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Identification
NamePhenytoin
Accession NumberDB00252  (APRD00241)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

An anticonvulsant that is used in a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
5,5-Diphenyl-imidazolidine-2,4-dione
5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione
5,5-diphenyltetrahydro-1H-2,4-imidazoledione
5,5-Diphenyltetrahydro-1H-2,4-imidazoledione
Diphenylhydantoin
Fenitoina
Phentytoin
Phenytoine
Phenytoinum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dilantin - 100mgcapsule100 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1951-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dilantin - 30mgcapsule30 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1951-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dilantin Infatabstablet50 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1952-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dilantin Inj 50mg/mlliquid250 mgintramuscular; intravenousParke Davis Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.1972-12-311996-09-10Canada
Dilantin-125suspension125 mg/5mLoralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1953-01-06Not applicableUs
Dilantin-125 Suspensionsuspension125 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1953-12-31Not applicableCanada
Dilantin-30 Suspensionsuspension30 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1968-12-31Not applicableCanada
Novo-phenytoin Cap 100mgcapsule100 mgoralNovopharm Limited1966-12-31Not applicableCanada
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralGreenstone LLC2012-10-09Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodium Inj 50mg/ml USPsolution50 mgintramuscular; intravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation1989-12-31Not applicableCanada
Phenytoin Sodium Injection USPliquid50 mgintramuscular; intravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1988-12-31Not applicableCanada
Phenytoin Sodium Injection, USPsolution50 mgintramuscular; intravenousSterimax Inc2015-03-12Not applicableCanada
Taro-phenytoinsuspension125 mgoralTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc2005-05-03Not applicableCanada
Tremytoine Inj 50mg/mlliquid50 mgintramuscular; intravenousOmega Laboratories Ltd1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-07-08Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-05-05Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-08-19Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-30Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-01-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Inc.1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralCardinal Health1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2009-09-20Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantintablet, chewable50 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-08-18Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1976-08-27Not applicableUs
Dilantincapsule, extended release30 mg/1oralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-09-14Not applicableUs
Dilantin Infatabstablet, chewable50 mg/1oralParke Davis Div Of Pfizer Inc1979-02-26Not applicableUs
Dilantin Infatabstablet, chewable50 mg/1oralCardinal Health1979-02-26Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2014-08-25Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2013-07-19Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2008-01-30Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralMarlex Pharmaceuticals Inc2015-08-01Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralWockhardt USA LLC.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2009-12-16Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2009-12-16Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-08Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2012-12-26Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralWockhardt Limited2008-01-30Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralAurobindo Pharma Limited2015-06-10Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2008-01-30Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralAmneal Pharmaceuticals of New York, LLC2009-12-16Not applicableUs
Extended Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-04-09Not applicableUs
Phenytekcapsule, extended release300 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-12-10Not applicableUs
Phenytekcapsule, extended release200 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2001-12-10Not applicableUs
Phenytekcapsule, extended release300 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2001-12-10Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension100 mg/4mLoralPrecision Dose Inc.2004-02-052016-02-05Us
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2004-04-08Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralAtlantic Biologicals Corps2002-06-24Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2006-12-19Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2015-09-01Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-12-26Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralMorton Grove Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-06-24Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.2012-12-18Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralVista Pharm Inc.2005-08-18Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralVista Pharm Inc.2010-05-10Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2012-12-26Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralCore Pharma, Llc2016-02-28Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralActavis Mid Atlantic LLC2009-03-02Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralLehigh Valley Technologies, Inc.2014-04-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoinsuspension125 mg/5mLoralAtlantic Biologicals Corps2004-04-08Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc2014-04-17Not applicableUs
Phenytointablet, chewable50 mg/1oralCardinal Health2012-12-26Not applicableUs
Phenytoin ERcapsule100 mg/1oralSTAT Rx USA LLC2009-11-20Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Infatabstablet, chewable50 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2012-12-27Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralTYA Pharmaceuticals2006-09-05Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1987-03-17Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution250 mg/5mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc.2011-08-30Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2006-09-05Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintravenousCardinal Health2006-10-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-07-12Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1975-07-16Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralMylan Institutional Inc.1999-05-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-03-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralCardinal Health2011-01-28Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralContract Pharmacy Services Pa2010-04-06Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1975-07-16Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousCardinal Health1975-07-16Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2011-07-07Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralUpsher Smith Laboratories, Inc.2006-09-05Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1975-07-16Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-08-27Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousCardinal Health2011-05-02Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release300 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-06-30Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1999-01-05Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp.1975-07-16Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2006-12-12Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralCardinal Health2006-09-05Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralLake Erie Medical DBA Quality Care Products LLC2006-12-12Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousX Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-05-02Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2006-12-12Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralNcs Health Care Of Ky, Inc Dba Vangard Labs2009-11-20Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2011-04-12Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-20Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release200 mg/1oralSun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited2008-06-30Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralMc Kesson Contract Packaging2011-09-19Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule, extended release100 mg/1oralRebel Distributors Corp2006-09-05Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiumcapsule100 mg/1oralDIRECT RX2014-01-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-18Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection, solution50 mg/mLintramuscular; intravenousGeneral Injectables & Vaccines, Inc2010-08-01Not applicableUs
Phenytoin Sodiuminjection50 mg/mLintravenousCardinal Health2006-10-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Epanutin Pfizer
EptoinNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Dilantin W Phenobarbital 15mgParke Davis Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.
