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Identification
NameQuinidine
Accession NumberDB00908  (APRD00136)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular action potential, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(+)-quinidine
(8R,9S)-Quinidine
(R)-(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)((3S,4R,7S)-3-vinylquinuclidin-7-yl)methanol
(S)-(6-Methoxy-quinolin-4-yl)-((2R,5R)-5-vinyl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-yl)-methanol
(S)-(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)((2R,5R)-5-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl)methanol
6-Methoxy-alpha-(5-vinyl-2-quinuclidinyl)-4-quinolinemethanol
alpha-(6-Methoxy-4-quinolyl)-5-vinyl-2-quinuclidinemethanol
beta-Quinine
Chinidin
Chinidinum
CIN-QUIN
Conchinin
Conquinine
Kinidin
Pitayine
Quinidina
Quinidine
β-quinine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cardioquin Tabletstablet275 mgoralPurdue Pharma1961-12-312000-07-17Canada
Novo-quinidin 200mgtablet200 mgoralNovopharm Limited1966-12-312005-08-10Canada
Quinate Tab 325mgtablet325 mgoralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1979-12-312003-09-22Canada
Quinidex Extentabs Srt 300mgtablet (extended-release)300 mgoralWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.1994-12-312001-10-29Canada
Quinidex Extentabs Srt 300mgtablet (extended-release)300 mgoralAyerst Laboratories1991-12-311996-09-10Canada
Quinidine 200 Tabtablet200 mgoralPro Doc Limitee1982-12-312003-07-31Canada
Quinidine Gluconatesolution80 mg/mLintravenousEli Lilly and Company1951-03-01Not applicableUs
Quinidine Gluconate for Inj 80mg/ml USPliquid80 mgintramuscular; intravenousEli Lilly Canada Inc1991-12-311997-08-13Canada
Quinidine Sulfate 200mgtablet200 mgoralRougier Pharma Division Of Ratiopharm Inc1970-12-311999-09-27Canada
Quinidine Sulfate Injection 190mg/mlsolution190 mgintramuscularHospira Healthcare Corporation1981-12-31Not applicableCanada
Quinidine Sulfate Tab 200mgtablet200 mgoralGlaxo Wellcome Inc.1938-12-311999-08-24Canada
Quinidine Sulfate Tab 200mgtablet195 mgoralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1957-12-312001-07-20Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Quinidine Tab 200mgtablet200 mgoralApotex Inc1979-12-312010-01-19Canada
Apo-quin-G Tab 325mgtablet325 mgoralApotex Inc1985-12-312010-01-19Canada
Quinidine Gluconatetablet, extended release324 mg/1oralRichmond Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1987-02-10Not applicableUs
Quinidine Gluconatetablet, extended release324 mg/1oralMutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc.1987-02-10Not applicableUs
Quinidine Gluconatetablet, extended release324 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1987-02-10Not applicableUs
Quinidine Sulfatetablet300 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.1983-09-26Not applicableUs
Quinidine Sulfatetablet200 mg/1oralCarilion Materials Management1976-11-24Not applicableUs
Quinidine Sulfatetablet, film coated, extended release300 mg/1oralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc1995-01-012016-03-31Us
Quinidine Sulfatetablet300 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1981-06-09Not applicableUs
Quinidine Sulfatetablet200 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1976-11-24Not applicableUs
Quinidine Sulfatetablet200 mg/1oralEon Labs, Inc.1976-11-24Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CardioquinNot Available
KinidinNot Available
Quin-ReleaseNot Available
QuinagluteNot Available
QuinalanNot Available
QuinicardineNot Available
QuinidexNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
NuedextaAvanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Quinidine gluconate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001251
Quinidine polygalacturonate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001344
Quinidine sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: LOUPRKONTZGTKE-UYVJDWJCSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 324.183778022
  • Average Mass: 324.4168
DBSALT000363
Categories
UNIIITX08688JL
CAS number56-54-2
WeightAverage: 324.4168
Monoisotopic: 324.183778022
Chemical FormulaC20H24N2O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=LOUPRKONTZGTKE-LHHVKLHASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H24N2O2/c1-3-13-12-22-9-7-14(13)10-19(22)20(23)16-6-8-21-18-5-4-15(24-2)11-17(16)18/h3-6,8,11,13-14,19-20,23H,1,7,9-10,12H2,2H3/t13-,14-,19+,20-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(S)-[(2R,4S,5R)-5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-yl](6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)methanol
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCN(C[C@@H]1C=C)[C@]([H])(C2)[C@@H](O)C1=C2C=C(OC)C=CC2=NC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cinchona alkaloids. These are alkaloids structurally characterized by the presence of the cinchonan skeleton, which consists of a quinoline linked to an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassCinchona alkaloids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCinchona alkaloids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cinchonan-skeleton
  • Hydroxyquinoline
  • Quinoline
  • Quinuclidine
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Piperidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias
PharmacodynamicsQuinidine, a hydantoin anticonvulsant, is used alone or with phenobarbital or other anticonvulsants to manage tonic-clonic seizures, psychomotor seizures, neuropathic pain syndromes including diabetic neuropathy, digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with QT-interval prolongation.
