Identification

Name
Gatifloxacin
Accession Number
DB01044  (APRD00996)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Gatifloxacin is an antibiotic of the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone family, that like other members of that family, inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the proprietary name Tequin® for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, having licensed the medication from Kyorin Pharmaceutical Company of Japan. Allergan produces an eye-drop formulation called Zymar®. Gatifloxacin is available as tablets and in various aqueous solutions for intravenous therapy.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-Cyclopropyl-1,4-dihydro-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-7-(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid
  • 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro- 8-methoxy-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)- 4-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
  • Gatifloxacin
  • Gatifloxacin anhydrous
  • Gatifloxacine
  • Gatifloxacino
  • Gatifloxacinum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Gatifloxacin hemihydrateAN201CY09J404858-36-2ISCAXBHESPTGIQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Gatifloxacin sesquihydrateL4618BD7KJ180200-66-2RMJMZKDEVNTXHE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
TequinTablet400 mgOralBristol Myers Squibb2001-02-212006-06-29Canada
TequinTablet200 mgOralBristol Myers Squibb2004-01-162006-06-29Canada
Tequin IVLiquid10 mgIntravenousBristol Myers Squibb2001-03-142006-06-29Canada
Tequin IVSolution2 mgIntravenousBristol Myers Squibb2002-01-052006-06-29Canada
ZymarSolution0.3 %OphthalmicAllergan2004-09-27Not applicableCanada
ZymarSolution3 mg/1mLOphthalmicAllergan, Inc.2006-06-262006-06-26Us
ZymaxidSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicAllergan2010-05-19Not applicableUs
ZymaxidSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-08-31Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-gatifloxacinSolution0.3 %OphthalmicApotex CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
GatifloxacinSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicPacific Pharma2015-04-15Not applicableUs
GatifloxacinSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicLupin Pharmaceuticals2013-10-01Not applicableUs
GatifloxacinSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicLupin Pharmaceuticals2013-10-01Not applicableUs
GatifloxacinSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicHi Tech Pharmacal Co., Inc.2014-10-06Not applicableUs
GatifloxacinSolution / drops5 mg/1mLOphthalmicSandoz2016-10-03Not applicableUs
GatifloxacinSolution3 mg/1mLOphthalmicApotex Corporation2011-08-192011-08-20Us
Novo-gatifloxacinTablet400 mgOralNovopharm LimitedNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Gati-DexGatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Dexamethasone sodium phosphate (1 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
Pred Phos - GatiGatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone sodium phosphate (10 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-07-02Not applicableUs
Pred Phos-Gati-BromGatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac (0.75 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone sodium phosphate (10 mg/1mL)Solution / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-07-02Not applicableUs
Pred-GatiGatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
Pred-GatiGatifloxacin hemihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL)SuspensionOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-03-01Not applicableUs
Pred-Gati-BromGatifloxacin hemihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac (0.75 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimisRx NJ2018-01-01Not applicableUs
Pred-Gati-BromGatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac (0.75 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprims Njof, Llc2018-01-05Not applicableUs
Pred-Gati-BromGatifloxacin sesquihydrate (5 mg/1mL) + Bromfenac sodium (0.75 mg/1mL) + Prednisolone acetate (10 mg/1mL)Suspension / dropsOphthalmicImprimis Njof, Llc2018-01-12Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
81485Y3A9A
CAS number
112811-59-3
Weight
Average: 375.3941
Monoisotopic: 375.159434412
Chemical Formula
C19H22FN3O4
InChI Key
XUBOMFCQGDBHNK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H22FN3O4/c1-10-8-22(6-5-21-10)16-14(20)7-12-15(18(16)27-2)23(11-3-4-11)9-13(17(12)24)19(25)26/h7,9-11,21H,3-6,8H2,1-2H3,(H,25,26)
IUPAC Name
1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid
SMILES
COC1=C2N(C=C(C(O)=O)C(=O)C2=CC(F)=C1N1CCNC(C)C1)C1CC1

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of bronchitis, sinusitis, community-acquired pneumonia, and skin infections (abscesses, wounds) caused by S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, S. aureus, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, L. pneumophila, S. pyogenes

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Gatifloxacin is a synthetic broad-spectrum 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone antibacterial agent for oral or intravenous administration. is bactericidal and its mode of action depends on blocking of bacterial DNA replication by binding itself to an enzyme called DNA gyrase, which allows the untwisting required to replicate one DNA double helix into two. Notably the drug has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase than for mammalian. Gatifloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

Mechanism of action

The bactericidal action of Gatifloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV, which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.

