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Identification
NameTravoprost
Accession NumberDB00287  (APRD01271)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Travoprost ophthalmic solution is a topical medication used for controlling the progression of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, by reducing intraocular pressure. It is a synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analogue. [Wikipedia]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Isopropyl (Z)-7-((1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-{(1e,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[(alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl)oxy]-1-butenyl}cyclopentyl)-5-heptenoate
Travatan
Travatan Z
Travoprost
Travoprostum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Mylan-travoprost Zsolution0.004 %ophthalmicMylan Pharmaceuticals UlcNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-travoprost Zsolution0.004 %ophthalmicPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Sandoz Travoprostsolution0.004 %ophthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated2014-08-15Not applicableCanada
Teva-travoprost Z Ophthalmic Solutionsolution0.004 %ophthalmicTeva Canada Limited2014-08-18Not applicableCanada
Travatansolution0.004 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc2001-11-132010-11-16Canada
Travatan Zsolution/ drops.04 mg/mLophthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc2006-10-20Not applicableUs
Travatan Zsolution0.004 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc2008-11-10Not applicableCanada
Travatan Zsolution.04 mg/mLophthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-12-09Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-travoprost Zsolution0.004 %ophthalmicApotex Inc2014-08-14Not applicableCanada
Travoprost Ophthalmic Solution 0.004%solution.04 mg/mLophthalmicPar Pharmaceutical, Inc.2013-04-15Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
Travo-ZNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Apo-travoprost-timopApotex Inc
Duotrav PqAlcon Canada Inc
Sandoz Travoprost / Timolol PqSandoz Canada Incorporated
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIWJ68R08KX9
CAS number157283-68-6
WeightAverage: 500.5477
Monoisotopic: 500.238573467
Chemical FormulaC26H35F3O6
InChI KeyInChIKey=MKPLKVHSHYCHOC-AHTXBMBWSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H35F3O6/c1-17(2)35-25(33)11-6-4-3-5-10-21-22(24(32)15-23(21)31)13-12-19(30)16-34-20-9-7-8-18(14-20)26(27,28)29/h3,5,7-9,12-14,17,19,21-24,30-32H,4,6,10-11,15-16H2,1-2H3/b5-3-,13-12+/t19-,21-,22-,23+,24-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
propan-2-yl (5Z)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-[(1E,3R)-3-hydroxy-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]but-1-en-1-yl]cyclopentyl]hept-5-enoate
SMILES
CC(C)OC(=O)CCC\C=C/C[[email protected]]1[C@@H](O)C[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1\C=C\[C@@H](O)COC1=CC=CC(=C1)C(F)(F)F
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as prostaglandins and related compounds. These are unsaturated carboxylic acids consisting of a 20 carbon skeleton that also contains a five member ring, and are based upon the fatty acid arachidonic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassEicosanoids
Direct ParentProstaglandins and related compounds
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Prostaglandin skeleton
  • Phenol ether
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Cyclopentanol
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationOphthalmic solution used for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are intolerant of other intraocular pressure lowering medications or insufficiently responsive (failed to achieve target IOP determined after multiple measurements over time) to another intraocular pressure lowering medication.
PharmacodynamicsTravoprost, an isopropyl ester prodrug, is a synthetic prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue that is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to its biologically active free acid. The travoporst free acid is potent and highly selective for the FP prostanoid receptor.
Mechanism of actionTravoprost free acid is a selective FP prostanoid receptor agonist and is believed to reduce intraocular pressure by increasing the drainage of aqueous humor, which is done primarily through increased uveoscleral outflow and to a lesser extent, trabecular outflow facility.
Related Articles
AbsorptionSystemically absorbed when administered to the eye.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Travoprost, an isopropyl ester prodrug, is hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to its biologically active free acid. Systemically, travoprost free acid is metabolized to inactive metabolites via beta-oxidation of the α(carboxylic acid) chain to give the 1,2-dinor and 1,2,3,4-tetranor analogs, via oxidation of the 15-hydroxyl moiety, as well as via reduction of the 13,14 double bond.

Route of eliminationLess than 2% of the topical ocular dose of travoprost was excreted in the urine within 4 hours as the travoprost free acid.
