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Identification
NameChloroquine
Accession NumberDB00608  (APRD00468)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
Description

The prototypical antimalarial agent with a mechanism that is not well understood. It has also been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in the systemic therapy of amebic liver abscesses. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Chloraquine
Chlorochin
Chlorochine
Chloroquina
Chloroquine
Chloroquinium
Chloroquinum
Cloroquina
N(4)-(7-chloro-4-Quinolinyl)-N(1),N(1)-diethyl-1,4-pentanediamine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Aralentablet250 mgoralSanofi Synthelabo Canada Inc1951-12-312005-08-01Canada
Teva-chloroquinetablet250 mgoralTeva Canada Limited1968-12-31Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chloroquinetablet, coated500 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1999-09-17Not applicableUs
Chloroquinetablet250 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1975-07-09Not applicableUs
Chloroquinetablet, coated500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1999-09-17Not applicableUs
Chloroquinetablet, coated500 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp1999-09-17Not applicableUs
Chloroquinetablet250 mg/1oralWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp1975-07-09Not applicableUs
Chloroquinetablet, coated500 mg/1oralGolden State Medical Supply, Inc.1999-09-17Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet250 mg/1oralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories, Inc.1974-12-11Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet250 mg/1oralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-07-01Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2011-03-15Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-03-15Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralbryant ranch prepack2011-03-15Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet, film coated500 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-03-15Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet, film coated250 mg/1oralRanbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.2011-03-15Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet500 mg/1oralRising Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2011-07-01Not applicableUs
Chloroquine Phosphatetablet500 mg/1oralGlobal Pharmaceuticals, Division of Impax Laboratories, Inc.2005-11-01Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ArtrichinNot Available
BemaphateNot Available
CapquinNot Available
MalarexActavis
Nivaquine BSanofi
ResoquineNot Available
ReumachlorNot Available
SanoquinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Chloroquine diphosphate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001189
Chloroquine hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001317
Chloroquine phosphate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: AEUAEICGCMSYCQ-UHFFFAOYNA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 417.15842065
  • Average Mass: 417.867
DBSALT000025
Categories
UNII886U3H6UFF
CAS number54-05-7
WeightAverage: 319.872
Monoisotopic: 319.181525554
Chemical FormulaC18H26ClN3
InChI KeyInChIKey=WHTVZRBIWZFKQO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H26ClN3/c1-4-22(5-2)12-6-7-14(3)21-17-10-11-20-18-13-15(19)8-9-16(17)18/h8-11,13-14H,4-7,12H2,1-3H3,(H,20,21)
IUPAC Name
7-chloro-N-[5-(diethylamino)pentan-2-yl]quinolin-4-amine
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCCC(C)NC1=C2C=CC(Cl)=CC2=NC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aminoquinolines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an amino group attached to a quinoline ring system.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassQuinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassAminoquinolines and derivatives
Direct ParentAminoquinolines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Chloroquinoline
  • Aminoquinoline
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Aminopyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the suppressive treatment and for acute attacks of malaria due to P. vivax, P.malariae, P. ovale, and susceptible strains of P. falciparum, Second-line agent in treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis
PharmacodynamicsChloroquine is the prototype anti malarial drug, most widely used to treat all types of malaria except for disease caused by chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum. It is highly effective against erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae, sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum and gametocytes of Plasmodium vivax. Being alkaline, the drug reaches high concentration within the food vacuoles of the parasite and raises its pH. It is found to induce rapid clumping of the pigment. Chloroquine inhibits the parasitic enzyme heme polymerase that converts the toxic heme into non-toxic hemazoin, thereby resulting in the accumulation of toxic heme within the parasite. It may also interfere with the biosynthesis of nucleic acids.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of plasmodicidal action of chloroquine is not completely certain. Like other quinoline derivatives, it is thought to inhibit heme polymerase activity. This results in accumulation of free heme, which is toxic to the parasites. nside red blood cells, the malarial parasite must degrade hemoglobin to acquire essential amino acids, which the parasite requires to construct its own protein and for energy metabolism. Digestion is carried out in a vacuole of the parasite cell. During this process, the parasite produces the toxic and soluble molecule heme. The heme moiety consists of a porphyrin ring called Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX (FP). To avoid destruction by this molecule, the parasite biocrystallizes heme to form hemozoin, a non-toxic molecule. Hemozoin collects in the digestive vacuole as insoluble crystals. Chloroquine enters the red blood cell, inhabiting parasite cell, and digestive vacuole by simple diffusion. Chloroquine then becomes protonated (to CQ2+), as the digestive vacuole is known to be acidic (pH 4.7); chloroquine then cannot leave by diffusion. Chloroquine caps hemozoin molecules to prevent further biocrystallization of heme, thus leading to heme buildup. Chloroquine binds to heme (or FP) to form what is known as the FP-Chloroquine complex; this complex is highly toxic to the cell and disrupts membrane function. Action of the toxic FP-Chloroquine and FP results in cell lysis and ultimately parasite cell autodigestion. In essence, the parasite cell drowns in its own metabolic products.
Related Articles
AbsorptionCompletely absorbed from gastrointestinal tract
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding~55% of the drug in the plasma is bound to nondiffusible plasma constituents
Metabolism