Mechanism of actionQuinidine acts on sodium channels on the neuronal cell membrane, limiting the spread of seizure activity and reducing seizure propagation. The antiarrhythmic actions are mediated through effects on sodium channels in Purkinje fibers. Quinidine may also act on the slow inward calcium current (ICa), the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the delayed potassium rectifier current, the inward potassium rectifier current (IKI), the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (IKATP) and Ito.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 2 to 3 L/kg
  • 0.5 L/kg [congestive heart failure]
  • 3 to 5 L/kg [cirrhosis of the liver]
Protein binding80-88%
Metabolism
SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Quinidine
3-HydroxyquinidineDetails
Route of eliminationWhen the urine pH is less than 7, about 20% of administered quinidine appears unchanged in the urine, but this fraction drops to as little as 5% when the urine is more alkaline.
Half life6-8 hours
Clearance
  • 3 – 5 mL/min/kg [adults]
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Quinidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00323
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9836
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9382
Caco-2 permeable+0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7863
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8208
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.8387
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.762
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5754
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7225
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.972
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity3.0596 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.5884
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.538
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lannett co inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Ascot hosp pharmaceuticals inc div travenol laboratories inc
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Pharmaceutical research assoc inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Clonmel healthcare ltd
  • Contract pharmacal corp
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Everylife
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • L perrigo co
  • Pharmavite pharmaceuticals
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Scherer laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Key pharmaceuticals inc sub schering plough corp
  • Schering corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral275 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedoral
Tabletoral325 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral300 mg
Solutionintravenous80 mg/mL
Tablet, extended releaseoral324 mg/1
Liquidintramuscular; intravenous80 mg
Tabletoral200 mg/1
Tabletoral300 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseoral300 mg/1
Solutionintramuscular190 mg
Tabletoral195 mg
Tabletoral200 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Quinidine gluc 80 mg/ml vial2.16USD ml
Quinidine sulfate crystals1.58USD g
QuiNIDine Gluconate CR 324 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.97USD tab
Quinidine gluc er 324 mg tab0.93USD each
Quinidine Sulfate 300 mg0.41USD tablet
Quinidine sulfate 300 mg tablet0.4USD tablet
Quinidine Sulfate 200 mg0.22USD tablet
Quinidine sulfate 200 mg tablet0.21USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US7659282 No2006-08-132026-08-13Us
US8227484 No2003-07-172023-07-17Us
USRE38115 No1996-01-262016-01-26Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point174 °CPhysProp
water solubility140 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.44HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-3.37ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.69ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.56 (at 25 °C)SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.334 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.82ALOGPS
logP2.51ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area45.59 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity94.69 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (2.96 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Jean Paul REMON, Chris Vervaet, “QUININE AND QUINIDINE SALTS, METHODS FOR MAKING THEM, AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS COMPRISING THEM.” U.S. Patent US20090239900, issued September 24, 2009.

US20090239900
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesC01BA01C01BA51C01BA71
AHFS Codes
  • 24:04.04.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (615 KB)
MSDSDownload (73 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
Aluminum hydroxideAluminum hydroxide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmilorideThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Amiloride.
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
AmitriptylineAmitriptyline may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
AmlodipineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Amlodipine.
AmoxapineAmoxapine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.
AripiprazoleThe serum concentration of Aripiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.
