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Identification
NameQuinestrol
Accession NumberDB04575
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionThe 3-cyclopentyl ether of ethinyl estradiol.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
17-alpha-Ethinylestradiol 3-cyclopentyl ether
17alpha-Ethynylestradiol 3-cyclopentyl ether
Eston
Estradiol-17-beta 3-cyclopentyl ether
Estrovis
Estrovis 4000
Estrovister
ethinyl estradiol 3-cyclopentyl ether
Plestrovis
Quilea
Quinestrol
Quinestrolo
Quinestrolum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
EstrovisNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIJR0N7XD5GZ
CAS number152-43-2
WeightAverage: 364.5204
Monoisotopic: 364.240230268
Chemical FormulaC25H32O2
InChI KeyPWZUUYSISTUNDW-VAFBSOEGSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C25H32O2/c1-3-25(26)15-13-23-22-10-8-17-16-19(27-18-6-4-5-7-18)9-11-20(17)21(22)12-14-24(23,25)2/h1,9,11,16,18,21-23,26H,4-8,10,12-15H2,2H3/t21-,22-,23+,24+,25+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,10R,11S,14R,15S)-5-(cyclopentyloxy)-14-ethynyl-15-methyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2(7),3,5-trien-14-ol
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@@](O)(C#C)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@]1([H])C3=C(CC[C@@]21[H])C=C(OC1CCCC1)C=C3
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in hormone replacement therapy, treating symptoms of menopause such as hot flashes. Also used to treat breast and prostate cancer.
Structured Indications Not Available
PharmacodynamicsQuinestrol is the 3-cyclopentyl ether of ethinyl estradiol (the active metabolite). After gastrointestinal absorption, it is stored in adipose tissue where it is slowly released and metabolized principally to the parent compound, ethinyl estradiol. Ethinyl estradiol is a synthetic derivative of the natural estrogen estradiol.
Mechanism of actionEstrogens diffuse into their target cells and interact with a protein receptor (the estrogen receptor). Estrogen interacts with a target cell receptor. When the estrogen receptor has bound its ligand it can enter the nucleus of the target cell, and regulate gene transcription which leads to formation of messenger RNA. The mRNA interacts with ribosomes to produce specific proteins that express the effect of estradiol upon the target cell. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. Target cells include the female reproductive tract, the mammary gland, the hypothalamus, and the pituitary. Estrogens increase the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins and suppress follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary. The combination of an estrogen with a progestin suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary system, decreasing the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Estrogen receptorProteinyes
agonist
modulator
HumanP03372 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionAbsorbed following oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Metabolized principally to the parent compound, ethinyl estradiol. Ethinyl estradiol is metabolized in the liver. Quantitatively, the major metabolic pathway for ethinyl estradiol, both in rats and in humans, is aromatic hydroxylation, as it is for the natural estrogens.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Quinestrol
Not Available
Ethinyl estradiolDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overdose include nausea and vomiting, and withdrawal bleeding may occur in females.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe serum concentration of 16-Bromoepiandrosterone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 19-norandrostenedione can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental, Illicit
4-AndrostenedioneThe serum concentration of 4-Androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe serum concentration of 5-androstenedione can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcenocoumarolQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
AlclometasoneThe serum concentration of Alclometasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe serum concentration of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental
AmcinonideThe serum concentration of Amcinonide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
AnastrozoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Anastrozole can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
AncrodQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AnecortaveThe serum concentration of Anecortave can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
Anthrax immune globulin humanQuinestrol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Anthrax immune globulin human.Approved
Antithrombin III humanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
ArdeparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
BecaplerminQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BeclomethasoneThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe serum concentration of Beclomethasone dipropionate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
BivalirudinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe serum concentration of Budesonide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human)Quinestrol may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Human).Approved
C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Recombinant)Quinestrol may increase the thrombogenic activities of C1 Esterase Inhibitor (Recombinant).Approved
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
CertoparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved
Chenodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Chenodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved
CiclesonideThe serum concentration of Ciclesonide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
Citric AcidQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClobetasolThe serum concentration of Clobetasol can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe serum concentration of Clobetasol propionate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
ClocortoloneThe serum concentration of Clocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Cortisone acetateThe serum concentration of Cortisone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateThe serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
DesirudinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesoximetasoneThe serum concentration of Desoximetasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone acetate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe serum concentration of Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone isonicotinate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Vet Approved
DextranQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Quinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Quinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Quinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DicoumarolQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DiflorasoneThe serum concentration of Diflorasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Difluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
DifluprednateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
DyphyllineThe serum concentration of Dyphylline can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Edetic AcidQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnoxaparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EquileninThe serum concentration of Equilenin can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental
EquilinThe serum concentration of Equilin can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe serum concentration of Estrone sulfate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Ethyl biscoumacetateQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
ExemestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Exemestane can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
fluasteroneThe serum concentration of fluasterone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
FluindioneQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FlumethasoneThe serum concentration of Flumethasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe serum concentration of Flunisolide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinolone Acetonide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe serum concentration of Fluocinonide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe serum concentration of Fluocortolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe serum concentration of Fluorometholone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
FluprednideneThe serum concentration of Fluprednidene can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Fluprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
FlurandrenolideThe serum concentration of Flurandrenolide can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Fluticasone PropionateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone Propionate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
FondaparinuxQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
FormestaneThe serum concentration of Formestane can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
GabexateQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
HE3286The serum concentration of HE3286 can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
HeparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HirulogQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Hirulog.Experimental
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
idraparinuxQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of idraparinux.Investigational
IstaroximeThe serum concentration of Istaroxime can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
LenalidomideQuinestrol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Lenalidomide.Approved
LepirudinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LevothyroxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levothyroxine can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved
LiothyronineThe therapeutic efficacy of Liothyronine can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
LiotrixThe therapeutic efficacy of Liotrix can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The serum concentration of ME-609 can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
MedrysoneThe serum concentration of Medrysone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
MelengestrolThe serum concentration of Melengestrol can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Vet Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
MometasoneThe serum concentration of Mometasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Approved
NadroparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Investigational
NCX 1022The serum concentration of NCX 1022 can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
Oleoyl estroneThe serum concentration of Oleoyl estrone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Investigational
OspemifeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinestrol is combined with Ospemifene.Approved
OtamixabanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
ParamethasoneThe serum concentration of Paramethasone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
ParecoxibParecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PhenindioneQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenprocoumonQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prasterone is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Nutraceutical
PrednicarbateThe serum concentration of Prednicarbate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe serum concentration of Pregnenolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Experimental
Protein CQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
ReviparinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved
RimexoloneThe serum concentration of Rimexolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
RivaroxabanQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibRofecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Investigational, Withdrawn
RopiniroleThe serum concentration of Ropinirole can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
Somatropin recombinantThe therapeutic efficacy of Somatropin recombinant can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
SulodexideQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
ThalidomideQuinestrol may increase the thrombogenic activities of Thalidomide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
Thyroid, porcineThe therapeutic efficacy of Thyroid, porcine can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved
TipranavirQuinestrol may increase the dermatologic adverse activities of Tipranavir.Approved, Investigational
TixocortolThe serum concentration of Tixocortol can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
TriamcinoloneThe serum concentration of Triamcinolone can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved, Vet Approved
Ursodeoxycholic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Ursodeoxycholic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Quinestrol.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may increase the thrombogenic activities of Quinestrol.Investigational, Withdrawn
Vitamin CThe serum concentration of Quinestrol can be increased when it is combined with Vitamin C.Approved, Nutraceutical
WarfarinQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranQuinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Ym150Quinestrol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Ym150.Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.997
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9483
Caco-2 permeable+0.8214
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6542
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.585
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8718
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8168
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7004
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9177
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7205
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8321
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8873
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9494
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.7307
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5178
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.73
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9105
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8635
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9812
Rat acute toxicity1.9408 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8631
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5854
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point107.5 °CPhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00157 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.19ALOGPS
logP5.4ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)17.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity108.27 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability44.02 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as estrane steroids. These are steroids with a structure based on the estrane skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassEstrane steroids
Direct ParentEstrane steroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • Estrane-skeleton
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Ynone
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonistmodulator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  4. Shyu C, Cavileer TD, Nagler JJ, Ytreberg FM: Computational estimation of rainbow trout estrogen receptor binding affinities for environmental estrogens. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2011 Feb 1;250(3):322-6. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2010.11.005. Epub 2010 Nov 12. [PubMed:21075131 ]
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Drug created on September 07, 2007 15:29 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24