Identification

Name
Bopindolol
Accession Number
DB08807
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Bopindolol (INN) is a beta blocker. It is an ester which acts as a prodrug for Pindolol.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Sandonorm
International/Other Brands
Sandonorm
Categories
UNII
KT304VZO57
CAS number
62658-63-3
Weight
Average: 380.48
Monoisotopic: 380.209992772
Chemical Formula
C23H28N2O3
InChI Key
UUOJIACWOAYWEZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H28N2O3/c1-16-13-19-20(25-16)11-8-12-21(19)27-15-18(14-24-23(2,3)4)28-22(26)17-9-6-5-7-10-17/h5-13,18,24-25H,14-15H2,1-4H3
IUPAC Name
1-(tert-butylamino)-3-[(2-methyl-1H-indol-4-yl)oxy]propan-2-yl benzoate
SMILES
CC1=CC2=C(N1)C=CC=C2OCC(CNC(C)(C)C)OC(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the management of hypertension, edema, ventricular tachycardias, and atrial fibrillation.

Pharmacodynamics

Bopindolol is a prodrug of pindolol. Pindolol is a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist (beta-blocker) which possesses intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) in therapeutic dosage ranges but does not possess quinidine-like membrane stabilizing activity. Pindolol impairs AV node conduction and decreases sinus rate and may also increase plasma triglycerides and decrease HDL-cholesterol levels. Pindolol is nonpolar and hydrophobic, with low to moderate lipid solubility. Pindolol has little to no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and, unlike some other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, pindolol has little direct myocardial depressant activity and does not have an anesthetic-like membrane-stabilizing action.

Mechanism of action

Bopindolol (as pindolol) non-selectively blocks beta-1 adrenergic receptors mainly in the heart, inhibiting the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine resulting in a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. By binding beta-2 receptors in the juxtaglomerular apparatus, Pindolol inhibits the production of renin, thereby inhibiting angiotensin II and aldosterone production and therefore inhibits the vasoconstriction and water retention due to angiotensin II and aldosterone, respectively.