AtomoxetineThe serum concentration of Atomoxetine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
Atracurium besylateQuinidine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
BexaroteneThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Bexarotene.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.
BosentanThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Bosentan.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
BrexpiprazoleThe serum concentration of Brexpiprazole can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
Calcium carbonateCalcium carbonate may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Cimetidine.
Cisatracurium besylateQuinidine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Cisatracurium besylate.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
ClarithromycinClarithromycin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
ClevidipineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Clevidipine.
ClomipramineClomipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CodeineThe therapeutic efficacy of Codeine can be decreased when used in combination with Quinidine.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
ConivaptanThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Conivaptan.
CrizotinibCrizotinib may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DalfampridineThe serum concentration of Dalfampridine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DeferasiroxThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Deferasirox.
DesipramineDesipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
DextromethorphanThe serum concentration of Dextromethorphan can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
DiclofenamideDiclofenamide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DicoumarolQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
DihydrocodeineQuinidine may decrease the analgesic activities of Dihydrocodeine.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Diltiazem.
DofetilideDofetilide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
DoxepinDoxepin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
DuloxetineThe serum concentration of Duloxetine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.
EplerenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Eplerenone.
ErythromycinErythromycin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
EthoxzolamideEthoxzolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EtravirineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Etravirine.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Fesoterodine can be increased when Fesoterodine is used in combination with Quinidine.
FingolimodFingolimod may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Quinidine.
FlibanserinThe serum concentration of Flibanserin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluvoxamineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosamprenavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Fosamprenavir.
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.
FosphenytoinFosphenytoin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
Fusidic AcidThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Fusidic Acid.
GoserelinGoserelin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
HaloperidolHaloperidol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
HydrocodoneThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Hydrocodone can be reduced when Hydrocodone is used in combination with Quinidine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.
ImipramineImipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Indinavir.
ItraconazoleThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Itraconazole.
IvabradineIvabradine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
IvacaftorThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Ivacaftor.
KaolinThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Kaolin.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
LeuprolideLeuprolide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
LomitapideThe serum concentration of Lomitapide can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
LopinavirLopinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LurasidoneLurasidone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
Magnesium hydroxideMagnesium hydroxide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Magnesium oxideMagnesium oxide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MefloquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinidine is combined with Mefloquine.
MequitazineThe serum concentration of Mequitazine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
MethazolamideMethazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
NebivololThe serum concentration of Nebivolol can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.
NetupitantThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Netupitant.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Nifedipine.
NimodipineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Nimodipine.
NortriptylineNortriptyline may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
PalbociclibThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Palbociclib.
PancuroniumQuinidine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Pancuronium.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Quinidine.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe serum concentration of Pimozide can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
PosaconazoleThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Posaconazole.
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.
PropafenoneQuinidine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Propafenone.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
ProtriptylineProtriptyline may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Quinidine.
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.
RocuroniumQuinidine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rocuronium.
SaquinavirSaquinavir may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
SiltuximabThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Siltuximab.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Simeprevir.
Sodium bicarbonateSodium bicarbonate may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SpironolactoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Spironolactone.
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.
StiripentolThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Stiripentol.
SuccinylcholineQuinidine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Succinylcholine.
SucralfateThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Sucralfate.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Tamoxifen can be reduced when Tamoxifen is used in combination with Quinidine resulting in a loss in efficacy.
TamsulosinThe serum concentration of Tamsulosin can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
TelaprevirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telaprevir is combined with Quinidine.
TelithromycinTelithromycin may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
TesmilifeneThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Tesmilifene.
ThioridazineThe serum concentration of Thioridazine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
TipranavirThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Tipranavir.
TocilizumabThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be decreased when it is combined with Tocilizumab.
TopiramateTopiramate may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
TramadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Tramadol can be decreased when used in combination with Quinidine.
TriamtereneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinidine can be decreased when used in combination with Triamterene.
TrimipramineTrimipramine may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Quinidine.
VecuroniumQuinidine may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Vecuronium.
VerapamilQuinidine may increase the hypotensive activities of Verapamil.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Quinidine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Vortioxetine can be increased when it is combined with Quinidine.
WarfarinQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
ZonisamideZonisamide may decrease the excretion rate of Quinidine which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Food Interactions
  • Preferably take on an ampty stomach.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated sodium channel activity involved in sa node cell action potential
Specific Function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which Na(+) ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant Na(+) channel isoform. This channel is respon...
Gene Name:
SCN5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14524
Molecular Weight:
226937.475 Da
References
  1. Stokoe KS, Thomas G, Goddard CA, Colledge WH, Grace AA, Huang CL: Effects of flecainide and quinidine on arrhythmogenic properties of Scn5a+/Delta murine hearts modelling long QT syndrome 3. J Physiol. 2007 Jan 1;578(Pt 1):69-84. Epub 2006 Oct 5. [PubMed:17023504 ]
  2. Itoh H, Shimizu M, Takata S, Mabuchi H, Imoto K: A novel missense mutation in the SCN5A gene associated with Brugada syndrome bidirectionally affecting blocking actions of antiarrhythmic drugs. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 May;16(5):486-93. [PubMed:15877619 ]
  3. Grant AO: Electrophysiological basis and genetics of Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Sep;16 Suppl 1:S3-7. [PubMed:16138883 ]
  4. Napolitano C, Priori SG: Brugada syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2006 Sep 14;1:35. [PubMed:16972995 ]
  5. Ohgo T, Okamura H, Noda T, Satomi K, Suyama K, Kurita T, Aihara N, Kamakura S, Ohe T, Shimizu W: Acute and chronic management in patients with Brugada syndrome associated with electrical storm of ventricular fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Jun;4(6):695-700. Epub 2007 Feb 20. [PubMed:17556186 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  7. Sheets MF, Fozzard HA, Lipkind GM, Hanck DA: Sodium channel molecular conformations and antiarrhythmic drug affinity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010 Jan;20(1):16-21. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2010.03.002. [PubMed:20685573 ]
  8. Tella SR, Goldberg SR: Monoamine transporter and sodium channel mechanisms in the rapid pressor response to cocaine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Feb;59(2):305-12. [PubMed:9476974 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium channel activity
Specific Function:
Ion channel that contributes to passive transmembrane potassium transport and to the regulation of the resting membrane potential in brain astrocytes, but also in kidney and in other tissues (PubMed:15820677, PubMed:21653227). Forms dimeric channels through which potassium ions pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. The channel is selective for K(+) ions at physiological potass...
Gene Name:
KCNK1
Uniprot ID:
O00180
Molecular Weight:
38142.775 Da
References
  1. Lesage F, Guillemare E, Fink M, Duprat F, Lazdunski M, Romey G, Barhanin J: TWIK-1, a ubiquitous human weakly inward rectifying K+ channel with a novel structure. EMBO J. 1996 Mar 1;15(5):1004-11. [PubMed:8605869 ]
  2. Fink M, Duprat F, Lesage F, Reyes R, Romey G, Heurteaux C, Lazdunski M: Cloning, functional expression and brain localization of a novel unconventional outward rectifier K+ channel. EMBO J. 1996 Dec 16;15(24):6854-62. [PubMed:9003761 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Potassium ion leak channel activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits outward rectification in a physiological K(+) gradient and mild inward rectification in symmetrical K(+) conditions.
Gene Name:
KCNK6
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y257
Molecular Weight:
33746.8 Da
References
  1. Patel AJ, Maingret F, Magnone V, Fosset M, Lazdunski M, Honore E: TWIK-2, an inactivating 2P domain K+ channel. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 15;275(37):28722-30. [PubMed:10887187 ]
  2. Guerard NC, Traebert M, Suter W, Dumotier BM: Selective block of IKs plays a significant role in MAP triangulation induced by IKr block in isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008 Jul-Aug;58(1):32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2008.05.129. Epub 2008 Jun 8. [PubMed:18582585 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization
Specific Function:
Pore-forming (alpha) subunit of voltage-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channel. Channel properties are modulated by cAMP and subunit assembly. Mediates the rapidly activating component of the delayed rectifying potassium current in heart (IKr). Isoforms USO have no channel activity by themself, but modulates channel characteristics by forming heterotetramers with other isoforms which are r...