TargetActionsOrganism
ADNA gyrase subunit A
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
ADNA gyrase subunit B
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
ADNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
ADNA topoisomerase 4 subunit B
inhibitor
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Absorption

Well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration with absolute bioavailability of gatifloxacin is 96%

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

20%

Metabolism

Gatifloxacin undergoes limited biotransformation in humans with less than 1% of the dose excreted in the urine as ethylenediamine and methylethylenediamine metabolites

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

7-14 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
  • Mycobacterium
  • Chlamydia pneumoniae
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  • Legionella pneumophila
  • Chlamydia psittaci
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of (R)-warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Gatifloxacin.
(S)-WarfarinThe therapeutic efficacy of (S)-Warfarin can be increased when used in combination with Gatifloxacin.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe therapeutic efficacy of 2,4-thiazolidinedione can be increased when used in combination with Gatifloxacin.
3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthineThe metabolism of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-7H-xanthine can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe therapeutic efficacy of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be increased when used in combination with Gatifloxacin.
6-O-benzylguanineThe metabolism of 6-O-benzylguanine can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.
7-DeazaguanineThe metabolism of 7-Deazaguanine can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.
7,9-DimethylguanineThe metabolism of 7,9-Dimethylguanine can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.
8-azaguanineThe metabolism of 8-azaguanine can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.
8-chlorotheophyllineThe metabolism of 8-chlorotheophylline can be decreased when combined with Gatifloxacin.
Food Interactions
  • Absorption does not seem to be affected by milk or calcium carbonate, however, gatifloxacin bioavailability appears significantly reduced when combined with Ensure™ (Cmax is reduced by about 50% while total drug exposure (AUC) is reduced by about 25%).
  • Drink liberally.
  • Take without regard to meals.

References

Synthesis Reference
US4980470
General References
  1. Park-Wyllie LY, Juurlink DN, Kopp A, Shah BR, Stukel TA, Stumpo C, Dresser L, Low DE, Mamdani MM: Outpatient gatifloxacin therapy and dysglycemia in older adults. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 30;354(13):1352-61. Epub 2006 Mar 1. [PubMed:16510739]
  2. Gurwitz JH: Serious adverse drug effects--seeing the trees through the forest. N Engl J Med. 2006 Mar 30;354(13):1413-5. Epub 2006 Mar 1. [PubMed:16510740]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015178
KEGG Drug
D08011
KEGG Compound
C07661
PubChem Compound
5379
PubChem Substance
46506159
ChemSpider
5186
BindingDB
50117914
ChEBI
5280
ChEMBL
CHEMBL31
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001387
PharmGKB
PA449738
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Gatifloxacin
ATC Codes
S01AE06 — GatifloxacinJ01MA16 — Gatifloxacin
AHFS Codes
  • 52:04.04 — Antibacterials
  • 08:12.18 — Quinolones
FDA label
Download (134 KB)
MSDS
Download (57.3 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1CompletedScreeningCataract Extraction1
1CompletedScreeningHealthy Volunteers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMulti-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis / Tuberculosis Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Bacterial Corneal Ulcers / Bacterial Keratitis1
2CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Bacterial1
2TerminatedTreatmentUlcerative keratitis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentConjunctivitis, Bacterial1
3CompletedTreatmentInfection and Inflammation After Refractive Surgery (Lasik) / Ocular Infection and Inflammation1
3RecruitingTreatmentKeratitis; Infectious Disease (Manifestation)1
3TerminatedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Bacterial1
4CompletedNot AvailableCataract operation1
4CompletedNot AvailableMacula Thickening1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAnti-Biotic Resistance1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedOtherInjections / Intravitreous1
4CompletedPreventionOphthalmic Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentConjunctivitis, Bacterial1
4CompletedTreatmentSalmonella Typhi Infection1
4RecruitingPreventionCataracts1
4Unknown StatusPreventionEye Infections / Infection NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCorneal Epithelial Wound Healing1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEpithelium, Corneal1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableTuberculosis Infection1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionConjunctical Flora1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionEndophthalmitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Allergan Inc.
  • AQ Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Cardinal Health
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Mead Johnson and Co.
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution / dropsOphthalmic
SolutionOphthalmic3 mg/1mL
SuspensionOphthalmic
Suspension / dropsOphthalmic
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral400 mg
LiquidIntravenous10 mg
SolutionIntravenous2 mg
SolutionOphthalmic0.3 %
Solution / dropsOphthalmic5 mg/1mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Zymar 0.3% Solution 5ml Bottle87.53USD bottle
Zymar 0.3% eye drops16.75USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US4980470No1990-12-252009-12-15Us
CA2307632No2007-05-222019-08-20Canada
CA1340316No1999-01-122016-01-12Canada
US6333045Yes2001-12-252020-02-20Us
US5880283Yes1999-03-092016-06-05Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)182-185 °CNot Available
water solubility60 mg/mL (at pH 4)Not Available
logP2.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.631 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.23ALOGPS
logP-0.58ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.73ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area82.11 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity98.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9279
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9869
Caco-2 permeable+0.5
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.9116
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7838
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6997
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.804
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8257
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6231
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8535
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8479
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9124
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8598
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8804
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7502
Ames testAMES toxic0.605
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8678
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.3029 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8994
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7207
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - DI-ESI-qTof , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0169000000-7839341ea49cae9ec8cd
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0922000000-8e80b2969083df9af733
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0279000000-0ee0061b508877e5251c
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kr-0942000000-432aa78e495cb764bf6a

