Identification
NamePhenylbutyric acid
Accession NumberDB06819  (EXPT00947, DB02000, DB12600)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A monocarboxylic acid the structure of which is that of butyric acid substituted with a phenyl group at C-4. It is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that displays anticancer activity. It inhibits cell proliferation, invasion and migration and induces apoptosis in glioma cells. It also inhibits protein isoprenylation, depletes plasma glutamine, increases production of foetal haemoglobin through transcriptional activation of the γ-globin gene and affects hPPARγ activation.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
4-Phenyl-n-butyric acid
4-phenylbutyrate
4-phenylbutyric acid
Benzenebutyric acid
PBA
Phenylbutyrate
γ-Phenyl-n-butyric acid
γ-phenylbutyric acid
ω-Phenylbutanoic acid
ω-phenylbutyric acid
External IDs NSC-295
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
Sodium phenylbutyrateNT6K61736T 1716-12-7VPZRWNZGLKXFOE-UHFFFAOYSA-MDetails
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AmmonapsGranule940 mg/gOralSwedish Orphan Biovitrum Ab1999-12-08Not applicableEu
AmmonapsTablet500 mgOralSwedish Orphan Biovitrum Ab1999-12-08Not applicableEu
AmmonapsGranule940 mg/gOralSwedish Orphan Biovitrum Ab1999-12-08Not applicableEu
AmmonapsTablet500 mgOralSwedish Orphan Biovitrum Ab1999-12-08Not applicableEu
BuphenylTablet500 mg/1OralHyperion Therapeutics, Inc.1996-05-132016-11-29Us
BuphenylPowder.94 g/gOralHorizon Pharma, Inc.1996-04-30Not applicableUs
BuphenylPowder.94 g/gOralHyperion Therapeutics, Inc.1996-04-302016-11-29Us
BuphenylTablet500 mg/1OralHorizon Pharma, Inc.1996-05-13Not applicableUs
PheburaneGranule483 mgOralMedunik Canada2015-01-27Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sodium PhenylbutyrateTablet500 mg/1OralMikart, Inc.2011-11-18Not applicableUs
Sodium PhenylbutyrateTablet500 mg/1OralPar Pharmaceutical2016-04-29Not applicableUs
Sodium PhenylbutyratePowder.94 g/gOralSigma Pharm Laboratories, Llc2013-04-03Not applicableUs
Sodium PhenylbutyratePowder.94 g/gOralPar Pharmaceutical2016-08-31Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AmmonapsSwedish Swedish Orphan International
triButyrateFyrlklövern Scandinavia
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
UNII7WY7YBI87E
CAS number1821-12-1
WeightAverage: 164.2011
Monoisotopic: 164.083729628
Chemical FormulaC10H12O2
InChI KeyOBKXEAXTFZPCHS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H12O2/c11-10(12)8-4-7-9-5-2-1-3-6-9/h1-3,5-6H,4,7-8H2,(H,11,12)
IUPAC Name
4-phenylbutanoic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CCCC1=CC=CC=C1
Pharmacology
Indication

Adjunctive therapy for the management of chronic urea cycle disorders due to deficiencies in carbamylphosphate (CPS), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), or argininosuccinic acid synthetase. it is indicated in all neonatal- onset efficiency presenting within the first 28 days of life. Also indicated in patients with late-onset, presenting after the first month of life with a history of hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Decreases elevated plasma ammonia glutamine levels

Mechanism of action

Sodium phenylbutyrate is a pro-drug that is metabolized to the active compound phenylacetate. Phenylacetate conjuages with glutamine via acetylation reaction to form the product phenylacetylglutamine, which is excreted by the kidneys. This provides an alternative mechanism for waste nitrogen excretion.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferaseProteinunknownNot AvailableParacoccus denitrificansP95468 details
ThermolysinProteinunknownNot AvailableBacillus thermoproteolyticusP00800 details
Related Articles
Absorption

Under fasting condition the Cmax of a single orally ingested 5g tablet and 5g powder after 1 hour are respectively 218mcg/ml and 195mcg/ml. The effect of food on phenylbutyrate absorption is still unknown.

