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Identification
NameQuinidine
Accession NumberDB00908  (APRD00136)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved
Description

An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the Cinchona tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular action potential, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
(+)-quinidineNot AvailableNot Available
(8R,9S)-QuinidineNot AvailableNot Available
(R)-(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)((3S,4R,7S)-3-vinylquinuclidin-7-yl)methanolNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-(6-Methoxy-quinolin-4-yl)-((2R,5R)-5-vinyl-1-aza-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-yl)-methanolNot AvailableNot Available
(S)-(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)((2R,5R)-5-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl)methanolNot AvailableNot Available
6-Methoxy-alpha-(5-vinyl-2-quinuclidinyl)-4-quinolinemethanolNot AvailableNot Available
alpha-(6-Methoxy-4-quinolyl)-5-vinyl-2-quinuclidinemethanolNot AvailableNot Available
beta-QuinineNot AvailableNot Available
ChinidinGermanNot Available
ChinidinumNot AvailableNot Available
CIN-QUINNot AvailableNot Available
ConchininNot AvailableNot Available
ConquinineNot AvailableNot Available
KinidinNot AvailableNot Available
PitayineNot AvailableNot Available
QuinidinaNot AvailableNot Available
QuinidineNot AvailableNot Available
β-quinineNot AvailableNot Available
Salts
Name/CAS Structure Properties
Quinidine Sulfate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: LOUPRKONTZGTKE-UYVJDWJCSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 324.183778022
  • Average Mass: 324.4168
DBSALT000363
Brand names
NameCompany
CardioquinNot Available
KinidinNot Available
Quin-ReleaseNot Available
QuinagluteNot Available
QuinalanNot Available
QuinicardineNot Available
QuinidexNot Available
Brand mixtures
Brand NameIngredients
NUEDEXTADextromethorphan + Quinidine
Categories
CAS number56-54-2
WeightAverage: 324.4168
Monoisotopic: 324.183778022
Chemical FormulaC20H24N2O2
InChI KeyLOUPRKONTZGTKE-LHHVKLHASA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C20H24N2O2/c1-3-13-12-22-9-7-14(13)10-19(22)20(23)16-6-8-21-18-5-4-15(24-2)11-17(16)18/h3-6,8,11,13-14,19-20,23H,1,7,9-10,12H2,2H3/t13-,14-,19+,20-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(S)-[(2R,4S,5R)-5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-yl](6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)methanol
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCN(C[C@@H]1C=C)[C@]([H])(C2)[C@@H](O)C1=C2C=C(OC)C=CC2=NC=C1
Mass Specshow(2.96 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassAlkaloids and Derivatives
ClassCinchona Alkaloids
SubclassNot Available
Direct parentCinchona Alkaloids
Alternative parentsHydroxyquinolines; Anisoles; Quinuclidines; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Pyridines and Derivatives; Piperidines; Tertiary Amines; Secondary Alcohols; Polyamines
Substituentshydroxyquinoline; quinoline; quinuclidine; anisole; phenol ether; alkyl aryl ether; piperidine; benzene; pyridine; tertiary amine; secondary alcohol; polyamine; ether; amine; alcohol; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the cinchona alkaloids. These are alkaloids structurally characterized by the presence of the cinchonan skeleton, which consists of a quinoline linked to an azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane moiety.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of ventricular pre-excitation and cardiac dysrhythmias
PharmacodynamicsQuinidine, a hydantoin anticonvulsant, is used alone or with phenobarbital or other anticonvulsants to manage tonic-clonic seizures, psychomotor seizures, neuropathic pain syndromes including diabetic neuropathy, digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac arrhythmias associated with QT-interval prolongation.
Mechanism of actionQuinidine acts on sodium channels on the neuronal cell membrane, limiting the spread of seizure activity and reducing seizure propagation. The antiarrhythmic actions are mediated through effects on sodium channels in Purkinje fibers. Quinidine may also act on the slow inward calcium current (ICa), the rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) components of the delayed potassium rectifier current, the inward potassium rectifier current (IKI), the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (IKATP) and Ito.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 2 to 3 L/kg
  • 0.5 L/kg [congestive heart failure]
  • 3 to 5 L/kg [cirrhosis of the liver]
Protein binding80-88%
Metabolism
SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Quinidine
3-HydroxyquinidineDetails
Route of eliminationWhen the urine pH is less than 7, about 20% of administered quinidine appears unchanged in the urine, but this fraction drops to as little as 5% when the urine is more alkaline.