Dilantin W Phenobarbital 30mg CapParke Davis Division, Warner Lambert Canada Inc.
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Phenytoin sodium
Thumb
  • InChI Key: FJPYVLNWWICYDW-UHFFFAOYSA-M
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 274.071822281
  • Average Mass: 274.2498
DBSALT000139
Categories
UNII6158TKW0C5
CAS number57-41-0
WeightAverage: 252.268
Monoisotopic: 252.089877638
Chemical FormulaC15H12N2O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=CXOFVDLJLONNDW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C15H12N2O2/c18-13-15(17-14(19)16-13,11-7-3-1-4-8-11)12-9-5-2-6-10-12/h1-10H,(H2,16,17,18,19)
IUPAC Name
5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione
SMILES
O=C1NC(=O)C(N1)(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylhydantoins. These are heterocyclic aromatic compounds containing an imiazolidinedione moiety substituted by a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzolidines
Sub ClassImidazolidines
Direct ParentPhenylhydantoins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 5-phenylhydantoin
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Phenylimidazolidine
  • 5-monosubstituted hydantoin
  • Ureide
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.
PharmacodynamicsPhenytoin is an antiepileptic drug which can be useful in the treatment of epilepsy. The primary site of action appears to be the motor cortex where spread of seizure activity is inhibited. Phenytoin reduces the maximal activity of brain stem centers responsible for the tonic phase of tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures. Phenytoin acts to dampen the unwanted, runaway brain activity seen in seizure by reducing electrical conductance among brain cells. It lacks the sedation effects associated with phenobarbital. There are some indications that phenytoin has other effects, including anxiety control and mood stabilization, although it has never been approved for those purposes by the FDA. Phenytoin is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9.
Mechanism of actionPhenytoin acts on sodium channels on the neuronal cell membrane, limiting the spread of seizure activity and reducing seizure propagation. By promoting sodium efflux from neurons, phenytoin tends to stabilize the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation or environmental changes capable of reducing membrane sodium gradient. This includes the reduction of post-tetanic potentiation at synapses. Loss of post-tetanic potentiation prevents cortical seizure foci from detonating adjacent cortical areas.
Related Articles
AbsorptionBioavailability 70-100% oral, 24.4% rectal. Rapid rate of absorption with peak blood concentration expected in 1½ to 3 hours.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingHighly protein bound, 90%
Metabolism

Primarily hepatic. The majority of the dose (up to 90%) is metabolized to 5-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH). This metabolite undergoes further glucuronidation and is excreted into the urine. CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 catalyze the aforementioned reaction.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Phenytoin
3',4'-DihydrodiolDetails
Phenytoin
3'-HPPHDetails
Phenytoin
4'-HPPHDetails
Phenytoin
Phenytoin arene-oxideDetails
Phenytoin
Not Available
Phenytoin catecholDetails
Phenytoin
Not Available
Phenytoin quinoneDetails
Phenytoin catechol
Phenytoin methylcatecholDetails
Phenytoin arene-oxide
Phenytoin dihydrodiolDetails
Phenytoin arene-oxide
Not Available
HydroxyphenytoinDetails
Hydroxyphenytoin
Phenytoin catecholDetails
Phenytoin catechol
Phenytoin quinoneDetails
Hydroxyphenytoin
Hydroxyphenytoin-O-glucuronideDetails
3'-HPPH
3',4'-diHPPHDetails
4'-HPPH
3',4'-diHPPHDetails
Route of eliminationMost of the drug is excreted in the bile as inactive metabolites which are then reabsorbed from the intestinal tract and excreted in the urine. Urinary excretion of phenytoin and its metabolites occurs partly with glomerular filtration but, more importantly, by tubular secretion.