Hepatic (partially)

Route of eliminationExcretion of chloroquine is quite slow, but is increased by acidification of the urine.
Half life1-2 months
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Plasmodium
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9939
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7421
Caco-2 permeable+0.5804
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.622
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7773
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.6046
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8422
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8804
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6009
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8586
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9218
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8308
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5496
Ames testAMES toxic0.9106
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8374
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.9547 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6959
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8293
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ipca laboratories ltd
  • Md pharmaceutical inc
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, coatedoral500 mg/1
Tabletoral250 mg/1
Tabletoral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral250 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedoral500 mg/1
Tabletoral250 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Aralen 500 mg tablet7.85USD tablet
Aralen phosphate 500 mg tablet7.78USD tablet
Chloroquine ph 500 mg tablet5.64USD tablet
Chloroquine Phosphate 500 mg tablet5.42USD tablet
Chloroquine phosphate powdr4.29USD g
Plaquenil 200 mg tablet3.14USD tablet
Chloroquine Phosphate 250 mg tablet2.57USD tablet
Chloroquine ph 250 mg tablet2.49USD tablet
Novo-Chloroquine 250 mg Tablet0.35USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility10.6 mg/LNot Available
logP4.63HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa10.1SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0175 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.28ALOGPS
logP3.93ChemAxon
logS-4.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.32ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area28.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity96.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability37.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.47 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-000i-9320000000-2663c398ede2e502ca34View in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Andersag, H., Breitner, S.and Jung, H.; U S . Patent 2,233,970; March 4,1941; assigned to
Winthrop Chemical Company, Inc.

US2233970
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesP01BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:30.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (153 KB)
MSDSDownload (74.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbirateroneThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololThe metabolism of Acebutolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
AcepromazineThe serum concentration of Acepromazine can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
Agalsidase betaThe therapeutic efficacy of Agalsidase beta can be decreased when used in combination with Chloroquine.
AlbendazoleThe serum concentration of Albendazole can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
Aluminum hydroxideThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
AmpicillinThe serum concentration of Ampicillin can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
ArtemetherThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Artemether is combined with Chloroquine.
BetaxololThe metabolism of Betaxolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BisoprololThe metabolism of Bisoprolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
Calcium carbonateThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Calcium carbonate.
CarvedilolThe metabolism of Carvedilol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
CitalopramChloroquine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Chloroquine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DapsoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Dapsone.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
DofetilideChloroquine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
EsmololThe metabolism of Esmolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Chloroquine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Fluvoxamine can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GoserelinGoserelin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
IvabradineIvabradine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KaolinThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Kaolin.
LabetalolThe metabolism of Labetalol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
Lanthanum carbonateThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Lanthanum carbonate.
LeuprolideLeuprolide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumefantrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Lumefantrine.
Magnesium hydroxideThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Magnesium hydroxide.
Magnesium oxideThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Magnesium oxide.
MebendazoleThe serum concentration of Mebendazole can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
MefloquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Mefloquine.
MetoprololThe metabolism of Metoprolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
Nitric OxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitric Oxide is combined with Chloroquine.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Chloroquine.
OxibendazoleThe serum concentration of Oxibendazole can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Panobinostat.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PenbutololThe metabolism of Penbutolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PindololThe metabolism of Pindolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
PraziquantelThe serum concentration of Praziquantel can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Prilocaine.
PropranololThe metabolism of Propranolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
PyrantelThe serum concentration of Pyrantel can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
QuinacrineThe serum concentration of Quinacrine can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
Rabies vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Rabies vaccine can be decreased when used in combination with Chloroquine.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium bicarbonateThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Sodium bicarbonate.
Sodium NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Sodium Nitrite.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Tamoxifen can be reduced when Tamoxifen is used in combination with Chloroquine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
ThiabendazoleThe serum concentration of Thiabendazole can be decreased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Chloroquine.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Chloroquine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TimololThe metabolism of Timolol can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Chloroquine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TramadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Chloroquine.
Food Interactions
  • Take with food to reduce irritation and increase bioavailability.