Half life6-8 hours
Clearance
  • 3 – 5 mL/min/kg [adults]
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Quinidine Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00323
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9836
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9382
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8867
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.7863
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8208
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.8387
Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.762
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7898
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.5754
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9045
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9071
CYP450 2D6 substrate Inhibitor 0.8931
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9026
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.7225
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9133
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.972
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 1.0
Rat acute toxicity 3.0596 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Strong inhibitor 0.5884
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Inhibitor 0.538
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Eli lilly and co
  • Warner chilcott div warner lambert co
  • Bayer healthcare pharmaceuticals inc
  • Lannett co inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Ascot hosp pharmaceuticals inc div travenol laboratories inc
  • Halsey drug co inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
  • Pharmaceutical research assoc inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Wyeth pharmaceuticals inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • Barr laboratories inc
  • Clonmel healthcare ltd
  • Contract pharmacal corp
  • Elkins sinn div ah robins co inc
  • Everylife
  • Impax laboratories inc
  • Ivax pharmaceuticals inc sub teva pharmaceuticals usa
  • King pharmaceuticals inc
  • Kv pharmaceutical co
  • Lederle laboratories div american cyanamid co
  • L perrigo co
  • Pharmavite pharmaceuticals
  • Purepac pharmaceutical co
  • Scherer laboratories inc
  • Usl pharma inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Vangard laboratories inc div midway medical co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • West ward pharmaceutical corp
  • Whiteworth towne paulsen inc
  • Key pharmaceuticals inc sub schering plough corp
  • Schering corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
SolutionIntramuscular
TabletOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Quinidine gluc 80 mg/ml vial2.16USDml
Quinidine sulfate crystals1.58USDg
QuiNIDine Gluconate CR 324 mg Controlled Release Tabs0.97USDtab
Quinidine gluc er 324 mg tab0.93USDeach
Quinidine Sulfate 300 mg0.41USDtablet
Quinidine sulfate 300 mg tablet0.4USDtablet
Quinidine Sulfate 200 mg0.22USDtablet
Quinidine sulfate 200 mg tablet0.21USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point174 °CPhysProp
water solubility140 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.44HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
logS-3.37ADME Research, USCD
Caco2 permeability-4.69ADME Research, USCD
pKa8.56 (at 25 °C)SANGSTER (1994)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility3.34e-01 g/lALOGPS
logP2.82ALOGPS
logP2.51ChemAxon
logS-3ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)13.89ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)9.05ChemAxon
physiological charge1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area45.59ChemAxon
rotatable bond count4ChemAxon
refractivity94.69ChemAxon
polarizability35.82ChemAxon
number of rings4ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Jean Paul REMON, Chris Vervaet, “QUININE AND QUINIDINE SALTS, METHODS FOR MAKING THEM, AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS COMPRISING THEM.” U.S. Patent US20090239900, issued September 24, 2009.

US20090239900
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC06527
PubChem Compound441074
PubChem Substance46505356
ChemSpider389880
ChEBI28593
ChEMBLCHEMBL21578
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000515
PharmGKBPA451209
IUPHAR2342
Guide to Pharmacology2342
Drug Product Database497525
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/quinidine.htm
Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/quinidine-gluconate-controlled-release-tablets.html
WikipediaQuinidine
ATC CodesC01BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 24:04.04.04
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelshow(615 KB)
MSDSshow(73 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of acenocoumarol.
AlvimopanDecreases levels by P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) efflux transporter. Can significantly increase systemic exposure to P-glycoprotein substrates.
AmilorideAmiloride may decrease the therapeutic effect of quinidine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of quinidine if amiloride if initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the effect of quinidine.
AmitriptylineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of amitriptyline if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
AmobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, amobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
AnisindioneQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of anisindione.
AprobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, aprobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
AripiprazoleQuinidine increases the effect and toxicity of aripiprazole
ArtemetherAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
AtazanavirIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias.
AtomoxetineThe CYP2D6 inhibitor could increase the effect and toxicity of atomoxetine
AtracuriumThe quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant
BromazepamQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of bromazepam by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of bromazepam if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Dosage adjustments may be required.
ButabarbitalThe anticonvulsant, butabarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
ButalbitalThe anticonvulsant, butalbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
ButethalThe anticonvulsant, butethal, decreases the effect of quinidine.
CimetidineCimetidine may increase the serum concentration of quinidine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of quinidine if cimetidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
CisaprideIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ClarithromycinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
ClomipramineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, clomipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of clomipramine if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
CodeineQuinidine decreases the analgesic effect of codeine
CrizotinibStrong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase levels of crizotinib. Consider alternative therapy.
Dabigatran etexilateQuinidine may increase the serum concentration of dabigatran etexilate, resulting in increased bleeding. Consider modification of therapy.