Half life22 hours (range of 7 to 42 hours)
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 150 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1635 mg/kg. Symptoms of overdose include coma, difficulty in pronouncing words correctly, involuntary eye movement, lack of muscle coordination, low blood pressure, nausea, sluggishness, slurred speech, tremors, and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00326
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00618
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00327
SNP Mediated Effects
Interacting Gene/EnzymeSNP RS IDAllele nameDefining changeEffectReference(s)
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Gene symbol: CYP2C9
UniProt: P11712
rs1057910 CYP2C9*1C AllelePoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirements15805193
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Gene symbol: ABCB1
UniProt: P08183
rs1045642 MDR1*TT Allele (C3435T)Increased phenytoin effects due to higher plasma phenytoin levels11908757
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9909
Blood Brain Barrier+0.976
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5593
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.987
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8995
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.733
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8911
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7591
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8304
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.935
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8994
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.855
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.992
Rat acute toxicity2.1567 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9793
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8916
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Parke davis div warner lambert co
  • Actavis mid atlantic llc
  • Taro pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Vistapharm inc
  • Wockhardt eu operations (swiss) ag
  • Pfizer pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Lannett co inc
  • Amneal pharmaceuticals ny llc
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Pliva inc
  • Sun pharmaceutical industries ltd
  • Wockhardt ltd
  • Wockhardt usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Pharmeral inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Parke davis pharmaceutical research div warner lambert co
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Baxter healthcare corp
  • Hikma farmaceutica (portugal) sa
  • Hospira inc
  • Marsam pharmaceuticals llc
  • Pharmaforce inc
  • Smith and nephew solopak div smith and nephew
  • Solopak medical products inc
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseoral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral30 mg/1
Capsuleoral100 mg
Capsuleoral30 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Tablet, chewableoral50 mg/1
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous250 mg
Capsuleoral
Suspensionoral125 mg/5mL
Suspensionoral125 mg
Suspensionoral30 mg
Capsuleoral100 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral200 mg/1
Capsule, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Suspensionoral100 mg/4mL
Injectionintramuscular; intravenous50 mg/mL
Injectionintravenous50 mg/mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous250 mg/5mL
Injection, solutionintramuscular; intravenous50 mg/mL
Solutionintramuscular; intravenous50 mg
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Dilantin 125 mg/5ml Suspension 237ml Bottle69.28USD bottle
Phenytoin Sodium 50 mg/ml2.64USD ml
Phenytek 300 mg capsule1.47USD capsule
Phenytoin sod ext 300 mg capsule1.2USD capsule
Phenytoin sodium powder1.16USD g
Phenytek 200 mg capsule0.98USD capsule
Phenytoin 50 mg/ml ampul0.96USD ml
Phenytoin sod ext 200 mg capsule0.8USD capsule
Phenytoin 50 mg/ml vial0.67USD ml
Phenytoin 100 mg/2 ml vial0.6USD ml
Dilantin Infatabs 50 mg Chew Tabs0.6USD tab
Dilantin 100 mg capsule0.51USD capsule
Phenytoin 100 mg/4 ml susp0.48USD ml
Dilantin 30 mg capsule0.46USD capsule
Phenytoin 250 mg/5 ml vial0.45USD ml
Dilantin 50 mg infatab0.44USD each
Dilantin 100 mg kapseal0.39USD each
Dilantin 30 mg kapseal0.39USD each
Phenytoin Sodium Extended 100 mg capsule0.36USD capsule
Phenytoin sod ext 100 mg capsule0.34USD capsule
Phenytoin powder0.23USD g
Phenytoin 125 mg/5ml Suspension0.15USD ml
Dilantin Infatabs 50 mg Chewable Tablet0.08USD tablet
Dilantin 100 mg Capsule0.08USD capsule
Dilantin 30 mg Capsule0.06USD capsule
Dilantin-125 25 mg/ml Suspension0.05USD ml
Dilantin-30 6 mg/ml Suspension0.04USD ml
Taro-Phenytoin 25 mg/ml Suspension0.03USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point286 °CPhysProp
water solubility32 mg/L (at 22 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.47HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-4.57ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.33SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0711 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.26ALOGPS
logP2.15ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.2 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity70.18 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability25.48 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (9.46 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0f89-4940000000-2a0dda513d9f63dc6610View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Mahdi B. Fawzi, Anne K. Taylor, “Parenteral phenytoin preparations.” U.S. Patent US4642316, issued April, 1981.

