Batroxobin

This drug entry is a stub and has not been fully annotated. It is scheduled to be annotated soon.

Identification

Name
Batroxobin
Accession Number
DB09005
Type
Biotech
Groups
Experimental
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Blood factors
Description

Batroxobin is a defibrinogenating hemostatic agent derived from the venom of a pit viper, Bothrops atrox moojeni. In addition to batroxobin, the venom of Bothrops atrox has a composition of 10.2% neutral carbohydrate. Batroxobin is a serine protease, which cleaves the 16 Arginine - 17 Glycine bond in fibrinogen. The MW of batroxobin is approximately 43,000 g/mol-1, and it contains 231 amino acids.

Batroxobin is inactivated by alpha2-macroglobulin, but not anti-thrombin compounds. Batroxobin will also bind fibrinogen in a manner different than thrombin and with a higher affinity. Once bound to fibrin, it will cause fibrin accretion(clot formation) to a degree 18 folds greater than thrombin.

Currently use is experimental but trials have been conducted which support certain clinical applications. Recombinant Batroxobin in relatively affordable and could be accessed by mass production.

Protein chemical formula
Not Available
Protein average weight
Not Available
Sequences
Not Available
Synonyms
  • Batroxobina
  • Batroxobine
  • Batroxobinum
  • Bothrops atrox blood-coagulation factor X activator
External IDs
DF 521 / DF-521
International/Other Brands
Ba Qu Ting (Belda Gaoke Huatal Pharmaceutical, China) / Batraxobin (Tobishi Pharmaceutical, China) / Botroclot (Juggat, India) / Botropase (Han Lim, South Korea) / Defibrase (Tobishi Pharmaceutical, Japan) / Reptilase (Toshibi Pharmaceutical, Japan) / Reptilase (Bolca Basle, China) / Su Le Juan (Zhaoke Pharmaceutical, China) / Su Ling (Kangchen Pharmaceutical, China)
Categories
UNII
47RYF40GA9
CAS number
9039-61-6

Pharmacology

Indication

No approved indications. Batroxobin is a defibrongenating agent which has been observed to reduce fibrinogen levels and thus reduce clot risk when used intravenously.

Pharmacodynamics

Insensitive to thrombin inhibitors and capable of clotting platelet rich plasma without affecting platelet function.

Mechanism of action

Batroxobin is a thrombin like serine protease enzyme that will cleave fibrinogen. Cleavage at the16 Arginine - 17 Glycine bond in the A alpha chain of fibrinogen releases fibrinopeptide A and forms a fibrin I monomer that will spontaneously aggregate into a clot. The reduction of plasma fibrinogen by formation of fibrin microclots that are easily cleared by the reticuloendothelial system can decrease high blood viscosity which contributes to the formation of thromboemboli.

In addition, batroxobin is reported to induce fibrinolysis by inducing the endothelial release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) from vascular endothelial cells. This effect may potentially be dose dependant.

Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AloxiprinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aloxiprin is combined with Batroxobin.
AlprostadilAlprostadil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.
AncrodBatroxobin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.
AndrographolideAndrographolide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.
Antithrombin III humanBatroxobin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.
ApixabanBatroxobin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.
AprotininThe therapeutic efficacy of Batroxobin can be decreased when used in combination with Aprotinin.
ArdeparinBatroxobin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.
AzelastineAzelastine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Batroxobin.
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Batroxobin.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Mannucci PM, Mari D: [Fibrinolytic and defibrinogenation therapy]. Ric Clin Lab. 1983;13 Suppl 3:245-55. [PubMed:6672998]
  2. Vu TT, Stafford AR, Leslie BA, Kim PY, Fredenburgh JC, Weitz JI: Batroxobin binds fibrin with higher affinity and promotes clot expansion to a greater extent than thrombin. J Biol Chem. 2013 Jun 7;288(23):16862-71. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.464750. Epub 2013 Apr 23. [PubMed:23612970]
  3. Wang J, Zhu YQ, Li MH, Zhao JG, Tan HQ, Wang JB, Liu F, Cheng YS: Batroxobin plus aspirin reduces restenosis after angioplasty for arterial occlusive disease in diabetic patients with lower-limb ischemia. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2011 Jul;22(7):987-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2011.03.015. Epub 2011 May 14. [PubMed:21570870]
  4. Xu G, Liu X, Zhu W, Yin Q, Zhang R, Fan X: Feasibility of treating hyperfibrinogenemia with intermittently administered batroxobin in patients with ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack for secondary prevention. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2007 Mar;18(2):193-7. [PubMed:17287638]
  5. You KE, Koo MA, Lee DH, Kwon BJ, Lee MH, Hyon SH, Seomun Y, Kim JT, Park JC: The effective control of a bleeding injury using a medical adhesive containing batroxobin. Biomed Mater. 2014 Apr;9(2):025002. doi: 10.1088/1748-6041/9/2/025002. Epub 2014 Jan 31. [PubMed:24487019]
External Links
Wikipedia
Batroxobin
ATC Codes
B02BX03 — Batroxobin

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Drug created on June 17, 2014 16:15 / Updated on August 02, 2018 06:12