DantroleneQuinidine may increase the serum concentration of dantrolene by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of dantrolene if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DesipramineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, desipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of desipramine if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
DextromethorphanQuinidine increases the toxicity of dextromethorphan
DicoumarolQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of dicumarol.
DigitoxinQuinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin
DigoxinQuinine/quinidine increases the effect of digoxin
DihydrocodeineUse of quinidine may reduce dihydrocodeine's analgesic effect.
Dihydroquinidine barbiturateThe anticonvulsant, dihydroquinidine. barbiturate, decreases the effect of quinidine.
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the serum concentration of quinidine. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of quinidine if diltiazem is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
DonepezilPossible antagonism of action
DoxepinAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, doxepin, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of doxepin if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
ErythromycinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
EtravirineQuinidine, when used concomitantly with etravirine, may experience a decrease in serum concentration. It is recommended to monitor quinidine therapy.
FingolimodPharmacodynamic synergist. Contraindicated. Increased risk of bradycardia, AV block, and torsade de pointes.
FosphenytoinThe anticonvulsant, fosphenytoin, decreases the effect of quinidine.
GalantaminePossible antagonism of action
GatifloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
GrepafloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
HeptabarbitalThe anticonvulsant, heptabarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
HexobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, hexobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
ImipramineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, imipramine, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of imipramine if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
ItraconazoleItraconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of quinidine.
KetoconazoleKetoconazole may increase the effect and toxicity of quinidine.
LevofloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
LumefantrineAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
MagnesiumMagnesium antacids may decrease the absorption of quindine.
Magnesium salicylateThe antacid increases the effect of quinidine
MesoridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
MethohexitalThe anticonvulsant, methohexital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
MethylphenobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, methylphenobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
MetocurineThe quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant
MoxifloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
NelfinavirNelfinavir increases the effect and toxicity of quinidine
NifedipineDecreased quinidine effect, increased nifedipine effect
NortriptylineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, nortriptyline, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of nortriptyline if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
OfloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
PancuroniumThe quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant
PentobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, pentobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
PhenobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
PhenytoinThe anticonvulsant, phenytoin, decreases the effect of quinidine.
PosaconazoleContraindicated co-administration
PrimidoneThe anticonvulsant, primidone, decreases the effect of quinidine.
ProcainamideQuinidine increases the effect of procainamide
PropafenoneQuinidine increases the effect of propafenone
ProtriptylineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur. Quinidine may also increase the serum concentration of the tricyclic antidepressant, protriptyline, by decreasing its metabolism. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of protriptyline if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed. Monitor for the development of torsades de pointes during concomitant therapy.
Quinidine barbiturateThe anticonvulsant, quinidine. barbiturate, decreases the effect of quinidine.
QuinupristinThis combination presents an increased risk of toxicity
RanolazinePossible additive effect on QT prolongation
RifampicinRifampin decreases the effect of quinidine
RitonavirRitonavir increases the effect and toxicity of quinidine
RivastigminePossible antagonism of action
SecobarbitalThe anticonvulsant, secobarbital, decreases the effect of quinidine.
Sodium bicarbonateThe antacid increases the effect of quinidine
SparfloxacinIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
SuccinylcholineThe quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant
TacrolimusAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be used with caution. Quinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may also increase the serum concentration of Tacrolimus by inhibiting its metabolism and clearance.
TadalafilQuinidine may reduce the metabolism of Tadalafil. Concomitant therapy should be avoided if possible due to high risk of Tadalafil toxicity.
TalbutalThe anticonvulsant, talbutal, decreases the effect of quinidine.
TamoxifenQuinidine may decrease the therapeutic effect of Tamoxifen by decreasing the production of active metabolites. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TamsulosinQuinidine, a CYP3A4/2D6 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tamsulosin, a CYP3A4/2D6 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Tamsulosin if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
TelavancinAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TelithromycinCo-administration may result in altered plasma concentrations of Quinidine and/or Telithromycin. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the the therapeutic/adverse effects of both agents during concomitant therapy.
TemsirolimusQuinidine may inhibit the metabolism and clearance of Temsirolimus. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
TeniposideThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Quinidine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Teniposide, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Teniposide if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TerfenadineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TetrabenazineStrong CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase exposure of the metabolites of tetrabenazine. Consider a reduction of dose.
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the metabolism and clearance of Quinidine. Monitor for decreased therapeutic effect of Quinidine if Thiopental is initiated.
ThioridazineIncreased risk of cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias
TiagabineThe strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, Quinidine, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tiagabine, a CYP3A4 substrate. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Tiagabine if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TipranavirTipranavir, co-administered with Ritonavir, may increase the plasma concentration of Quinidine. Concomitant therapy is contraindicated.