Gene Name:
KCNH2
Uniprot ID:
Q12809
Molecular Weight:
126653.52 Da
References
  1. Po SS, Wang DW, Yang IC, Johnson JP Jr, Nie L, Bennett PB: Modulation of HERG potassium channels by extracellular magnesium and quinidine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Feb;33(2):181-5. [PubMed:10028924 ]
  2. Dong DL, Li Z, Wang HZ, Du ZM, Song WH, Yang BF: Acidification alters antiarrhythmic drug blockade of the ether-a-go-go-related Gene (HERG) Channels. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004 May;94(5):209-12. [PubMed:15125690 ]
  3. Wolpert C, Schimpf R, Giustetto C, Antzelevitch C, Cordeiro J, Dumaine R, Brugada R, Hong K, Bauersfeld U, Gaita F, Borggrefe M: Further insights into the effect of quinidine in short QT syndrome caused by a mutation in HERG. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Jan;16(1):54-8. [PubMed:15673388 ]
  4. Lin C, Ke X, Cvetanovic I, Ranade V, Somberg J: The influence of extracellular acidosis on the effect of IKr blockers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar;10(1):67-76. [PubMed:15821840 ]
  5. Lin C, Cvetanovic I, Ke X, Ranade V, Somberg J: A mechanism for the potential proarrhythmic effect of acidosis, bradycardia, and hypokalemia on the blockade of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels. Am J Ther. 2005 Jul-Aug;12(4):328-36. [PubMed:16041196 ]
  6. Guerard NC, Traebert M, Suter W, Dumotier BM: Selective block of IKs plays a significant role in MAP triangulation induced by IKr block in isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008 Jul-Aug;58(1):32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.vascn.2008.05.129. Epub 2008 Jun 8. [PubMed:18582585 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitorinducer
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Ludwig E, Schmid J, Beschke K, Ebner T: Activation of human cytochrome P-450 3A4-catalyzed meloxicam 5'-methylhydroxylation by quinidine and hydroquinidine in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Jul;290(1):1-8. [PubMed:10381752 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  3. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. [PubMed:10490933 ]
  4. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Vitamin d 24-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular Weight:
58164.815 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. [PubMed:10490898 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular Weight:
56277.81 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme...
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular Weight:
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in the body. Appears to function in modulating the activity of the immune system during the acute-phase reaction.
Gene Name:
ORM1
Uniprot ID:
P02763
Molecular Weight:
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Li JH, Xu JQ, Cao XM, Ni L, Li Y, Zhuang YY, Gong JB: Influence of the ORM1 phenotypes on serum unbound concentration and protein binding of quinidine. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 Mar;317(1-2):85-92. [PubMed:11814462 ]
  2. McCollam PL, Crouch MA, Arnaud P: Caucasian versus African-American differences in orosomucoid: potential implications for therapy. Pharmacotherapy. 1998 May-Jun;18(3):620-6. [PubMed:9620113 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Quaternary ammonium group transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniu...
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular Weight:
62579.99 Da
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [PubMed:12089365 ]
  2. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. [PubMed:9808712 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. van Montfoort JE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Koepsell H, Meier PJ: Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):110-5. [PubMed:11408531 ]
  2. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [PubMed:12606755 ]
  3. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. [PubMed:9187257 ]
  4. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [PubMed:9655880 ]
  5. Zhang L, Gorset W, Dresser MJ, Giacomini KM: The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Mar;288(3):1192-8. [PubMed:10027858 ]
  6. Sandhu P, Lee W, Xu X, Leake BF, Yamazaki M, Stone JA, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Kim RB: Hepatic uptake of the novel antifungal agent caspofungin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 May;33(5):676-82. Epub 2005 Feb 16. [PubMed:15716364 ]
  7. Sinclair CJ, Chi KD, Subramanian V, Ward KL, Green RM: Functional expression of a high affinity mammalian hepatic choline/organic cation transporter. J Lipid Res. 2000 Nov;41(11):1841-8. [PubMed:11060354 ]
  8. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. [PubMed:11502595 ]
  9. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. [PubMed:9808712 ]
  10. Martel F, Vetter T, Russ H, Grundemann D, Azevedo I, Koepsell H, Schomig E: Transport of small organic cations in the rat liver. The role of the organic cation transporter OCT1. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1996 Aug-Sep;354(3):320-6. [PubMed:8878062 ]
  11. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. [PubMed:8898084 ]
  12. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Waldegger S, Gorboulev V, Arndt P, Lang F, Koepsell H: Electrogenic properties and substrate specificity of the polyspecific rat cation transporter rOCT1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32599-604. [PubMed:8955087 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3.