Targets

1. Fe(II)-protoporphyrin IX
Kind
Small molecule
Organism
Plasmodium falciparum
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
References
  1. Fitch CD: Ferriprotoporphyrin IX, phospholipids, and the antimalarial actions of quinoline drugs. Life Sci. 2004 Mar 5;74(16):1957-72. [PubMed:14967191 ]
  2. Dorn A, Vippagunta SR, Matile H, Jaquet C, Vennerstrom JL, Ridley RG: An assessment of drug-haematin binding as a mechanism for inhibition of haematin polymerisation by quinoline antimalarials. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Mar 15;55(6):727-36. [PubMed:9586944 ]
  3. Stoller TJ, Shields D: The propeptide of preprosomatostatin mediates intracellular transport and secretion of alpha-globin from mammalian cells. J Cell Biol. 1989 May;108(5):1647-55. [PubMed:2565905 ]
  4. Mockenhaupt FP, May J, Bergqvist Y, Meyer CG, Falusi AG, Bienzle U: Evidence for a reduced effect of chloroquine against Plasmodium falciparum in alpha-thalassaemic children. Trop Med Int Health. 2001 Feb;6(2):102-7. [PubMed:11251905 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Molecular Weight:
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs ...
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular Weight:
25644.15 Da
References
  1. Jang CH, Choi JH, Byun MS, Jue DM: Chloroquine inhibits production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes/macrophages by different modes. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Jun;45(6):703-10. Epub 2006 Jan 17. [PubMed:16418198 ]
  2. Rachmilewitz D, Karmeli F, Shteingart S, Lee J, Takabayashi K, Raz E: Immunostimulatory oligonucleotides inhibit colonic proinflammatory cytokine production in ulcerative colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2006 May;12(5):339-45. [PubMed:16670522 ]
  3. Wozniacka A, Lesiak A, Narbutt J, McCauliffe DP, Sysa-Jedrzejowska A: Chloroquine treatment influences proinflammatory cytokine levels in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Lupus. 2006;15(5):268-75. [PubMed:16761500 ]
  4. Lim EJ, Lee SH, Lee JG, Chin BR, Bae YS, Kim JR, Lee CH, Baek SH: Activation of toll-like receptor-9 induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through Akt and tumor necrosis factor-alpha signaling. FEBS Lett. 2006 Aug 7;580(18):4533-8. Epub 2006 Jul 17. [PubMed:16870179 ]
  5. Dias-Melicio LA, Calvi SA, Bordon AP, Golim MA, Peracoli MT, Soares AM: Chloroquine is therapeutic in murine experimental model of paracoccidioidomycosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007 Jun;50(1):133-43. Epub 2007 Apr 23. [PubMed:17456179 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function:
Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR9 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by unmethylated cytidine-phosphate-guanosine (CpG) dinucleotides. Acts via MYD88 and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the i...
Gene Name:
TLR9
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR96
Molecular Weight:
115858.665 Da
References
  1. Trevani AS, Chorny A, Salamone G, Vermeulen M, Gamberale R, Schettini J, Raiden S, Geffner J: Bacterial DNA activates human neutrophils by a CpG-independent pathway. Eur J Immunol. 2003 Nov;33(11):3164-74. [PubMed:14579285 ]
  2. Rutz M, Metzger J, Gellert T, Luppa P, Lipford GB, Wagner H, Bauer S: Toll-like receptor 9 binds single-stranded CpG-DNA in a sequence- and pH-dependent manner. Eur J Immunol. 2004 Sep;34(9):2541-50. [PubMed:15307186 ]
  3. Lenert P: Inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotides - therapeutic promise for systemic autoimmune diseases? Clin Exp Immunol. 2005 Apr;140(1):1-10. [PubMed:15762869 ]
  4. Huang LY, Ishii KJ, Akira S, Aliberti J, Golding B: Th1-like cytokine induction by heat-killed Brucella abortus is dependent on triggering of TLR9. J Immunol. 2005 Sep 15;175(6):3964-70. [PubMed:16148144 ]
  5. Merrell MA, Ilvesaro JM, Lehtonen N, Sorsa T, Gehrs B, Rosenthal E, Chen D, Shackley B, Harris KW, Selander KS: Toll-like receptor 9 agonists promote cellular invasion by increasing matrix metalloproteinase activity. Mol Cancer Res. 2006 Jul;4(7):437-47. [PubMed:16849519 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Plasmodium falciparum
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May also function as a storage protein or ligandin for parasitotoxic ferriprotoporphyrin IX (hemin).
Gene Name:
GST
Uniprot ID:
Q8MU52
Molecular Weight:
24788.9 Da
References
  1. Hiller N, Fritz-Wolf K, Deponte M, Wende W, Zimmermann H, Becker K: Plasmodium falciparum glutathione S-transferase--structural and mechanistic studies on ligand binding and enzyme inhibition. Protein Sci. 2006 Feb;15(2):281-9. Epub 2005 Dec 29. [PubMed:16385005 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Polli JW, Wring SA, Humphreys JE, Huang L, Morgan JB, Webster LO, Serabjit-Singh CS: Rational use of in vitro P-glycoprotein assays in drug discovery. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Nov;299(2):620-8. [PubMed:11602674 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23