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quinoline carboxylic acids. These are quinolines in which the quinoline ring system is substituted by a carboxyl group at one or more positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Quinolines and derivatives
Sub Class
Quinoline carboxylic acids
Direct Parent
Quinoline carboxylic acids
Alternative Parents
N-arylpiperazines / Fluoroquinolones / Aminoquinolines and derivatives / Hydroquinolones / Haloquinolines / Hydroquinolines / Pyridinecarboxylic acids / Methoxyanilines / Anisoles / Dialkylarylamines
show 13 more
Substituents
Quinoline-3-carboxylic acid / Fluoroquinolone / N-arylpiperazine / Aminoquinoline / Haloquinoline / Dihydroquinolone / Dihydroquinoline / Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives / Pyridine carboxylic acid / Methoxyaniline
show 33 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organofluorine compound, N-arylpiperazine, quinolone antibiotic, quinolone, quinolinemonocarboxylic acid (CHEBI:5280)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, inc...
Gene Name
gyrA
Uniprot ID
P72524
Uniprot Name
DNA gyrase subunit A
Molecular Weight
92052.595 Da
References
  1. Harding I, Simpson I: Fluoroquinolones: is there a different mechanism of action and resistance against Streptococcus pneumoniae? J Chemother. 2000 Oct;12 Suppl 4:7-15. [PubMed:11131958]
  2. Rafii F, Park M, Novak JS: Alterations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens found after in vitro treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):488-92. [PubMed:15673722]
  3. Kays MB, Zhanel GG, Reimann MA, Jacobi J, Denys GA, Smith DW, Wack MF: Selection of a gyrA mutation and treatment failure with gatifloxacin in a patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae with a preexisting parC mutation. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Feb;27(2):221-6. [PubMed:17253913]
  4. Kim OK, Ohemeng K, Barrett JF: Advances in DNA gyrase inhibitors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Feb;10(2):199-212. [PubMed:11178337]
  5. Hosaka M: [Antibacterial property and clinical effect of gatifloxacin, a novel quinolone antibacterial agent]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2003 Jun;121(6):447-56. [PubMed:12835539]
  6. Mdluli K, Ma Z: Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase as a target for drug discovery. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2007 Jun;7(2):159-68. [PubMed:17970226]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
DNA gyrase negatively supercoils closed circular double-stranded DNA in an ATP-dependent manner and also catalyzes the interconversion of other topological isomers of double-stranded DNA rings, inc...
Gene Name
gyrB
Uniprot ID
P0A4L9
Uniprot Name
DNA gyrase subunit B
Molecular Weight
72237.025 Da
References
  1. Harding I, Simpson I: Fluoroquinolones: is there a different mechanism of action and resistance against Streptococcus pneumoniae? J Chemother. 2000 Oct;12 Suppl 4:7-15. [PubMed:11131958]
  2. Rafii F, Park M, Novak JS: Alterations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens found after in vitro treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):488-92. [PubMed:15673722]
  3. Kays MB, Zhanel GG, Reimann MA, Jacobi J, Denys GA, Smith DW, Wack MF: Selection of a gyrA mutation and treatment failure with gatifloxacin in a patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae with a preexisting parC mutation. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Feb;27(2):221-6. [PubMed:17253913]
  4. Kim OK, Ohemeng K, Barrett JF: Advances in DNA gyrase inhibitors. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2001 Feb;10(2):199-212. [PubMed:11178337]
  5. Hosaka M: [Antibacterial property and clinical effect of gatifloxacin, a novel quinolone antibacterial agent]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2003 Jun;121(6):447-56. [PubMed:12835539]
  6. Mdluli K, Ma Z: Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase as a target for drug discovery. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2007 Jun;7(2):159-68. [PubMed:17970226]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Dna topoisomerase type ii (atp-hydrolyzing) activity