US4642316
General References
  1. Link [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesN03AB02N03AB52
AHFS Codes
  • 28:12.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Abiraterone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AcenocoumarolPhenytoin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Phenytoin.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Albendazole can be reduced when Albendazole is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
AlfuzosinThe metabolism of Alfuzosin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
AlprazolamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Alprazolam.
AminophyllineThe serum concentration of Aminophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Amiodarone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Amphetamine.
AmrinoneThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Amrinone.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ApremilastThe serum concentration of Apremilast can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AprepitantThe metabolism of Aprepitant can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Armodafinil can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ArtemetherThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Artemether can be reduced when Artemether is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
AtazanavirThe metabolism of Atazanavir can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
AtorvastatinThe serum concentration of Atorvastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Atracurium besylatePhenytoin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
AvanafilThe metabolism of Avanafil can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
AzelastinePhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Phenytoin.
BazedoxifeneThe serum concentration of Bazedoxifene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BedaquilineThe serum concentration of Bedaquiline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BenzphetamineThe metabolism of Benzphetamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
BepridilThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Bepridil.
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BiotinThe metabolism of Biotin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
BisoprololThe metabolism of Bisoprolol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
BleomycinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Bleomycin.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BortezomibThe serum concentration of Bortezomib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
BromazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Bromazepam.
BumetanidePhenytoin may decrease the diuretic activities of Bumetanide.
BuprenorphinePhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe metabolism of Buspirone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
BusulfanThe serum concentration of Busulfan can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ButalbitalThe serum concentration of Butalbital can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CabazitaxelThe metabolism of Cabazitaxel can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CabozantinibThe serum concentration of Cabozantinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CalcitriolThe metabolism of Calcitriol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CamazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Camazepam.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CannabidiolThe serum concentration of Cannabidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CapecitabineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Capecitabine.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarboplatinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Carboplatin.
CarisoprodolThe metabolism of Carisoprodol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CaspofunginThe serum concentration of Caspofungin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CathinoneThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Cathinone.
CefazolinThe protein binding of Phenytoin can be decreased when combined with Cefazolin.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Celecoxib can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ChlordiazepoxideThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.
ChlormezanoneThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ChlorotrianiseneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorotrianisene can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
ChlorphenamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpropamideThe metabolism of Chlorpropamide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CilostazolThe metabolism of Cilostazol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CimetidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cimetidine is combined with Phenytoin.
CinolazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Cinolazepam.
CiprofloxacinThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenytoin can be decreased when used in combination with Ciprofloxacin.
Cisatracurium besylatePhenytoin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Cisplatin.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Citalopram can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Clarithromycin can be increased when Clarithromycin is used in combination with Phenytoin.
ClidiniumThe metabolism of Clidinium can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Clobazam.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Clomipramine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ClonazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Clonazepam.
ClorazepateThe metabolism of Clorazepate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ClotiazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Clotiazepam.
CloxazolamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Cloxazolam.
ClozapineThe serum concentration of Clozapine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Cobicistat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CodeineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Codeine.
ColesevelamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Colesevelam.
ConivaptanThe metabolism of Conivaptan can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
CorticotropinThe serum concentration of Corticotropin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Cortisone acetateThe serum concentration of Cortisone acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CosyntropinCosyntropin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Phenytoin.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
CyclosporineThe metabolism of Cyclosporine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Cyproterone acetateThe metabolism of Cyproterone acetate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DaclatasvirThe serum concentration of Daclatasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DantroleneThe metabolism of Dantrolene can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapsone is combined with Phenytoin.
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Darifenacin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Deferasirox can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DelavirdineThe serum concentration of Delavirdine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DesogestrelThe metabolism of Desogestrel can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Phenytoin.
DexmethylphenidateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Dexmethylphenidate.
DextroamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Dextroamphetamine.
