Identification

Name
Invert sugar
Accession Number
DB09344
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental
Description

Invert sugar is obtained from sugar cane when this is treated with dilute acid or with the invertase enzyme. It is formed by an equal amount of glucose and fructose. It differentiates from sugar cane in the rotation of the polarized light, which in the case of invert sugar it is to the left (levorotatory).[1] Invert sugar is FDA approved since 1988 as a safe substance (GRAS).

Synonyms
Not Available
Categories
UNII
ED959S6ACY
CAS number
8013-17-0
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Invert sugar presents a large variety of uses. It can be used therapeutically for parenteral hyperalimentation[6] or to be used as an excipient with a known effect.[10] Invert sugar is also approved for its use in food products as a humectant, crystallization modifier, and liquid and nutritive sweetener.[7]

Pharmacodynamics

Intravenous administration of invert sugar has been proven to be favorable. These reports indicate a temporary rise, within physiological levels, of lactate, pyruvate, and insulin in the blood plasma whereas the level of free fatty acids was declined.[5]

Mechanism of action
Not Available
Absorption

It has been reported that administration of 10-15% of intravenous invert sugar solution is rapidly absorbed in the intestine and distributed in blood without exceeding the renal threshold.[1] The absorption of invert sugar happens mainly as monosaccharides. Glucose is absorbed into the portal vein by the transporter GLUT2 while fructose is absorbed by the transporter GLUT5.[2]

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

The metabolism of invert sugar and other fructose-glucose sweeteners is not meaningfully different. Once absorbed, the fructose monosaccharides are taken up by the liver and bypass a key step regulatory step in glycolysis.[2] Both of the monosaccharides first step metabolism is marked by its phosphorylation to glucose-6-phosphate by glucokinase or fructose-1-phosphate by fructokinase. After this step, the glycolysis continues its pathway until the obtention of pyruvic acid.[8] The metabolism of fructose is more rapid than the one of glucose and thus, it is possible to administer at the same speed than a glucose dose correspondent to 55% of the invert sugar dose.[9]

Route of elimination

Reports have indicated that after intravenous administration of invert sugar present a reduced content or carbohydrates in urine when compared to the intravenous administration of glucose. This response indicates a reduced diuresis of invert sugar. It has also been reported a reduced diuresis in the presence of invert diuresis.[3]

Half life

The glucose half-life following intravenous administration of invert sugar is of approximately 30 min. In the same report, the half-life of fructose after the intravenous administration is reported to be 16 min.[4]

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Invert sugar is a generally accepted safe substance and it does not present toxic effects. Do not administer invert sugar in patients with the rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrose-isomaltase insufficiency. It is also recommended to take precautions in patients that present diabetes mellitus.[10]

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbacavirAbacavir may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AcarboseAcarbose may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AcemetacinAcemetacin may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetaminophenAcetaminophen may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AclidiniumAclidinium may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AcrivastineInvert sugar may decrease the excretion rate of Acrivastine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcyclovirAcyclovir may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
AdefovirAdefovir may decrease the excretion rate of Invert sugar which could result in a higher serum level.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. TODD RM: Some observations on the use of fructose and invert sugar in infants. Proc R Soc Med. 1953 Dec;46(12):1066-8. [PubMed:13120839]
  2. White JS: Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1716S-1721S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.25825B. [PubMed:19064536]
  3. JONXIS JH, HUISMAN TH: The excretion of sugars after the intravenous administration of invert sugar. Arch Dis Child. 1953 Dec;28(142):446-9. [PubMed:13114922]
  4. Kouider S, Kolb FE, Lippmann R: [Behavior of various blood constituents (glucose, fructose, insulin, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, inorganic phosphate) and the half-life of monosaccharides in plasma after i.v infusion of glucose, fructose, galactose and invert sugar solutions in ruminants. 3. Studies in sheep]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1978;32(5):715-25. [PubMed:736717]
  5. Kouider S, Kolb FE, Muller I, Schmidt V: [Use of invert sugar, fructose and sorbitol and on their effect on various plasma constituents after intravenous infusion in the dog]. Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1978;32(5):795-809. [PubMed:736723]
  6. American Medical Association (1973). American Medical Associaton Drug Evaluation (2nd ed.). Publishing Sciences group.
  7. Budavari S., et al. (1996). The Merck Index. Merck and Co..
  8. Benedich A. and Deckelbaum R. (2015). Preventive nutrition (5th ed.). Springer .
  9. Sandberg F. and Corrigan D. (2001). Natural remedies their origins and uses. Taylor and Francis.
  10. DCP monograph [Link]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347910445
Wikipedia
Invert_sugar
ATC Codes
C05BB03 — Invert sugar
MSDS
Download (135 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)Decomposes'MSDS'
boiling point (°C)>105ºC'MSDS'
water solubilityCompletely soluble'MSDS'
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the initial step in utilization of glucose by the beta-cell and liver at physiological glucose concentration. Glucokinase has a high Km for glucose, and so it is effective only when gluco...
Gene Name
GCK
Uniprot ID
P35557
Uniprot Name
Glucokinase
Molecular Weight
52191.07 Da
References
  1. Benedich A. and Deckelbaum R. (2015). Preventive nutrition (5th ed.). Springer .
Kind
Protein
Organism
Geobacillus stearothermophilus
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of D-fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by ATP, the first committing step of glycolysis.
Gene Name
pfkA
Uniprot ID
P00512
Uniprot Name
ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinase
Molecular Weight
34118.62 Da
References
  1. Benedich A. and Deckelbaum R. (2015). Preventive nutrition (5th ed.). Springer .

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Hexose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Facilitative glucose transporter. This isoform likely mediates the bidirectional transfer of glucose across the plasma membrane of hepatocytes and is responsible for uptake of glucose by the beta c...
Gene Name
SLC2A2
Uniprot ID
P11168
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 2
Molecular Weight
57488.955 Da
References
  1. White JS: Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1716S-1721S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.25825B. [PubMed:19064536]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Glucose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Cytochalasin B-sensitive carrier. Seems to function primarily as a fructose transporter.
Gene Name
SLC2A5
Uniprot ID
P22732
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 5
Molecular Weight
54973.42 Da
References
  1. White JS: Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1716S-1721S. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.25825B. [PubMed:19064536]

Drug created on November 27, 2015 13:35 / Updated on November 02, 2018 07:02