Specific Function
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name
parC
Uniprot ID
P72525
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit A
Molecular Weight
93132.2 Da
References
  1. Harding I, Simpson I: Fluoroquinolones: is there a different mechanism of action and resistance against Streptococcus pneumoniae? J Chemother. 2000 Oct;12 Suppl 4:7-15. [PubMed:11131958]
  2. Rafii F, Park M, Novak JS: Alterations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens found after in vitro treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):488-92. [PubMed:15673722]
  3. Kays MB, Zhanel GG, Reimann MA, Jacobi J, Denys GA, Smith DW, Wack MF: Selection of a gyrA mutation and treatment failure with gatifloxacin in a patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae with a preexisting parC mutation. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Feb;27(2):221-6. [PubMed:17253913]
  4. Hosaka M: [Antibacterial property and clinical effect of gatifloxacin, a novel quinolone antibacterial agent]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2003 Jun;121(6):447-56. [PubMed:12835539]
  5. Mdluli K, Ma Z: Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase as a target for drug discovery. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2007 Jun;7(2):159-68. [PubMed:17970226]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 4 (strain ATCC BAA-334 / TIGR4)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Topoisomerase IV is essential for chromosome segregation. It relaxes supercoiled DNA. Performs the decatenation events required during the replication of a circular DNA molecule.
Gene Name
parE
Uniprot ID
Q59961
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 4 subunit B
Molecular Weight
71663.86 Da
References
  1. Harding I, Simpson I: Fluoroquinolones: is there a different mechanism of action and resistance against Streptococcus pneumoniae? J Chemother. 2000 Oct;12 Suppl 4:7-15. [PubMed:11131958]
  2. Rafii F, Park M, Novak JS: Alterations in DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV in resistant mutants of Clostridium perfringens found after in vitro treatment with fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Feb;49(2):488-92. [PubMed:15673722]
  3. Kays MB, Zhanel GG, Reimann MA, Jacobi J, Denys GA, Smith DW, Wack MF: Selection of a gyrA mutation and treatment failure with gatifloxacin in a patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae with a preexisting parC mutation. Pharmacotherapy. 2007 Feb;27(2):221-6. [PubMed:17253913]
  4. Hosaka M: [Antibacterial property and clinical effect of gatifloxacin, a novel quinolone antibacterial agent]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2003 Jun;121(6):447-56. [PubMed:12835539]
  5. Mdluli K, Ma Z: Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase as a target for drug discovery. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2007 Jun;7(2):159-68. [PubMed:17970226]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID
P05177
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 1A2
Molecular Weight
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Zhou SF, Yang LP, Zhou ZW, Liu YH, Chan E: Insights into the substrate specificity, inhibitors, regulation, and polymorphisms and the clinical impact of human cytochrome P450 1A2. AAPS J. 2009 Sep;11(3):481-94. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9127-y. Epub 2009 Jul 10. [PubMed:19590965]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Guo M, Zou JW, Yi PG, Shang ZC, Hu GX, Yu QS: Binding interaction of gatifloxacin with bovine serum albumin. Anal Sci. 2004 Mar;20(3):465-70. [PubMed:15068289]
  2. Tan F, Guo M, Yu Q: Studies on interaction between gatifloxacin and human serum albumin as well as effect of copper(II) on the reaction. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2005 Oct;61(13-14):3006-12. Epub 2004 Dec 19. [PubMed:16165044]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 16, 2018 07:04