Gabapentin is well tolerated in most patients, has a relatively mild side-effect profile, and passes through the body unmetabolized.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00321AmitriptylineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00321AmitriptylineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 2target
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineSerum albumincarrier
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00321AmitriptylineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00321AmitriptylineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 1target
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 2target
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily D member 3target
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineHigh affinity nerve growth factor receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineBDNF/NT-3 growth factors receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00321AmitriptylineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00321AmitriptylineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00321AmitriptylineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00321Amitriptyline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6target
DB00321AmitriptylinePotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily KQT member 3target
DB00321AmitriptylineBeta adrenergic receptortarget
DB00321AmitriptylineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00215CitalopramMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00215CitalopramCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00215CitalopramHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent dopamine transportertransporter
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertransporter
DB00215CitalopramSodium-dependent serotonin transportertransporter
DB00215CitalopramAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00215CitalopramMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00215Citalopram5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB01151DesipramineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01151DesipramineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB01151DesipramineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB01151DesipramineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB01151DesipramineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-1 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB01151DesipramineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01151DesipramineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01151DesipramineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01151DesipramineSphingomyelin phosphodiesterasetarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01151Desipramine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01151DesipramineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01151DesipramineAlpha-2 adrenergic receptorstarget
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00318Codeine1Completed1
DB00715Paroxetine1Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin1Completed1
DB05066Ibudilast1 / 2Completed1
DB12644AZD-20662Completed1
DB12830Cebranopadol2Completed1
DB14256Centella asiatica2Completed1
DB00575Clonidine2Completed2
DB00514Dextromethorphan2Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine2Completed1
DB12102Fulranumab2Terminated1
DB04922Gabapentin enacarbil2Completed1
DB08872Gabapentin enacarbil2Completed1
DB08872Gabapentin enacarbil2Terminated1
DB06296Indantadol2Completed1
DB06218Lacosamide2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00230Pregabalin2Completed2
DB05533QR-3332Completed1
DB11829Ruboxistaurin2Completed1
DB09153Sodium Chloride2Recruiting1
DB12527Sofinicline2Completed1
DB06204Tapentadol2Completed1
DB00273Topiramate2Completed1
DB06218Lacosamide2 / 3Completed2
DB08883Perampanel2 / 3Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen3Completed1
DB00102Becaplermin3Terminated1
DB11748Benfotiamine3Unknown Status1
DB09061Cannabidiol3Completed1
DB00575Clonidine3Unknown Status1
DB14098Cobalamin3Completed1
DB00470Dronabinol3Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine3Completed3
DB00996Gabapentin3Completed1
DB01221Ketamine3Unknown Status1
DB06218Lacosamide3Completed2
DB00379Mexiletine3Completed1
DB00486Nabilone3Unknown Status1
DB00230Pregabalin3Completed2
DB00230Pregabalin3Unknown Status1
DB05327Ranirestat3Completed1
DB12811Ranirestat3Completed1
DB00412Rosiglitazone3Completed1
DB11829Ruboxistaurin3Completed3
DB06204Tapentadol3Completed1
DB00193Tramadol3Completed1
DB00316Acetaminophen4Completed1
DB01432Cholestyramine4Completed1
DB00476Duloxetine4Completed1
DB00996Gabapentin4Completed3
DB00281Lidocaine4Completed2
DB00166Lipoic Acid4Completed1
DB00486Nabilone4Completed1
DB09539Omega-3-acid ethyl esters4Completed1
DB00230Pregabalin4Completed1
DB00203Sildenafil4Completed1
DB00193Tramadol4Completed1
DB11121ChloroxylenolNot AvailableWithdrawn1
DB00169CholecalciferolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00153ErgocalciferolNot AvailableCompleted1
DB11094Vitamin DNot AvailableCompleted1