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Identification
NameL-Tyrosine
Accession NumberDB00135  (NUTR00059)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from phenylalanine. It is also the precursor of epinephrine; thyroid hormones; and melanin. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-alpha-amino-P-Hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
(−)-α-amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
(S)-(-)-Tyrosine
(S)-2-Amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid
(S)-3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)alanine
(S)-alpha-amino-4-Hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid
(S)-Tyrosine
(S)-α-amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid
4-hydroxy-L-phenylalanine
L-Tyrosin
L-Tyrosine
Tyr
TYROSINE
Y
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
RxosineNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrlytes In 10% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
4.25%trav. Amino Acid InJ.W.O.elect.5%dext.Clintec Nutrition Company
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 3.5% MAbbott Laboratories, Limited
Aminosyn 5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira Healthcare Corporation
AppbutamonePhysician Therapeutics Llc
Appbutamone-DPhysician Therapeutics Llc
AppforminPhysician Therapeutics Llc
Appformin-DPhysician Therapeutics Llc
ClinimixBaxter Corporation
Clinimix 2.5% Travasol Aa Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose InjecBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division
NovamineHospira, Inc.
Olimel 4.4%Baxter Corporation
Olimel 5.7%Baxter Corporation
TravasolBaxter Corporation
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII42HK56048U
CAS number60-18-4
WeightAverage: 181.1885
Monoisotopic: 181.073893223
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=OUYCCCASQSFEME-QMMMGPOBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO3/c10-8(9(12)13)5-6-1-3-7(11)4-2-6/h1-4,8,11H,5,10H2,(H,12,13)/t8-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanoic acids. These are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassPhenylpropanoic acids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenylpropanoic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationTyrosine is claimed to act as an effective antidepressant, however results are mixed. Tyrosine has also been claimed to reduce stress and combat narcolepsy and chronic fatigue, however these claims have been refuted by some studies.
PharmacodynamicsTyrosine is a nonessential amino acid synthesized in the body from phenylalanine. Tyrosine is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. Tyrosine is a precursor to the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. It can act as a mood elevator and an anti-depressant. It may improve memory and increase mental alertness. Tyrosine aids in the production of melanin and plays a critical role in the production of thyroxin (thyroid hormones). Tyrosine deficiencies are manifested by hypothyroidism, low blood pressure and low body temperature. Supplemental tyrosine has been used to reduce stress and combat narcolepsy and chronic fatigue.
Mechanism of actionTyrosine is produced in cells by hydroxylating the essential amino acid phenylalanine. This relationship is much like that between cysteine and methionine. Half of the phenylalanine required goes into the production of tyrosine; if the diet is rich in tyrosine itself, the requirements for phenylalanine are reduced by about 50%. The mechanism of L-tyrosine's antidepressant activity can be accounted for by the precursor role of L-tyrosine in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine. Elevated brain norepinephrine and dopamine levels are thought to be associated with antidepressant effects.
Related Articles
AbsorptionL-tyrosine is absorbed from the small intestine by a sodium-dependent active transport process.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

In the liver, L-tyrosine is involved in a number of biochemical reactions, including protein synthesis and oxidative catabolic reactions. L-tyrosine that is not metabolized in the liver is distributed via the systemic circulation to the various tissues of the body.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityL-Tyrosine has very low toxicity. There have been very few reports of toxicity. LD50 (oral, rat) > 5110 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00170
PhenylketonuriaDiseaseSMP00206
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00012
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)DiseaseSMP00369
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)DiseaseSMP00370
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00497
Thyroid hormone synthesisMetabolicSMP00716
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00008
AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidintravenous
Injection, solutionintravenous
Kit
Injection, solution, concentrateintravenous
Emulsionintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Tyrosine powder1.16USD g
L-tyrosine powder0.94USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point343 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility479 mg/L (at 25 °C)SEIDELL,A (1941)
logP-2.26HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-2.57ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.2 (at 25 °C)LEHNINGER,A (1975)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.67 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.4ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.19ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area83.55 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity47.1 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.36 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-2nz1000000-cbbf40bb26fc84f2aeadView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-3vz1000000-ca45f993f95c8b0cee44View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-3wz1000000-5749069211ba15d713efView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-zag0000000-2c87373c0d964e0edef5View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-2xz1000000-848b2a4f247a0b3f14e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-zil0000000-6d4550940f4dde6f18ffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-6z40000000-5cc19cad5dc24b3b9b11View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-5rz1000000-de22041357aadf60a06bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0z00000000-580de2c16cd24559cd5cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zi00000000-f233fbc6c58236ee4aebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z400000000-8b5e12eba034bcfdf8a1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z90100000-b43356ad3da227b488cbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-c04f0be6515621dda5acView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-3ed8b68bfade9194763bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-fe6a1ce69851a8c5db00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-aafdcea07be221817fd4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-66a5b9a0a48bdc0a2b47View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-13eb4252ca23455a58daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-fb85798746829bac3f3dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0vez98q100-5504e667281c746669ecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-3z00000000-f65cb3ad2fa730c922f7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0z01000000-a9276fe43ef61b4693e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-00ezb50000-21b4bd9870bf4965a6d1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-1yjygz7810-aae99eb0b66dd1c7036dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-3z00000000-4104a2ca5d5ef5f22f6dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0z00000000-f309996d57a95c719debView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-005e0z0000-112cd9c2eea42dbc079bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0z00000000-c7f95918d936586f633dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-5z00000000-d1682546c1e0893c71e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-bz00000000-a0cc78ed35e56dd812a5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-zk00000000-d3f399f5dd10e338e25aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-za00000000-8acd8d370f194bfe28edView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-1z00000000-6b26ce2f5b326ace12a4View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hai-quan Mao, Kam W. Leong, “Biodegradable poly (phosphoester-co-desaminotyrosyl L-tyrosine ester) compounds, compositions, articles and methods for making and using the same.” U.S. Patent US5912225, issued May, 1960.

