Identification

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Name
Prednisolone acetate
Accession Number
DB15566  (DBSALT000254)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Prednisolone acetate is a prednisolone molecule bound to an acetate functional group by an ester bond.5

Prednisolone acetate was granted FDA approval in 1955.5

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ak Tate Oph Sus 1%SuspensionOphthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated1985-12-312008-08-07Canada
Diopred Suspension 1%SuspensionOphthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
EconopredSuspension10 mg/1mgOphthalmicAlcon, Inc.1973-07-102007-12-31Us
EconopredSuspension10 mg/10mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1994-05-052011-05-31Us
EconopredSuspension1.25 mg/1mLOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.2006-09-11Not applicableUs
Flo-PredSuspension16.7 mg/5mLOralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2008-01-17Not applicableUs
Flo-PredSuspension5 mg/5mLOralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2008-07-072008-07-07Us
OmnipredSuspension10 mg/1mLOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.2007-11-06Not applicableUs
OmnipredSuspension10 mg/1mLOphthalmicALCON LABORATORIES, INC.2007-08-022007-08-02Us
Pred ForteSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1973-06-012012-06-30Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicClinical Solutions Wholsesale1994-12-152017-06-22Us
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicPreferreed Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-10-23Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicNucare Pharmaceuticals,inc.1997-08-19Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions1994-12-15Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicH.J. Harkins Company1997-08-19Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions1994-12-15Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1OphthalmicRemedy Repack2013-02-062015-05-12Us
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicPacific Pharma, Inc.1997-08-19Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicSandoz1994-12-15Not applicableUs
Prednisolone AcetateSuspension / drops10 mg/1mLOphthalmicA-S Medication Solutions1997-08-192017-10-31Us
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

    Learn more
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (2 mg/1mL) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1961-10-01Not applicableUs
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (2 mg/1g) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1g)OintmentOphthalmicAllergan1987-01-01Not applicableUs
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (2 mg/1g) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1g)OintmentOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2012-03-04Not applicableUs
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (0.2 %) + Sulfacetamide sodium (10 %)Solution / dropsOphthalmicAllergan1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (2 mg/1g) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1g)OintmentOphthalmicA S Medication Solutions1987-01-01Not applicableUs
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (2 mg/1mL) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicAllergan, Inc.1961-10-01Not applicableUs
BlephamidePrednisolone acetate (2 mg/1mL) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicA S Medication Solutions1961-10-01Not applicableUs
Blephamide S.O.P.Prednisolone acetate (0.2 %) + Sulfacetamide sodium (10 %)OintmentOphthalmicAllergan1974-12-312019-07-15Canada
Dioptimyd OintmentPrednisolone acetate (5 mg) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg)OintmentOphthalmic; TopicalPharma Stulln Inc.1994-12-31Not applicableCanada
Metimyd Oph SusPrednisolone acetate (5 mg) + Sulfacetamide sodium (100 mg)SuspensionOphthalmicSchering Plough1956-12-311999-07-22Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Pred-BromPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac (0.75 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-02-01Not applicableUs
Pred-BromPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac sodium (0.75 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
Pred-GatiPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Gatifloxacin hemihydrate (5 mg/1mL)SuspensionOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-03-01Not applicableUs
Pred-GatiPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Gatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
Pred-Gati-BromPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac (0.75 mg/1mL) + Gatifloxacin hemihydrate (5 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Pred-Gati-BromPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac sodium (0.75 mg/1mL) + Gatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-12Not applicableUs
Pred-Gati-BromPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac (0.75 mg/1mL) + Gatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprims Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
Prednisolone Acetate PFPrednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
8B2807733D
CAS number
52-21-1
Weight
Average: 402.4807
Monoisotopic: 402.204238692
Chemical Formula
C23H30O6
InChI Key
LRJOMUJRLNCICJ-JZYPGELDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H30O6/c1-13(24)29-12-19(27)23(28)9-7-17-16-5-4-14-10-15(25)6-8-21(14,2)20(16)18(26)11-22(17,23)3/h6,8,10,16-18,20,26,28H,4-5,7,9,11-12H2,1-3H3/t16-,17-,18-,20+,21-,22-,23-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
2-[(1R,3aS,3bS,9aR,9bS,10S,11aS)-1,10-dihydroxy-9a,11a-dimethyl-7-oxo-1H,2H,3H,3aH,3bH,4H,5H,7H,9aH,9bH,10H,11H,11aH-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl acetate
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@](O)(C(=O)COC(C)=O)[C@@]1(C)C[C@]([H])(O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)C=C[C@]12C

Pharmacology

Indication

Prednisolone acetate is indicated as an anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive agent for allergic, dermatologic, gastrointestinal, hematologic, ophthalmologic, nervous system, renal, respiratory, rheumatologic, or infectious conditions.5 Prednisolone acetate is also indicated in organ transplant patients, as well as endocrine or neoplastic conditions.5