DiazepamThe metabolism of Diazepam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
DiazoxideThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Diazoxide.
DiclofenacThe serum concentration of Diclofenac can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Phenytoin.
DicoumarolPhenytoin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DienogestThe serum concentration of Dienogest can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Diltiazem.
DisopyramideThe serum concentration of Disopyramide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DisulfiramThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Disulfiram.
DocetaxelThe metabolism of Docetaxel can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
DolutegravirThe serum concentration of Dolutegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DoxazosinThe metabolism of Doxazosin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
DoxofyllineThe serum concentration of Doxofylline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DoxycyclineThe serum concentration of Doxycycline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
DronabinolThe serum concentration of Dronabinol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DronedaroneThe serum concentration of Dronedarone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
DroperidolDroperidol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
DrospirenoneThe metabolism of Drospirenone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
EfavirenzThe serum concentration of Efavirenz can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EliglustatThe serum concentration of Eliglustat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ElvitegravirThe serum concentration of Elvitegravir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Enzalutamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EplerenoneThe metabolism of Eplerenone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ErythromycinThe metabolism of Erythromycin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
EscitalopramThe metabolism of Escitalopram can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe serum concentration of Eslicarbazepine acetate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Esomeprazole can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
EstazolamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Estazolam.
EstradiolThe metabolism of Estradiol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Estrone sulfateThe metabolism of Estropipate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
EszopicloneThe metabolism of Eszopiclone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Etacrynic acidPhenytoin may decrease the diuretic activities of Ethacrynic acid.
EthanolEthanol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe metabolism of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
EthosuximideEthosuximide may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
EthoxzolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethoxzolamide is combined with Phenytoin.
Ethynodiol diacetateThe metabolism of Ethynodiol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Etonogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Etravirine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ExemestaneThe serum concentration of Exemestane can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
EzogabineThe serum concentration of Ezogabine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
FelbamateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Felbamate.
FelodipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Felodipine.
FentanylThe serum concentration of Fentanyl can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
FesoterodineThe metabolism of Fesoterodine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
FloxuridineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Floxuridine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Phenytoin can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FludiazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Fludiazepam.
FludrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Fludrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
FlunarizineThe serum concentration of Flunarizine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
FlunisolideThe metabolism of Flunisolide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
FlunitrazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluorouracilThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluorouracil.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlurazepamThe metabolism of Flurazepam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
FlutamideThe metabolism of Flutamide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
FluvastatinThe serum concentration of Fluvastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.
Folic AcidThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Folic Acid.
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe metabolism of Fosaprepitant can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Fosphenytoin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
FurosemidePhenytoin may decrease the diuretic activities of Furosemide.
GabapentinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Gabapentin.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
GliclazideThe metabolism of Gliclazide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
GlimepirideThe metabolism of Glimepiride can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
GlipizideThe metabolism of Glipizide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
GlyburideThe metabolism of Glyburide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
GuanfacineThe serum concentration of Guanfacine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
HalazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Halazepam.
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Haloperidol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
HalothaneThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Halothane.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocodone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe metabolism of Hydroxyprogesterone caproate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
IbrutinibThe serum concentration of Ibrutinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IfosfamideThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ifosfamide can be increased when Ifosfamide is used in combination with Phenytoin.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Imipramine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Indinavir can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Irinotecan can be reduced when Irinotecan is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
IsavuconazoniumThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Isavuconazonium can be reduced when Isavuconazonium is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
IsomethepteneThe serum concentration of Isometheptene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IsoniazidThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Isoniazid.
IsosorbideThe metabolism of Isosorbide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Isosorbide DinitrateThe metabolism of Isosorbide Dinitrate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Isosorbide MononitrateThe metabolism of Isosorbide Mononitrate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
IsradipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Isradipine.
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Itraconazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IvabradineThe serum concentration of Ivabradine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Ivacaftor can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IxabepiloneThe serum concentration of Ixabepilone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
IxazomibThe serum concentration of Ixazomib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
KetamineThe metabolism of Ketamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Ketazolam.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.
LacosamideThe serum concentration of Lacosamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LansoprazoleThe metabolism of Lansoprazole can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
LapatinibThe serum concentration of Lapatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LercanidipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Lercanidipine.
LeucovorinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Leucovorin.
LevodopaThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
LevomefolateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Levomefolate.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Levonorgestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
LevothyroxineThe serum concentration of Levothyroxine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LidocaineThe metabolism of Lidocaine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LiothyronineThe serum concentration of Liothyronine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LiotrixThe serum concentration of Liotrix can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LisdexamfetamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Lisdexamfetamine.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenytoin is combined with Lithium.
LomitapideThe metabolism of Lomitapide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Lopinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LorazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Lorazepam.
LosartanThe metabolism of Losartan can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
LovastatinThe serum concentration of Lovastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
LumefantrineThe serum concentration of Lumefantrine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
LurasidoneThe serum concentration of Lurasidone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MacitentanThe serum concentration of MACITENTAN can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
MaravirocThe serum concentration of Maraviroc can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Mebendazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
MefloquineThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenytoin can be decreased when used in combination with Mefloquine.
MeloxicamThe metabolism of Meloxicam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
MestranolThe metabolism of Mestranol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Methadone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MethamphetamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Methamphetamine.
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Phenytoin.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Methotrexate.
MethotrimeprazinePhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Methotrimeprazine.
MethsuximideThe metabolism of Methsuximide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
MethylphenidateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Methylphenidate.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MetronidazoleThe serum concentration of Metronidazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MetyraponeThe serum concentration of Metyrapone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MetyrosinePhenytoin may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MexiletineThe serum concentration of Mexiletine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenytoin can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MiconazoleThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Miconazole.
MidazolamThe metabolism of Midazolam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
MifepristoneThe serum concentration of Mifepristone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
MirtazapineThe metabolism of Mirtazapine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Moclobemide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ModafinilThe metabolism of Modafinil can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
NateglinideThe metabolism of Nateglinide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
NefazodoneThe metabolism of Nefazodone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Netupitant can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Nevirapine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Nicardipine.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
NilutamideThe metabolism of Nilutamide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Nimodipine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
NisoldipineThe serum concentration of Nisoldipine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
NitrazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrazepam.
NitrendipineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Nitrendipine.
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Phenytoin.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Norethindrone can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
NorgestimateThe metabolism of Norgestimate can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
OlaparibThe serum concentration of Olaparib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
OmeprazoleThe serum concentration of Omeprazole can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
OndansetronThe metabolism of Ondansetron can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.
OrphenadrinePhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
OspemifeneThe metabolism of Ospemifene can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
OxaliplatinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Oxaliplatin.
OxazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Oxazepam.
OxcarbazepineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Oxcarbazepine can be reduced when Oxcarbazepine is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
OxycodoneThe metabolism of Oxycodone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PaclitaxelThe metabolism of Paclitaxel can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Palbociclib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PaliperidoneThe serum concentration of Paliperidone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PalonosetronThe serum concentration of Palonosetron can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PancuroniumPhenytoin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Pantoprazole can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ParaldehydePhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenytoin is combined with Paroxetine.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PentamidineThe metabolism of Pentamidine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PerampanelThe serum concentration of Perampanel can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PerhexilineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Perhexiline.
PethidineThe serum concentration of Pethidine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PhendimetrazineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Phendimetrazine.
PhenobarbitalPhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenobarbital.
PhentermineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Phentermine.
PimozideThe metabolism of Pimozide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PioglitazoneThe metabolism of Pioglitazone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PipotiazineThe metabolism of Pipotiazine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PiroxicamThe metabolism of Piroxicam can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.
PramipexolePhenytoin may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PraziquantelThe serum concentration of Praziquantel can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PrenylamineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Prenylamine.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenytoin is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Primaquine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PrimidoneThe metabolism of Primidone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ProgesteroneThe metabolism of Progesterone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PropacetamolThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Propacetamol can be reduced when Propacetamol is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Propafenone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PyridoxineThe metabolism of Phenytoin can be increased when combined with Pyridoxine.
QuazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RabeprazoleThe metabolism of Rabeprazole can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RegorafenibThe serum concentration of Regorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RepaglinideThe metabolism of Repaglinide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
Repository corticotropinThe serum concentration of Repository corticotropin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RifabutinThe metabolism of Rifabutin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RilpivirineThe serum concentration of Rilpivirine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RiociguatThe metabolism of Riociguat can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
RisedronateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Risedronate.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RocuroniumPhenytoin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
RoflumilastThe serum concentration of Roflumilast can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RolapitantThe serum concentration of Rolapitant can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
RopinirolePhenytoin may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RosiglitazoneThe metabolism of Rosiglitazone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
RotigotinePhenytoin may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Rufinamide.
