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Identification
NameDipivefrin
Accession NumberDB00449  (APRD00930)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionDipivefrin is a prodrug of adrenaline, which is used to treat glaucoma. It is available as ophthalmic solution (eye drops).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+-)-4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
1-(3',4'-Dipivaloyloxyphenyl)-2-methylamino-1-ethanol
4-[1-Hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-O-phenylene divavalate
Dipivalyl Epinephrine
Dipivefrin
Dipivefrina
Dipivéfrine
Dipivefrinum
Pro-Epinephrine
External Identifiers
  • DPE
  • K 30081
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Dipivefrin-liq Oph 0.1%liquid.1 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada Inc1995-12-311996-08-16Canada
Dpe Ophthalmic Solution - 0.1%drops.1 %ophthalmic; topicalAlcon Canada Inc1995-12-311999-12-23Canada
PMS-dipivefrindrops0.1 %ophthalmicPharmascience Inc1998-08-31Not applicableCanada
Propine Liq 0.1%liquid1 mgophthalmicAllergan Inc1981-12-312011-08-04Canada
Ratio-dipivefrinsolution0.1 %ophthalmicRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1995-12-312006-08-04Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-dipivefrinliquid0.1 %ophthalmicApotex Inc2000-07-17Not applicableCanada
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AKProAkorn
D EpifrinAllergan
DiopineAllergan
PivalephrineSanten Pharmaceutical
PropineAllergan
ThilodrinAlcon
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Probeta - Liq OphAllergan Inc
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Dipivefrin Hydrochloride
Thumb
  • InChI Key: VKFAUCPBMAGVRG-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 387.181250782
  • Average Mass: 387.898
DBSALT000626
Categories
UNII8Q1PVL543G
CAS number52365-63-6
WeightAverage: 351.4373
Monoisotopic: 351.204573043
Chemical FormulaC19H29NO5
InChI KeyInChIKey=OCUJLLGVOUDECM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H29NO5/c1-18(2,3)16(22)24-14-9-8-12(13(21)11-20-7)10-15(14)25-17(23)19(4,5)6/h8-10,13,20-21H,11H2,1-7H3
IUPAC Name
2-[(2,2-dimethylpropanoyl)oxy]-5-[1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenyl 2,2-dimethylpropanoate
SMILES
CNCC(O)C1=CC(OC(=O)C(C)(C)C)=C(OC(=O)C(C)(C)C)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol esters. These are aromatic compounds containing a benzene ring substituted by a hydroxyl group and an ester group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenol esters
Direct ParentPhenol esters
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenol ester
  • Aralkylamine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationDipivefrin is a prodrug which is used as initial therapy for the control of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma.
PharmacodynamicsDipivefrin is a member of a class of drugs known as prodrugs. Prodrugs are usually not active in themselves and require biotransformation to the parent compound before therapeutic activity is seen. These modifications are undertaken to enhance absorption, decrease side effects and enhance stability and comfort, thus making the parent compound a more useful drug. Enhanced absorption makes the prodrug a more efficient delivery system for the parent drug because less drug will be needed to produce the desired therapeutic response. Dipivefrin is a prodrug of epinephrine formed by the diesterification of epinephrine and pivalic acid. The addition of pivaloyl groups to the epinephrine molecule enhances its lipophilic character and, as a consequence, its penetration into the anterior chamber.
Mechanism of actionDipivefrin is a prodrug with little or no pharmacologically activity until it is hydrolyzed into epinephrine inside the human eye. The liberated epinephrine, an adrenergic agonist, appears to exert its action by stimulating α -and/or β2-adrenergic receptors, leading to a decrease in aqueous production and an enhancement of outflow facility. The dipivefrin prodrug delivery system is a more efficient way of delivering the therapeutic effects of epinephrine, with fewer side effects than are associated with conventional epinephrine therapy.