Half lifeTerminal elimination half-life of travoprost free acid is 45 minutes.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySymptoms of overexposure include irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and respiratory tract.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9857
Blood Brain Barrier+0.887
Caco-2 permeable+0.5
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5907
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8237
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6435
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8856
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8327
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8383
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.652
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.728
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7607
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9125
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6844
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8546
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7657
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7427
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9088
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9726
Rat acute toxicity3.5280 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9744
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6722
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Alcon inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionophthalmic
Solutionophthalmic0.004 %
Solution/ dropsophthalmic.04 mg/mL
Solutionophthalmic.04 mg/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Travatan 0.004% Solution 5ml Bottle190.82USD bottle
Travatan Z 0.004% Solution 5ml Bottle190.82USD bottle
Travatan 0.004% Solution 2.5ml Bottle95.41USD bottle
Travatan Z 0.004% Solution 2.5ml Bottle95.41USD bottle
Travatan 0.004% eye drop45.87USD ml
Travatan z 0.004% eye drop36.7USD ml
Travatan 0.004 % Solution12.18USD ml
Travatan Z 0.004 % Solution12.18USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2129287 No2002-05-142014-08-02Canada
CA2181172 No2003-04-292015-12-19Canada
US5631287 No1994-12-222014-12-22Us
US6503497 No1995-05-062012-05-06Us
US8178582 No2009-10-102029-10-10Us
US8268299 No2009-10-132029-10-13Us
US8323630 No2007-09-202027-09-20Us
US8388941 No2007-09-202027-09-20Us
US8722735 No2009-10-102029-10-10Us
US8754123 No2009-05-192029-05-19Us
US9144561 No2009-03-132029-03-13Us
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility>16 mg/ml at 25.0°CNot Available
logP4.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00759 mg/mLALOGPS
logP4.02ALOGPS
logP3.84ChemAxon
logS-4.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.95ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area96.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity127.86 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Lim KS, Nau CB, O'Byrne MM, Hodge DO, Toris CB, McLaren JW, Johnson DH: Mechanism of action of bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost in healthy subjects. A crossover study. Ophthalmology. 2008 May;115(5):790-795.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.07.002. [PubMed:18452763 ]
  2. Costagliola C, dell'Omo R, Romano MR, Rinaldi M, Zeppa L, Parmeggiani F: Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure - part II. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and prostamides. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;10(17):2859-70. doi: 10.1517/14656560903300129. [PubMed:19929706 ]
  3. Ferrari G, Scagliotti GV: Serum and urinary vascular endothelial growth factor levels in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Dec;32A(13):2368-9. [PubMed:9038626 ]
  4. Toris CB, Gabelt BT, Kaufman PL: Update on the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandins for intraocular pressure reduction. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;53 Suppl1:S107-20. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.08.010. [PubMed:19038618 ]
  5. Arranz-Marquez E, Teus MA: Prostanoids for the management of glaucoma. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008 Nov;7(6):801-8. doi: 10.1517/14740330802465474 . [PubMed:18983226 ]
External Links
ATC CodesS01EE04
AHFS Codes
  • 52:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (36.8 KB)
MSDSDownload (72.3 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
InfliximabThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Infliximab.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Prostaglandin f receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF2-alpha). The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Initiates luteolysis in the corpus luteum (By similarity). Isoforms 2 to 7 do not bind PGF2-alpha but are proposed to modulate signaling by participating in variant receptor complexes; heterodimers between isoform 1 and ...
Gene Name:
PTGFR
Uniprot ID:
P43088
Molecular Weight:
40054.1 Da
References
  1. Ota T, Aihara M, Narumiya S, Araie M: The effects of prostaglandin analogues on IOP in prostanoid FP-receptor-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Nov;46(11):4159-63. [PubMed:16249494 ]
  2. Thieme H, Schimmat C, Munzer G, Boxberger M, Fromm M, Pfeiffer N, Rosenthal R: Endothelin antagonism: effects of FP receptor agonists prostaglandin F2alpha and fluprostenol on trabecular meshwork contractility. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Mar;47(3):938-45. [PubMed:16505027 ]
  3. Lim KS, Nau CB, O'Byrne MM, Hodge DO, Toris CB, McLaren JW, Johnson DH: Mechanism of action of bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost in healthy subjects. A crossover study. Ophthalmology. 2008 May;115(5):790-795.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.07.002. [PubMed:18452763 ]
  4. Neacsu AM: [Receptors involved in the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandines]. Oftalmologia. 2009;53(2):3-7. [PubMed:19697832 ]
  5. Costagliola C, dell'Omo R, Romano MR, Rinaldi M, Zeppa L, Parmeggiani F: Pharmacotherapy of intraocular pressure - part II. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and prostamides. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009 Dec;10(17):2859-70. doi: 10.1517/14656560903300129. [PubMed:19929706 ]
  6. Ferrari G, Scagliotti GV: Serum and urinary vascular endothelial growth factor levels in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Eur J Cancer. 1996 Dec;32A(13):2368-9. [PubMed:9038626 ]
  7. Toris CB, Gabelt BT, Kaufman PL: Update on the mechanism of action of topical prostaglandins for intraocular pressure reduction. Surv Ophthalmol. 2008 Nov;53 Suppl1:S107-20. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2008.08.010. [PubMed:19038618 ]
  8. Arranz-Marquez E, Teus MA: Prostanoids for the management of glaucoma. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2008 Nov;7(6):801-8. doi: 10.1517/14740330802465474 . [PubMed:18983226 ]
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 27, 2016 01:58