RuxolitinibThe metabolism of Ruxolitinib can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SaxagliptinThe serum concentration of Saxagliptin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SecobarbitalThe metabolism of Phenytoin can be increased when combined with Secobarbital.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SildenafilThe metabolism of Sildenafil can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
SilodosinThe metabolism of Silodosin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SimvastatinThe serum concentration of Simvastatin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SirolimusThe serum concentration of Sirolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenytoin is combined with Sodium Nitrite.
Sodium oxybateSodium oxybate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SolifenacinThe metabolism of Solifenacin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
SonidegibThe serum concentration of Sonidegib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SpiramycinThe metabolism of Spiramycin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SulfadiazineThe metabolism of Sulfadiazine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
SulfamethoxazoleThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Sulfamethoxazole.
SulfisoxazoleThe metabolism of Phenytoin can be decreased when combined with Sulfisoxazole.
SunitinibThe serum concentration of Sunitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
SuvorexantThe serum concentration of Suvorexant can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TadalafilThe serum concentration of Tadalafil can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TamoxifenThe metabolism of Tamoxifen can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TamsulosinThe metabolism of Tamsulosin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TapentadolTapentadol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Phenytoin.
TasimelteonThe serum concentration of Tasimelteon can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TegafurThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Tegafur.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Telaprevir.
TelithromycinThe metabolism of Telithromycin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TemazepamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Temazepam.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TeniposideThe serum concentration of Teniposide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TetracyclineThe metabolism of Tetracycline can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ThalidomidePhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
TheophyllineThe serum concentration of Theophylline can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Thyroid, porcineThe serum concentration of Thyroid extract can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TiagabineThe metabolism of Tiagabine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Ticagrelor can be reduced when Ticagrelor is used in combination with Phenytoin resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TiclopidineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Ticlopidine.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Tipranavir can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TofacitinibThe serum concentration of Tofacitinib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TofisopamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Tofisopam.
TolbutamideThe metabolism of Tolbutamide can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TolterodineThe metabolism of Tolterodine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TopiramateThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Topiramate.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TorasemidePhenytoin may decrease the diuretic activities of Torasemide.
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TrabectedinThe serum concentration of Trabectedin can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TramadolThe metabolism of Tramadol can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Trazodone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TreprostinilThe serum concentration of Treprostinil can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TretinoinThe metabolism of Tretinoin can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
TriamcinoloneThe serum concentration of Triamcinolone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
TriazolamThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Triazolam.
TrimethoprimThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Trimethoprim.
TrimipramineThe metabolism of Trimipramine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Valproic AcidThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Valproic Acid.
VandetanibThe serum concentration of Vandetanib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
VecuroniumPhenytoin may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
VemurafenibThe serum concentration of Vemurafenib can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Venlafaxine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Verapamil.
VigabatrinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Vilazodone can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
VinblastineThe metabolism of Vinblastine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
VindesineThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be decreased when it is combined with Vindesine.
VinorelbineThe metabolism of Vinorelbine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
VorapaxarThe serum concentration of Vorapaxar can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Vortioxetine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
WarfarinPhenytoin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
ZafirlukastThe metabolism of Zafirlukast can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ZaleplonThe serum concentration of Zaleplon can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ZolpidemPhenytoin may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Zolpidem.
ZonisamideThe serum concentration of Zonisamide can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
ZopicloneThe metabolism of Zopiclone can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
ZuclopenthixolThe serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Do not take calcium, aluminum, magnesium or Iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.
  • Take with food to increase bioavailability and reduce irritation.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is respon...
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Mitiushin VM, Kozyreva EV: [Several types of mitochondrial ultrastructure in animal cell mitochondria and their relationship to energy production]. Tsitologiia. 1978 Apr;20(4):371-9. [PubMed:150666 ]
  2. Swadron SP, Rudis MI, Azimian K, Beringer P, Fort D, Orlinsky M: A comparison of phenytoin-loading techniques in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2004 Mar;11(3):244-52. [PubMed:15001403 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient.