Related Articles
AbsorptionWell absorbed following occular administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Dipivefrin is converted to epinephrine inside the human eye by enzyme hydrolysis.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral LD50 in rat is 183 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8575
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9747
Caco-2 permeable-0.7458
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7499
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6617
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7348
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8238
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8369
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5056
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9129
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5546
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9757
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9063
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8624
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7095
Rat acute toxicity2.2818 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9635
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8847
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Akorn inc
  • Bausch and lomb pharmaceuticals inc
  • Falcon pharmaceuticals ltd
  • Allergan pharmaceutical
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidophthalmic0.1 %
Liquidophthalmic.1 %
Dropsophthalmic; topical.1 %
Dropsophthalmic0.1 %
Liquidophthalmic
Liquidophthalmic1 mg
Solutionophthalmic0.1 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Propine 0.1% eye drops5.02USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point146-147Hussain, A. and Truelove, J.E.; U.S. Patents 3,809.714; May 7,1974; and 3,839,584; October 1, 1974; both assigned to Inter Rx Research Corp. Henschler, D., Wagner, J. and Hampel, H.; US. Patent 4,085,270; April 18,1978; assigned to Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik Adolf Klinge & Co. (W. Germany).
water solubilityFreely soluble as HCl saltNot Available
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0582 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.17ALOGPS
logP3.71ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.33ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area84.86 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity94.94 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Hussain, A. and Truelove, J.E.; U.S. Patents 3,809.714; May 7,1974; and 3,839,584; October 1, 1974; both assigned to Inter Rx Research Corp.
Henschler, D., Wagner, J. and Hampel, H.; US. Patent 4,085,270; April 18,1978; assigned to
Chemisch-Pharmazeutische Fabrik Adolf Klinge & Co. (W. Germany).

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesS01EA02
AHFS Codes
  • 52:24.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (60.3 KB)
MSDSDownload (50.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE is combined with Dipivefrin.
AcebutololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Acebutolol.
AcebutololAcebutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
AlprenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Alprenolol.
AlprenololAlprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
AmineptineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Amineptine.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Amitriptyline.
ArotinololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Arotinolol.
AtenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Atenolol.
AtenololAtenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Dipivefrin.
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dipivefrin is combined with Atosiban.
BefunololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Befunolol.
BendroflumethiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benmoxin is combined with Dipivefrin.
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Betahistine.
BetaxololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Betaxolol.
BetaxololBetaxolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
BevantololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bevantolol.
BisoprololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bisoprolol.
BisoprololBisoprolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
BopindololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bopindolol.
BopindololBopindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
BufuralolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bufuralol.
BumetanideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bumetanide.
BupranololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Bupranolol.
BupranololBupranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Caroxazone is combined with Dipivefrin.
CarteololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carteolol.
CarteololCarteolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
CarvedilolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Carvedilol.
CeliprololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Celiprolol.
CeliprololCeliprolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
ChlorothiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorothiazide.
ChlorthalidoneDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorthalidone.
ClomipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Clomipramine.
CyclobenzaprineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Cyclobenzaprine.
DesipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Desipramine.
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.
DosulepinThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Dosulepin.
DoxepinThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Doxepin.
DuloxetineDuloxetine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.
EsmirtazapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Esmirtazapine.
EsmololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Esmolol.
EsmololEsmolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
Etacrynic acidDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Etacrynic acid.
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furazolidone is combined with Dipivefrin.
FurosemideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Furosemide.
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydracarbazine is combined with Dipivefrin.
HydrochlorothiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.
HydroflumethiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydroflumethiazide.
ImipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Imipramine.
IndapamideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Indapamide.
IndenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Indenolol.
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproclozide is combined with Dipivefrin.
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iproniazid is combined with Dipivefrin.
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isocarboxazid is combined with Dipivefrin.
LabetalolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Labetalol.
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mebanazine is combined with Dipivefrin.
MethyclothiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Methyclothiazide.
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylene blue is combined with Dipivefrin.
MetolazoneDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Metolazone.
MetoprololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Metoprolol.
MetoprololMetoprolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
MianserinThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Mianserin.