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Corticosteroids bind to the glucocorticoid receptor, inhibiting pro-inflammatory signals, and promoting anti-inflammatory signals.4 Prednisolone acetate has a short duration of action as the half life is 2-3 hours.5 Corticosteroids have a wide therapeutic window as patients make require doses that are multiples of what the body naturally produces.4 Patients taking corticosteroids should be counselled regarding the risk of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and increased susceptibility to infections.4

Mechanism of action

The short term effects of corticosteroids are decreased vasodilation and permeability of capillaries, as well as decreased leukocyte migration to sites of inflammation.4 Corticosteroids binding to the glucocorticoid receptor mediates changes in gene expression that lead to multiple downstream effects over hours to days.4

Glucocorticoids inhibit neutrophil apoptosis and demargination; they inhibit phospholipase A2, which decreases the formation of arachidonic acid derivatives; they inhibit NF-Kappa B and other inflammatory transcription factors; they promote anti-inflammatory genes like interleukin-10.4

Lower doses of corticosteroids provide an anti-inflammatory effect, while higher doses are immunosuppressive.4 High doses of glucocorticoids for an extended period bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor, raising sodium levels and decreasing potassium levels.4

TargetActionsOrganism
AGlucocorticoid receptor
agonist
Humans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available
Contraindications

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Absorption

Prednisolone acetate oral suspension given at a dose equivalent to 15mg prednisolone has a Cmax of 321.1ng/hr, a Tmaxof 1-2 hours, and an AUC of 1999.4ng*hr/mL.5 The absorption pharmacokinetics of prednisolone acetate are not significantly different from a comparable dose of prednisolone.5

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of the active metabolite, prednisolone, is 0.22/0.7L/kg.5

Protein binding

The active metabolite, prednisolone, is 70-90% protein bound in plasma.5

Metabolism

Prednisolone acetate undergoes ester hydrolysis to prednisolone.1 After this step, the drug undergoes the normal metabolism of prednisolone.

Prednisolone can be reversibly metabolized to prednisone which is then metabolized to 17α,21-dihydroxy-pregnan-1,4,6-trien-3,11,30-trione (M-XVII), 20α-dihydro-prednisone (M-V), 6βhydroxy-prednisone (M-XII), 6α-hydroxy-prednisone (M-XIII), or 20β-dihydro-prednisone (M-IV).2 20β-dihydro-prednisone is metabolized to 17α,20ξ,21-trihydroxy-5ξ-pregn-1-en-3,11-dione(M-XVIII).2 Prednisolone is metabolized to Δ6-prednisolone (M-XI), 20α-dihydro-prednisolone (M-III), 20β-dihydro-prednisolone (M-II), 6αhydroxy-prednisolone (M-VII), or 6βhydroxy-prednisolone(M-VI).2 6αhydroxy-prednisolone is metabolized to 6α,11β,17α,20β,21-pentahydroxypregnan-1,4-diene-3-one (M-X).2 6βhydroxy-prednisolone is metabolized to 6β,11β,17α,20β,21-pentahydroxypregnan-1,4-diene-3-one (M-VIII), 6β,11β,17α,20α,21-pentahydroxypregnan-1,4-diene-3-one (M-IX), and 6β,11β,17α,21-tetrahydroxy-5ξ-pregn-1-en-3,20-dione (M-XIV).2 MVIII is metabolized to 6β,11β,17α,20β,21-pentahydroxy-5ξ-pregn-1-en-3-one (M-XV) and then to MXIV, while MIX is metabolized to 6β,11β,17α,20α,21-pentahydroxy-5ξ-pregn-1-en-3-one (M-XVI) and then to MXIV.2 These metabolites and their glucuronide conjugates are excreted predominantly in the urine.2,5

Route of elimination

Prednisolone acetate is predominantly excreted in the urine.5

Half life

Oral prednisolone acetate has a plasma half life of 2-3 hours.5

Clearance

Data regarding the clearance of prednisolone acetate is not readily available.6,7,8

Toxicity

The oral LD50 of prednisolone acetate in mice is 1680mg/kg.8 Patients experiencing an overdose of oral prednisolone acetate may experience an increased severity in the adverse effects of corticosteroids.5 Overdose of oral prednisolone acetate may be treated by gastric lavage or inducing vomiting if the overdose was recent, as well as supportive and symptomatic therapy.5 Chronic overdosage may be treated by dose reduction or treating patients on alternate days.5 An overdose by the ophthalmic route is not expected to cause problems.5