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular Weight:
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100 ]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. [PubMed:11160873 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes.
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular Weight:
146405.83 Da
References
  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. [PubMed:12739759 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. [PubMed:10820137 ]
  2. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. [PubMed:11405287 ]
  3. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. [PubMed:11716514 ]
  4. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. [PubMed:12134945 ]
  5. Horie K, Tang F, Borchardt RT: Isolation and characterization of Caco-2 subclones expressing high levels of multidrug resistance protein efflux transporter. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):161-8. [PubMed:12636153 ]
  6. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. [PubMed:12699389 ]
  7. Weiss J, Dormann SM, Martin-Facklam M, Kerpen CJ, Ketabi-Kiyanvash N, Haefeli WE: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by newer antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr;305(1):197-204. [PubMed:12649369 ]
  8. Tanigawara Y, Okamura N, Hirai M, Yasuhara M, Ueda K, Kioka N, Komano T, Hori R: Transport of digoxin by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Nov;263(2):840-5. [PubMed:1359120 ]
  9. Ito T, Yano I, Tanaka K, Inui KI: Transport of quinolone antibacterial drugs by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):955-60. [PubMed:9262363 ]
  10. Kim RB, Fromm MF, Wandel C, Leake B, Wood AJ, Roden DM, Wilkinson GR: The drug transporter P-glycoprotein limits oral absorption and brain entry of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jan 15;101(2):289-94. [PubMed:9435299 ]
  11. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
  12. Jutabha P, Wempe MF, Anzai N, Otomo J, Kadota T, Endou H: Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human P-glycoprotein: probing trans- and cis-inhibitory effects on [3H]vinblastine and [3H]digoxin efflux. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Jan;61(1):76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Jul 21. [PubMed:19631272 ]
  13. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [PubMed:19541926 ]
  14. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. doi: 10.1208/s12248-009-9092-5. Epub 2009 Mar 25. [PubMed:19319690 ]
  15. Smith BJ, Doran AC, McLean S, Tingley FD 3rd, O'Neill BT, Kajiji SM: P-glycoprotein efflux at the blood-brain barrier mediates differences in brain disposition and pharmacodynamics between two structurally related neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Sep;298(3):1252-9. [PubMed:11504828 ]
  16. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. [PubMed:11785684 ]
  17. Neuhoff S, Ungell AL, Zamora I, Artursson P: pH-dependent bidirectional transport of weakly basic drugs across Caco-2 monolayers: implications for drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1141-8. [PubMed:12948010 ]
  18. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. [PubMed:12948019 ]
  19. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186 ]
  20. Fromm MF, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport: A unifying mechanism to explain the interaction between digoxin and quinidine [seecomments]. Circulation. 1999 Feb 2;99(4):552-7. [PubMed:9927403 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids (By similarity). Selectively inhibited by the grapefruit juice component naringin.
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular Weight:
74144.105 Da
References
  1. van Montfoort JE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Koepsell H, Meier PJ: Comparison of "type I" and "type II" organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):110-5. [PubMed:11408531 ]
  2. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. [PubMed:10421612 ]
  3. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. [PubMed:11883641 ]
  4. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. [PubMed:10490898 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Plays an important role in the excretion/detoxification of endogenous and exogenous organic anions, especially from the brain and kidney. Involved in the transport basolateral of steviol, fexofenadine. Transports benzylpenicillin (PCG), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), p-amino-hippurate (PAH), acyclovir (ACV) and ochratoxin (OTA).
Gene Name:
SLC22A8
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCC7
Molecular Weight:
59855.585 Da
References
  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. [PubMed:11306713 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. [PubMed:12134946 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent uptake of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Involved in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver.
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular Weight:
76447.99 Da
References
  1. Nozawa T, Tamai I, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C to hepatic elimination of the opioid pentapeptide analogue [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;55(7):1013-20. [PubMed:12906759 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 24, 2016 01:52