MilnacipranMilnacipran may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minaprine is combined with Dipivefrin.
MirtazapineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Mirtazapine.
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moclobemide is combined with Dipivefrin.
NadololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Nadolol.
NadololNadolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
NebivololNebivolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nialamide is combined with Dipivefrin.
NortriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Nortriptyline.
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Octamoxin is combined with Dipivefrin.
OxprenololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Oxprenolol.
OxprenololOxprenolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pargyline is combined with Dipivefrin.
PenbutololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Penbutolol.
PenbutololPenbutolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Dipivefrin.
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pheniprazine is combined with Dipivefrin.
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxypropazine is combined with Dipivefrin.
PindololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Pindolol.
PindololPindolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
PiretanideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Piretanide.
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirlindole is combined with Dipivefrin.
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pivhydrazine is combined with Dipivefrin.
PolythiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Polythiazide.
PractololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Practolol.
PropranololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Propranolol.
PropranololPropranolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
ProtriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Protriptyline.
QuinethazoneDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Quinethazone.
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rasagiline is combined with Dipivefrin.
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Safrazine is combined with Dipivefrin.
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Selegiline is combined with Dipivefrin.
SotalolDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Sotalol.
SotalolSotalol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
TianeptineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Tianeptine.
TimololDipivefrin may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Timolol.
TimololTimolol may decrease the bronchodilatory activities of Dipivefrin.
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Toloxatone is combined with Dipivefrin.
TorasemideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Dipivefrin.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Dipivefrin.
TrichlormethiazideDipivefrin may increase the hypokalemic activities of Trichlormethiazide.
TrimipramineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dipivefrin can be decreased when used in combination with Trimipramine.
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Dipivefrin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein heterodimerization activity
Specific Function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins. Nuclear ADRA1A-ADRA1B heterooligomers regulate phenylephrine(PE)-stimulated ERK signaling in cardiac myocytes.
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular Weight:
51486.005 Da
References
  1. Sanbe A, Tanaka Y, Fujiwara Y, Tsumura H, Yamauchi J, Cotecchia S, Koike K, Tsujimoto G, Tanoue A: Alpha1-adrenoceptors are required for normal male sexual function. Br J Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;152(3):332-40. Epub 2007 Jul 2. [PubMed:17603545 ]
  2. Tomiyama Y, Kobayashi K, Tadachi M, Kobayashi S, Inada Y, Kobayashi M, Yamazaki Y: Expressions and mechanical functions of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in hamster ureter. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 14;573(1-3):201-5. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17658513 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianser...
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular Weight:
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Ozakca I, Arioglu E, Guner S, Altan VM, Ozcelikay AT: Role of beta-3-adrenoceptor in catecholamine-induced relaxations in gastric fundus from control and diabetic rats. Pharmacology. 2007;80(4):227-38. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17622774 ]
  3. Prenner L, Sieben A, Zeller K, Weiser D, Haberlein H: Reduction of high-affinity beta2-adrenergic receptor binding by hyperforin and hyperoside on rat C6 glioblastoma cells measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2007 May 1;46(17):5106-13. Epub 2007 Apr 7. [PubMed:17417877 ]
  4. Lucin KM, Sanders VM, Jones TB, Malarkey WB, Popovich PG: Impaired antibody synthesis after spinal cord injury is level dependent and is due to sympathetic nervous system dysregulation. Exp Neurol. 2007 Sep;207(1):75-84. Epub 2007 Jun 2. [PubMed:17597612 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
potentiator
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular Weight:
68417.575 Da
References
  1. Nakamura M, Shirasawa E, Hikida M: Characterization of esterases involved in the hydrolysis of dipivefrin hydrochloride. Ophthalmic Res. 1993;25(1):46-51. [PubMed:8446367 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Nakamura M, Shirasawa E, Hikida M: Characterization of esterases involved in the hydrolysis of dipivefrin hydrochloride. Ophthalmic Res. 1993;25(1):46-51. [PubMed:8446367 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23