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hyperglycemia can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hyperglycemia can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with Acarbose.
AcetohexamideThe risk or severity of hyperglycemia can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with Acetohexamide.
AcetyldigitoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with Acetyldigitoxin.
AcetyldigoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with Acetyldigoxin.
Adenovirus type 7 vaccine liveThe therapeutic efficacy of Adenovirus type 7 vaccine live can be decreased when used in combination with Prednisolone acetate.
AICA ribonucleotideThe risk or severity of hyperglycemia can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with AICA ribonucleotide.
AlbiglutideThe risk or severity of hyperglycemia can be increased when Prednisolone acetate is combined with Albiglutide.
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Alclometasone is combined with Prednisolone acetate.
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Aldosterone is combined with Prednisolone acetate.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity
    Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action
    Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Musson DG, Bidgood AM, Olejnik O: Assay methodology for prednisolone, prednisolone acetate and prednisolone sodium phosphate in rabbit aqueous humor and ocular physiological solutions. J Chromatogr. 1991 Apr 19;565(1-2):89-102. doi: 10.1016/0378-4347(91)80373-k. [PubMed:1874907]
  2. Matabosch X, Pozo OJ, Perez-Mana C, Papaseit E, Segura J, Ventura R: Detection and characterization of prednisolone metabolites in human urine by LC-MS/MS. J Mass Spectrom. 2015 Mar;50(3):633-42. doi: 10.1002/jms.3571. [PubMed:25800201]
  3. Doppenschmitt SA, Scheidel B, Harrison F, Surmann JP: Simultaneous determination of prednisolone, prednisolone acetate and hydrocortisone in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1995 Dec 15;674(2):237-46. doi: 10.1016/0378-4347(95)00317-7. [PubMed:8788152]
  4. Yasir M, Sonthalia S: Corticosteroid Adverse Effects . [PubMed:30285357]
  5. FDA Approved Drug Products: Prednisolone Acetate Oral Suspension [Link]
  6. FDA Approved Drug Products: Prednisolone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension [Link]
  7. FDA Approved Drug Products: Prednisolone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension 1% [Link]
  8. Greenstone LLC: Prednisolone Acetate Ophthalmic Suspension MSDS [Link]
External Links
KEGG Compound
C08180
PubChem Compound
5834
ChemSpider
5629
ChEBI
8380
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1152
Wikipedia
Prednisolone_acetate
AHFS Codes
  • 52:08.00 — Anti-inflammatory Agents
  • 52:08.08 — Corticosteroids

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1, 2CompletedTreatmentNon-Infectious Anterior Uveitis1
2Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Tumor of Breast / Neoplasm of the Breast / Oral Mucositis / Stomatitis1
2CompletedPreventionBullous Keratopathy / Fuchs' Dystrophy1
2CompletedPreventionMacular Edema1
2CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Infectious Anterior Uveitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentEpicondylitis, Lateral Humeral / Lateral Epicondylitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentPost-surgical Cystoid Macular Edema (PSCME)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentRetinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)1
3CompletedNot AvailableUveitis1
3CompletedTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU)2
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Inflammatory Reaction1
3CompletedTreatmentCataracts / NPDR - Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy2
3CompletedTreatmentEndogenous Anterior Uveitis1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection and Inflammation After Refractive Surgery (Lasik) / Ocular Infection and Inflammation1
3RecruitingTreatmentKeratitis; Infectious Disease (Manifestation)1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiscal Sciatica1
3TerminatedTreatmentOcular inflammatory conditions1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD) / Dermatitis, Contact / Psoriasis / Seborrheic Dermatitis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCorneal Transplant / Grafting, Corneal / Keratoplasty, Lamellar / Transplantation, Cornea / Transplantation, Corneal1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataract Surgery1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataracts1
4CompletedNot AvailableMacula Thickening1
4CompletedPreventionCataracts1
4CompletedPreventionCorneal Edema / Fuchs' Dystrophy1
4CompletedTreatmentCataract Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Corneal Edema / Retinal Structural Change, Deposit and Degeneration / Visual Acuity Reduced Transiently1
4CompletedTreatmentCataracts / Glaucoma1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Giant Papillary / Conjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic / Inflammatory Reaction1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Seasonal Allergic1
4CompletedTreatmentCorneal Opacity / Intraocular Pressure1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedTreatmentMeibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD)1
4Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCollagen Crosslinking / Keratoconus, Unstable / Postoperative pain1
4RecruitingPreventionCataracts1
4RecruitingTreatmentCystoid Macular Edema / Macular Edema / Uveitis1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCataracts1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionEpiretinal Membrane1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGlaucoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLumbar Discogenic Pain (Disorder)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentOpen Angle Glaucoma (OAG)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentIritis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
OintmentOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
OintmentOphthalmic; Topical
SuspensionOphthalmic1.25 mg/1mL
SuspensionOphthalmic10 mg/10mL
SuspensionOphthalmic10 mg/1mg
SuspensionOral16.7 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral5 mg/5mL
SolutionOphthalmic
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic
Solution / dropsOphthalmic1 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic0.12 %
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic1.2 mg/1mL
SuspensionOphthalmic
SuspensionOphthalmic10 mg/1mL
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/1mL
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic10 mg/1
SuspensionOphthalmic
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)238ChemSpider
logP1.332ChemSpider
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0417 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.17ALOGPS
logP1.71ChemAxon
logS-4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.9 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity107.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0797000000-836ba07555e28d36300f
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dj-2950000000-e2793b767fd6fd52b223