Gene Name:
SCN1A
Uniprot ID:
P35498
Molecular Weight:
228969.49 Da
References
  1. Tate SK, Depondt C, Sisodiya SM, Cavalleri GL, Schorge S, Soranzo N, Thom M, Sen A, Shorvon SD, Sander JW, Wood NW, Goldstein DB: Genetic predictors of the maximum doses patients receive during clinical use of the anti-epileptic drugs carbamazepine and phenytoin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 12;102(15):5507-12. Epub 2005 Apr 1. [PubMed:15805193 ]
  2. Tate SK, Singh R, Hung CC, Tai JJ, Depondt C, Cavalleri GL, Sisodiya SM, Goldstein DB, Liou HH: A common polymorphism in the SCN1A gene associates with phenytoin serum levels at maintenance dose. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2006 Oct;16(10):721-6. [PubMed:17001291 ]
  3. Mantegazza M, Curia G, Biagini G, Ragsdale DS, Avoli M: Voltage-gated sodium channels as therapeutic targets in epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2010 Apr;9(4):413-24. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70059-4. [PubMed:20298965 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Levy RH: Cytochrome P450 isozymes and antiepileptic drug interactions. Epilepsia. 1995;36 Suppl 5:S8-13. [PubMed:8806399 ]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  3. Tate SK, Depondt C, Sisodiya SM, Cavalleri GL, Schorge S, Soranzo N, Thom M, Sen A, Shorvon SD, Sander JW, Wood NW, Goldstein DB: Genetic predictors of the maximum doses patients receive during clinical use of the anti-epileptic drugs carbamazepine and phenytoin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 12;102(15):5507-12. Epub 2005 Apr 1. [PubMed:15805193 ]
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  5. Komatsu T, Yamazaki H, Asahi S, Gillam EM, Guengerich FP, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Formation of a dihydroxy metabolite of phenytoin in human liver microsomes/cytosol: roles of cytochromes P450 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Nov;28(11):1361-8. [PubMed:11038165 ]
  6. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Levy RH: Cytochrome P450 isozymes and antiepileptic drug interactions. Epilepsia. 1995;36 Suppl 5:S8-13. [PubMed:8806399 ]
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  4. Komatsu T, Yamazaki H, Asahi S, Gillam EM, Guengerich FP, Nakajima M, Yokoi T: Formation of a dihydroxy metabolite of phenytoin in human liver microsomes/cytosol: roles of cytochromes P450 2C9, 2C19, and 3A4. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Nov;28(11):1361-8. [PubMed:11038165 ]
  5. Kaminsky LS, Zhang ZY: Human P450 metabolism of warfarin. Pharmacol Ther. 1997;73(1):67-74. [PubMed:9014207 ]
  6. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular Weight:
55710.075 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid 11-beta-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular Weight:
57572.44 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Chen J, Ohnmacht C, Hage DS: Studies of phenytoin binding to human serum albumin by high-performance affinity chromatography. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2004 Sep 25;809(1):137-45. [PubMed:15282104 ]
  2. Ohnmacht CM, Chen S, Tong Z, Hage DS: Studies by biointeraction chromatography of binding by phenytoin metabolites to human serum albumin. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 May 19;836(1-2):83-91. Epub 2006 Apr 18. [PubMed:16621742 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent high affinity transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and rT3. Other potential substrates, such as triiodothyronine (T3), 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone-3-sulfate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) are transported with much lower efficiency. May play a signifiant role in regulating T4 flux into and out of the brain (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLCO1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NYB5
Molecular Weight:
78695.625 Da
References
  1. Westholm DE, Stenehjem DD, Rumbley JN, Drewes LR, Anderson GW: Competitive inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1c1-mediated thyroxine transport by the fenamate class of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Endocrinology. 2009 Feb;150(2):1025-32. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-0188. Epub 2008 Oct 9. [PubMed:18845642 ]
  2. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Baltes S, Gastens AM, Fedrowitz M, Potschka H, Kaever V, Loscher W: Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb;52(2):333-46. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17045309 ]
  2. Luna-Tortos C, Fedrowitz M, Loscher W: Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2008 Dec;55(8):1364-75. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.08.032. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18824002 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Baltes S, Gastens AM, Fedrowitz M, Potschka H, Kaever V, Loscher W: Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein. Neuropharmacology. 2007 Feb;52(2):333-46. Epub 2006 Oct 10. [PubMed:17045309 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 21, 2016 15:11