US5912225
General References
  1. Hoffhines AJ, Damoc E, Bridges KG, Leary JA, Moore KL: Detection and purification of tyrosine-sulfated proteins using a novel anti-sulfotyrosine monoclonal antibody. J Biol Chem. 2006 Dec 8;281(49):37877-87. Epub 2006 Oct 17. [PubMed:17046811 ]
  2. Molnar GA, Wagner Z, Marko L, Ko Szegi T, Mohas M, Kocsis B, Matus Z, Wagner L, Tamasko M, Mazak I, Laczy B, Nagy J, Wittmann I: Urinary ortho-tyrosine excretion in diabetes mellitus and renal failure: evidence for hydroxyl radical production. Kidney Int. 2005 Nov;68(5):2281-7. [PubMed:16221230 ]
  3. Molnar GA, Nemes V, Biro Z, Ludany A, Wagner Z, Wittmann I: Accumulation of the hydroxyl free radical markers meta-, ortho-tyrosine and DOPA in cataractous lenses is accompanied by a lower protein and phenylalanine content of the water-soluble phase. Free Radic Res. 2005 Dec;39(12):1359-66. [PubMed:16298866 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.7 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons.
Gene Name:
TH
Uniprot ID:
P07101
Molecular Weight:
58599.545 Da
References
  1. Olsovska J, Novotna J, Flieger M, Spizek J: Assay of tyrosine hydroxylase based on high-performance liquid chromatography separation and quantification of L-dopa and L-tyrosine. Biomed Chromatogr. 2007 Dec;21(12):1252-8. [PubMed:17604359 ]
  2. Bodnar I, Hechtl D, Szekacs D, Olah M, Nagy GM: Effect of local (intracerebral and intracerebroventricular) administration of tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor on the neuroendocrine dopaminergic neurons and prolactin release. Ideggyogy Sz. 2007 Mar 30;60(3-4):177-81. [PubMed:17451064 ]
  3. Rostrup M, Fossbakk A, Hauge A, Kleppe R, Gnaiger E, Haavik J: Oxygen dependence of tyrosine hydroxylase. Amino Acids. 2008 Apr;34(3):455-64. Epub 2007 May 23. [PubMed:17520326 ]
  4. Richards AB, Scheel TA, Wang K, Henkemeyer M, Kromer LF: EphB1 null mice exhibit neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars reticulata and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 May;25(9):2619-28. [PubMed:17561836 ]
  5. Ugriumov MV: [Brain neurons partly expressing monoaminergic phenotype: distribution, development, and functional significance]. Usp Fiziol Nauk. 2007 Apr-Jun;38(2):3-25. [PubMed:17578016 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tyrosine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).
Gene Name:
YARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Z4
Molecular Weight:
53198.56 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Zhang Y, Wang L, Schultz PG, Wilson IA: Crystal structures of apo wild-type M. jannaschii tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and an engineered TyrRS specific for O-methyl-L-tyrosine. Protein Sci. 2005 May;14(5):1340-9. [PubMed:15840835 ]
  4. Kiga D, Sakamoto K, Kodama K, Kigawa T, Matsuda T, Yabuki T, Shirouzu M, Harada Y, Nakayama H, Takio K, Hasegawa Y, Endo Y, Hirao I, Yokoyama S: An engineered Escherichia coli tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase for site-specific incorporation of an unnatural amino acid into proteins in eukaryotic translation and its application in a wheat germ cell-free system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23;99(15):9715-20. Epub 2002 Jul 3. [PubMed:12097643 ]
  5. Kobayashi T, Nureki O, Ishitani R, Yaremchuk A, Tukalo M, Cusack S, Sakamoto K, Yokoyama S: Structural basis for orthogonal tRNA specificities of tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases for genetic code expansion. Nat Struct Biol. 2003 Jun;10(6):425-32. [PubMed:12754495 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tyrosine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr) in a two-step reaction: tyrosine is first activated by ATP to form Tyr-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Tyr).
Gene Name:
YARS
Uniprot ID:
P54577
Molecular Weight:
59143.025 Da
References
  1. Bonnefond L, Frugier M, Touze E, Lorber B, Florentz C, Giege R, Rudinger-Thirion J, Sauter C: Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase: the first crystallization of a human mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Apr 1;63(Pt 4):338-41. Epub 2007 Mar 30. [PubMed:17401211 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular Weight:
50398.895 Da
References
  1. Dong S, Kang S, Gu TL, Kardar S, Fu H, Lonial S, Khoury HJ, Khuri F, Chen J: 14-3-3 Integrates prosurvival signals mediated by the AKT and MAPK pathways in ZNF198-FGFR1-transformed hematopoietic cells. Blood. 2007 Jul 1;110(1):360-9. Epub 2007 Mar 27. [PubMed:17389761 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr.
Gene Name:
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID:
P36021
Molecular Weight:
59510.86 Da
References
  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. [PubMed:12871948 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:08