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure based on a hydroxylated prostane moiety.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Pregnane steroids
Direct Parent
Gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
20-oxosteroids / 3-oxo delta-1,4-steroids / 17-hydroxysteroids / 11-beta-hydroxysteroids / Delta-1,4-steroids / Alpha-acyloxy ketones / Tertiary alcohols / Alpha-hydroxy ketones / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic ketones
show 5 more
Substituents
Progestogin-skeleton / 20-oxosteroid / 3-oxo-delta-1,4-steroid / 3-oxosteroid / 17-hydroxysteroid / 11-hydroxysteroid / 11-beta-hydroxysteroid / Hydroxysteroid / Oxosteroid / Delta-1,4-steroid
show 17 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
corticosteroid hormone (CHEBI:8380)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modula...
Gene Name
NR3C1
Uniprot ID
P04150
Uniprot Name
Glucocorticoid receptor
Molecular Weight
85658.57 Da
References
  1. Ikonomidis I, Tzortzis S, Lekakis J, Paraskevaidis I, Andreadou I, Nikolaou M, Kaplanoglou T, Katsimbri P, Skarantavos G, Soucacos P, Kremastinos DT: Lowering interleukin-1 activity with anakinra improves myocardial deformation in rheumatoid arthritis. Heart. 2009 Sep;95(18):1502-7. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2009.168971. Epub 2009 May 28. [PubMed:19482847]
  2. Boudinot FD, D'Ambrosio R, Jusko WJ: Receptor-mediated pharmacodynamics of prednisolone in the rat. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1986 Oct;14(5):469-93. [PubMed:2879901]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Usui T, Saitoh Y, Komada F: Induction of CYP3As in HepG2 cells by several drugs. Association between induction of CYP3A4 and expression of glucocorticoid receptor. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Apr;26(4):510-7. doi: 10.1248/bpb.26.510. [PubMed:12673034]
  2. Pichard L, Fabre I, Daujat M, Domergue J, Joyeux H, Maurel P: Effect of corticosteroids on the expression of cytochromes P450 and on cyclosporin A oxidase activity in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1992 Jun;41(6):1047-55. [PubMed:1614409]
  3. Litt J. (2016). Litt's Drug eruption & reaction manual (22nd ed.). CRC Press LLc.

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Steroid binding
Specific Function
Major transport protein for glucocorticoids and progestins in the blood of almost all vertebrate species.
Gene Name
SERPINA6
Uniprot ID
P08185
Uniprot Name
Corticosteroid-binding globulin
Molecular Weight
45140.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Frey BM, Frey FJ: Estimation of transcortin concentration by measurements of plasma protein-binding of prednisolone and by electroimmunodiffusion. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1982 Feb;13(2):245-9. [PubMed:6800390]
  4. Ko HC, Almon RR, Jusko WJ: Effect of corticosteroid binding globulin on the pharmacokinetics of prednisolone in rats. Pharm Res. 1995 Jun;12(6):902-4. [PubMed:7667198]
  5. Angeli A, Frajria R, De Paoli R, Fonzo D, Ceresa F: Diurnal variation of prednisolone binding to serum corticosteroid-binding globulin in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1978 Jan;23(1):47-53. [PubMed:563315]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Czock D, Keller F, Rasche FM, Haussler U: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of systemically administered glucocorticoids. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2005;44(1):61-98. doi: 10.2165/00003088-200544010-00003. [PubMed:15634032]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibit...
Gene Name
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID
P46721
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2
Molecular Weight
74144.105 Da
References
  1. Bossuyt X, Muller M, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Polyspecific drug and steroid clearance by an organic anion transporter of mammalian liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):891-6. [PubMed:8786566]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019]
  2. Yates CR, Chang C, Kearbey JD, Yasuda K, Schuetz EG, Miller DD, Dalton JT, Swaan PW: Structural determinants of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of glucocorticoids. Pharm Res. 2003 Nov;20(11):1794-803. [PubMed:14661924]

Drug created on October 23, 2019 15:18 / Updated on December 08, 2019 14:16