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of phenylbutyrate is 0.2 l/kg.

Protein binding

phenylbutyrate and Phenylacetate concentrations in the plasma were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Both drugs exhibited concentration-dependent binding. Results showed sodium phenylacetate to have a higher free fraction than sodium phenylbutyrate at corresponding concentrations (> 0.442 +/- 0.008 and > 0.188 +/- 0.001, respectively). Both have high free fractions in plasma.

Metabolism

The overall disposition of sodium phenylbutyrate and its metabolites has not been characterized fully. However, the drug is known to be metabolized to phenylacetate and subsequently to phenylacetylglutamine. Metabolism of phenylbutyrate occurs mainly in liver and kidney.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Phenylbutyric acid
Not Available
PhenylacetateDetails
Route of elimination

The major route of elimination is the kidneys as phenylacetylglutamine.

Half life

For sodium phenylbutyrate the half life is 0.77 hours. For phenylacetate the half life is 1.15 hours.

Clearance

Within 24 hours 80-100% of the administered dose in eliminated in the urine as pheylacetylglutamine.

Toxicity

Clinical adverse reaction: In females who were menstruating, 23% reported amenorrhea or menstrual dysfunction. In all patients, 4% reported a decreased appetite, and body odor issues, and 3% of patients report a taste aversion. Other adverse events that occurred in less than 2% of patients were abdominal pain, gastritis, nausea and vomiting, constipation, rectal bleeding, peptic ulcer disease, pancreatitis, aplastic anemia, ecchymosis, arrhythmia, edema, renal tubular acidosis, depressions, skin rash, headache, syncope, and weight gain occurring in at least one patient. Laboratory adverse events: Changes to baseline laboratory values were also observed. The events include: acidosis (14%), alkalosis and hyperchloremia (7%), hypophosphatemia (6%), hyperuricemia and hyperphosphatemia (2%), hypernatremia and hypokalemia (1%), hypoalbuminemia (11%), decreased total protein (3%), increase alkaline phosphate (6%), increased liver transaminases (4%), hyperbilirubinemia (1%), anemia (9%), leukopenia and leukocytosis (4%), thrombocytopenia (3%) and thrombocytosis (1%).

Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 16-Bromoepiandrosterone.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 19-norandrostenedione.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 5-androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
AlclometasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Alclometasone.Approved
AldosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Aldosterone.Experimental
AmcinonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Amcinonide.Approved
AndrostenedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with 4-Androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Anecortave.Investigational
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Beclomethasone dipropionate.Approved, Investigational
BetamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BevacizumabBevacizumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
BudesonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Budesonide.Approved
CabazitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cabazitaxel is combined with Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
CiclesonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Ciclesonide.Approved, Investigational
ClobetasolThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clobetasol.Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clobetasol propionate.Approved
ClocortoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Clocortolone.Approved
Cortisone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Cortisone acetate.Approved
CyclophosphamideCyclophosphamide may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
DeslanosideDeslanoside may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
DesoximetasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Desoximetasone.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DiflorasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Diflorasone.Approved
DifluocortoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluocortolone.Approved
DifluprednateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
DigitoxinDigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
DigoxinDigoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
DocetaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Docetaxel is combined with Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
EquileninThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Equilenin.Experimental
EquilinThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Equilin.Approved
EstroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Estrone sulfate.Approved
FludrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fludrocortisone.Approved
FlumethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Flumethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Flunisolide.Approved, Investigational
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluocinolone Acetonide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluocinonide.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluocortolone.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluorometholone.Approved
FluprednideneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluprednidene.Approved, Withdrawn
FlurandrenolideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Flurandrenolide.Approved
Fluticasone furoateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluticasone furoate.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Fluticasone Propionate.Approved
FormestaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Formestane.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with HE3286.Investigational
HydrocortisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
ME-609The therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with ME-609.Investigational
MedrysoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Medrysone.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MometasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Mometasone.Approved, Vet Approved
NCX 1022The therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with NCX 1022.Investigational
OleandrinAnvirzel may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Experimental
Oleoyl-estroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Oleoyl estrone.Investigational
OuabainOuabain may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
PaclitaxelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paclitaxel is combined with Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved, Vet Approved
ParamethasoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Paramethasone.Approved
PrasteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prasterone.Approved, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prednicarbate.Approved
PrednisoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Pregnenolone.Experimental
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be increased when Sodium phenylbutyrate is used in combination with Probenecid.Approved
RimexoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Rimexolone.Approved
TixocortolThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Tixocortol.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the cardiotoxic activities of Sodium phenylbutyrate.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
Valproic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Valproic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. product info [Link]
  2. FDA label [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesA16AX03 — Sodium phenylbutyrate
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (91.6 KB)
MSDSDownload (220 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Myelodysplastic Syndromes / Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases2
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Small Intestine Cancer / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain / Neuroblastomas1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA)1
1, 2TerminatedBasic ScienceCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon / Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum / Recurrent Colon Cancer / Recurrent Rectal Cancer / Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon / Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum / Stage IVA Colon Cancer / Stage IVA Rectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colon Cancer / Stage IVB Rectal Cancer1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy Type I1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentSpinal Muscular Atrophy Type II / Spinal Muscular Atrophy Type III1
2CompletedTreatmentAmino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors1
2CompletedTreatmentAmino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors / Argininosuccinic Aciduria / Deficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Lung Cancers / Malignant Lymphomas / Malignant Neoplasm of Prostate / Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm / Myelodysplastic Syndromes1
2CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Brain1
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Tuberculosis (TB)1
2CompletedTreatmentTuberculosis, Pulmonary1
2CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle2
2RecruitingTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Central Nervous System Diseases / Motor Neurone Disease / Nervous System Diseases / Neurodegenerative Disorders / Neuromuscular Diseases / Spinal Cord Diseases / TDP-43 Proteinopathies1
2TerminatedTreatmentThalassemia Major (TM)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Lymphoproliferative Disorders / Malignant Lymphomas / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2WithdrawnTreatmentSpinocerebellar Ataxia Type 31
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMaple Syrup Urine Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle2
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchDiabetes / Insulin Resistance1
4CompletedTreatmentDeficiencies in enzymes of the urea cycle1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUCDs (The Data May be Helpful in the Treatment of UCDs.)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableByler Disease1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GranuleOral940 mg/g
TabletOral500 mg
GranuleOral483 mg
PowderOral.94 g/g
TabletOral500 mg/1
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)>150MSDS
water solubility100mMMSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.513 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.29ALOGPS
logP2.5ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.81ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity46.57 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.99 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET featuresNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03di-4900000000-2b18919d21183949b0f0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-6e1432dc108281f8c5fbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-9477dfafb0c27b1670abView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as benzene and substituted derivatives. These are aromatic compounds containing one monocyclic ring system consisting of benzene.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassBenzenoids
Sub ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Direct ParentBenzene and substituted derivatives
Alternative ParentsMonocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
SubstituentsMonocyclic benzene moiety / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptorsmonocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:41500 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Paracoccus denitrificans
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Shows activities toward both dicarboxylic and aromatic substrates.
Gene Name:
tyrB
Uniprot ID:
P95468
Uniprot Name:
Aromatic-amino-acid aminotransferase
Molecular Weight:
42731.635 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus thermoproteolyticus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Extracellular zinc metalloprotease.
Gene Name:
npr
Uniprot ID:
P00800
Uniprot Name:
Thermolysin
Molecular Weight:
60103.515 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Uniprot Name:
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on June 24, 2017 13:27