TargetActionsOrganism
ABeta-1 adrenergic receptor
partial agonist
Human
UBeta-2 adrenergic receptor
partial agonist
Human
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1ANot AvailableHuman
U5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1BNot AvailableHuman
UBeta-3 adrenergic receptorNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Bopindolol Action PathwayDrug action
Bopindolol Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(4R)-limonene(4R)-limonene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.
1,10-Phenanthroline1,10-Phenanthroline may increase the bradycardic activities of Bopindolol.
4-Methoxyamphetamine4-Methoxyamphetamine may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bopindolol.
AbediterolBopindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Abediterol.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of hyperkalemia can be increased when Bopindolol is combined with Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.
AcepromazineBopindolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Acepromazine.
AceprometazineAceprometazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Bopindolol.
AcetohexamideBopindolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015696
KEGG Drug
D07537
PubChem Compound
44112
PubChem Substance
99445277
ChemSpider
40146
ChEBI
355377
ChEMBL
CHEMBL357995
PharmGKB
PA165958425
Wikipedia
Bopindolol
ATC Codes
C07CA17 — Bopindolol and other diureticsC07AA17 — Bopindolol
MSDS
Download (125 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)152–153 [malonate salt]MSDS
water solubility3.3 mg/ml (malonate salt)Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0016 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.45ALOGPS
logP4.67ChemAxon
logS-5.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)16.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.35 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity111.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability43.08 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7031
Caco-2 permeable+0.5503
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6988
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.558
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.598
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7224
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8035
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.5082
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5144
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7481
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6637
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6918
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.5217
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5458
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9049
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8135
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9013
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.7343 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9897
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.63
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzoic acid esters. These are ester derivatives of benzoic acid.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Benzoic acid esters
Alternative Parents
Indoles / Benzoyl derivatives / Alkyl aryl ethers / Substituted pyrroles / Heteroaromatic compounds / Carboxylic acid esters / Amino acids and derivatives / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Dialkylamines / Azacyclic compounds
show 3 more
Substituents
Benzoate ester / Indole / Indole or derivatives / Benzoyl / Alkyl aryl ether / Substituted pyrrole / Heteroaromatic compound / Pyrrole / Amino acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid ester
show 16 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
indoles (CHEBI:76749)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Partial agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately e...
Gene Name
ADRB1
Uniprot ID
P08588
Uniprot Name
Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Joseph SS, Lynham JA, Molenaar P, Grace AA, Colledge WH, Kaumann AJ: Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of (-)-pindolol mediated through a (-)-propranolol-resistant site of the beta1-adrenoceptor in human atrium and recombinant receptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;368(6):496-503. Epub 2003 Nov 8. [PubMed:14608456]
  3. Doggrell SA: Effects of (+/-)- (+)- and (-)-metoprolol, (+/-)- (+)- and (-)-pindolol, (+/-)-mepindolol and (+/-)-bopindolol on the rat left atria and portal vein. Gen Pharmacol. 1991;22(6):1169-77. [PubMed:1687398]
  4. Berendsen HH, Broekkamp CL, Van Delft AM: Antagonism of 8-OH-DPAT-induced behaviour in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Oct 2;187(1):97-103. [PubMed:2148726]
  5. Watkins DJ, Lawrence AJ, Lewis SJ, Jarrott B: Loss of [125I]-pindolol binding to beta-adrenoceptors on rat nodose ganglion after chronic isoprenaline treatment. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1996 Aug 27;60(1-2):12-6. [PubMed:8884690]
  6. Brodde OE, Michel MC, Wang XL, Zerkowski HR: Chronic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment modulates human cardiac and vascular beta-adrenoceptor density in a subtype-selective fashion. J Hypertens Suppl. 1988 Dec;6(4):S497-500. [PubMed:2907348]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Partial agonist
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately ...
Gene Name
ADRB2
Uniprot ID
P07550
Uniprot Name
Beta-2 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Rubenstein LA, Zauhar RJ, Lanzara RG: Molecular dynamics of a biophysical model for beta2-adrenergic and G protein-coupled receptor activation. J Mol Graph Model. 2006 Dec;25(4):396-409. Epub 2006 Mar 30. [PubMed:16574446]
  2. Dejgaard A, Liggett SB, Christensen NJ, Cryer PE, Hilsted J: Adrenergic receptors are a fallible index of adrenergic denervation hypersensitivity. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1991 Dec;51(8):659-66. [PubMed:1666931]
  3. Wheeldon NM, Newnham DM, Fraser GC, McDevitt DG, Lipworth BJ: The effect of pindolol on creatine kinase is not due to beta 2-adrenoceptor partial agonist activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991 Jun;31(6):723-4. [PubMed:1678274]
  4. Doggrell SA: Effects of (+/-)- (+)- and (-)-metoprolol, (+/-)- (+)- and (-)-pindolol, (+/-)-mepindolol and (+/-)-bopindolol on the rat left atria and portal vein. Gen Pharmacol. 1991;22(6):1169-77. [PubMed:1687398]
  5. Doggrell SA: Relaxant and beta 2-adrenoceptor blocking activities of (+/- )-, (+)- and (-)-pindolol on the rat isolated aorta. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1990 Jun;42(6):444-6. [PubMed:1979630]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers...
Gene Name
HTR1A
Uniprot ID
P08908
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A
Molecular Weight
46106.335 Da
References
  1. Smeraldi E, Benedetti F, Barbini B, Campori E, Colombo C: Sustained antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation combined with pindolol in bipolar depression. A placebo-controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999 Apr;20(4):380-5. [PubMed:10088139]
  2. Haddjeri N, de Montigny C, Blier P: Modulation of the firing activity of rat serotonin and noradrenaline neurons by (+/-)pindolol. Biol Psychiatry. 1999 May 1;45(9):1163-9. [PubMed:10331108]
  3. Gobert A, Millan MJ: Modulation of dialysate levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin (5-HT) in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats by (-)-pindolol alone and in association with 5-HT reuptake inhibitors: comparative roles of beta-adrenergic, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT1B receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1999 Aug;21(2):268-84. [PubMed:10432475]
  4. Andree B, Thorberg SO, Halldin C, Farde L: Pindolol binding to 5-HT1A receptors in the human brain confirmed with positron emission tomography. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1999 Jun;144(3):303-5. [PubMed:10435400]
  5. Fornal CA, Martin FJ, Metzler CW, Jacobs BL: Pindolol suppresses serotonergic neuronal activity and does not block the inhibition of serotonergic neurons produced by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin in awake cats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):229-38. [PubMed:10490909]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for ergot alkaloid derivatives, various anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs and other psychoactive subst...
Gene Name
HTR1B
Uniprot ID
P28222
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B
Molecular Weight
43567.535 Da
References
  1. Dawson LA, Nguyen HQ: The role of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptors on the modulation of acute fluoxetine-induced changes in extracellular 5-HT: the mechanism of action of (+/-)pindolol. Neuropharmacology. 2000 Apr 3;39(6):1044-52. [PubMed:10727715]
  2. Ariani K, Hamblin MW, Tan GL, Stratford CA, Ciaranello RD: G protein dependent alterations in [125I]iodocyanopindolol and +/- cyanopindolol binding at 5-HT1B binding sites in rat brain membranes. Neurochem Res. 1989 Sep;14(9):835-43. [PubMed:2512511]
  3. Leonhardt S, Herrick-Davis K, Titeler M: Detection of a novel serotonin receptor subtype (5-HT1E) in human brain: interaction with a GTP-binding protein. J Neurochem. 1989 Aug;53(2):465-71. [PubMed:2664084]
  4. Herrick-Davis K, Titeler M, Leonhardt S, Struble R, Price D: Serotonin 5-HT1D receptors in human prefrontal cortex and caudate: interaction with a GTP binding protein. J Neurochem. 1988 Dec;51(6):1906-12. [PubMed:3141589]
  5. Terron JA, Lopez-Munoz FJ, Hong E, Villalon CM: 2-(2-Aminoethyl)-quinoline (D-1997): a novel agonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine1-like receptors in the canine basilar artery. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1994 Jan-Feb;327(1):56-68. [PubMed:7944828]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. Beta-3 is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis.
Gene Name
ADRB3
Uniprot ID
P13945
Uniprot Name
Beta-3 adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
43518.615 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic...
Gene Name
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID
P10635
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2D6
Molecular Weight
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Iwaki M, Niwa T, Bandoh S, Itoh M, Hirose H, Kawase A, Komura H: Application of substrate depletion assay to evaluation of CYP isoforms responsible for stereoselective metabolism of carvedilol. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2016 Dec;31(6):425-432. doi: 10.1016/j.dmpk.2016.08.007. Epub 2016 Sep 2. [PubMed:27836712]
  2. Brodde OE, Kroemer HK: Drug-drug interactions of beta-adrenoceptor blockers. Arzneimittelforschung. 2003;53(12):814-22. [PubMed:14732961]
  3. Sternieri E, Coccia CP, Pinetti D, Guerzoni S, Ferrari A: Pharmacokinetics and interactions of headache medications, part II: prophylactic treatments. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2006 Dec;2(6):981-1007. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2.6.981 . [PubMed:17125412]

Drug created on October 20, 2010 15:16 / Updated on August 02, 2018 06:10