TolterodineQuinidine may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Tolterodine. Adjust Tolterodine dose and monitor for efficacy and toxicity.
TopotecanThe p-glycoprotein inhibitor, Quinidine, may increase the bioavailability of oral Topotecan. A clinically significant effect is also expected with IV Topotecan. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ToremifeneAdditive QTc-prolongation may occur, increasing the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias. Consider alternate therapy. A thorough risk:benefit assessment is required prior to co-administration.
TramadolQuinidine may increase Tramadol toxicity by decreasing Tramadol metabolism and clearance. Quinidine may decrease the effect of Tramadol by decreasing active metabolite production.
TrazodoneThe CYP3A4 inhibitor, Quinidine, may increase Trazodone efficacy/toxicity by decreasing Trazodone metabolism and clearance. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in Trazodone efficacy/toxicity if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
TrimipramineAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may occur, increasing the risk of serious cardiac arrhythmias. Quinidine, a CYP2D6/CYP3A4 inhibitor, may also inhibit the metabolism of Trimipramine, a CYP2D6/CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for signs of cardiac arrhythmias and for changes in Trimipramine efficacy and toxicity if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VardenafilQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may reduce the metabolism and clearance of Vardenafil. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vardenafil.
VecuroniumThe quinine derivative increases the effect of the muscle relaxant
VenlafaxineQuinidine, a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism and clearance of Venlafaxine, a CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrate. Monitor for changes in therapeutic/adverse effects of Venlafaxine if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued, or dose changed.
VerapamilConcurrent therapy may result in increased serum levels of both agents. Both agents are CYP3A4 inhibitors and substrates. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of the agent if the other is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VilazodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone. imit maximum adult vilazodone dose to 20 mg/day in patients receiving strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.
VinblastineQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may decrease the metabolism of Vinblastine. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinblastine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic/adverse effects of Vinblastine if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VincristineQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Vincristine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vincristine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vincristine if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VinorelbineQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy to avoid Vinorelbine toxicity. Monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of Vinorelbine if Quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VoriconazoleVoriconazole may increase the serum concentration of quinidine likely by inhibiting its metabolism by CYP3A4. Additive QTc prolongation may also occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the serum concentration and toxic effects of quinidine if voriconazole is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
VorinostatAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP).
WarfarinQuinidine may increase the anticoagulant effect of warfarin.
ZiprasidoneAdditive QTc-prolonging effects may increase the risk of severe arrhythmias. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
ZolpidemQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zolpidem by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zolpidem if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZonisamideQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zonisamide by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zonisamide if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZopicloneQuinidine, a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zopiclone by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zopiclone if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
ZuclopenthixolAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Quinidine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Zuclopenthixol acetateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Quinidine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Zuclopenthixol decanoateAdditive QTc prolongation may occur. Consider alternate therapy or use caution and monitor for QTc prolongation as this can lead to Torsade de Pointes (TdP). Quinidine, a strong CYP2D6 inhibitor, may increase the serum concentration of zuclopenthixol by decreasing its metabolism. Consider alternate therapy or monitor for changes in the therapeutic and adverse effects of zuclopenthixol if quinidine is initiated, discontinued or dose changed.
Food Interactions
  • Preferably take on an ampty stomach.

Targets

1. Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sodium channel protein type 5 subunit alpha Q14524 Details

References:

  1. Stokoe KS, Thomas G, Goddard CA, Colledge WH, Grace AA, Huang CL: Effects of flecainide and quinidine on arrhythmogenic properties of Scn5a+/Delta murine hearts modelling long QT syndrome 3. J Physiol. 2007 Jan 1;578(Pt 1):69-84. Epub 2006 Oct 5. Pubmed
  2. Itoh H, Shimizu M, Takata S, Mabuchi H, Imoto K: A novel missense mutation in the SCN5A gene associated with Brugada syndrome bidirectionally affecting blocking actions of antiarrhythmic drugs. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 May;16(5):486-93. Pubmed
  3. Grant AO: Electrophysiological basis and genetics of Brugada syndrome. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Sep;16 Suppl 1:S3-7. Pubmed
  4. Napolitano C, Priori SG: Brugada syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2006 Sep 14;1:35. Pubmed
  5. Ohgo T, Okamura H, Noda T, Satomi K, Suyama K, Kurita T, Aihara N, Kamakura S, Ohe T, Shimizu W: Acute and chronic management in patients with Brugada syndrome associated with electrical storm of ventricular fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2007 Jun;4(6):695-700. Epub 2007 Feb 20. Pubmed
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  7. Sheets MF, Fozzard HA, Lipkind GM, Hanck DA: Sodium channel molecular conformations and antiarrhythmic drug affinity. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2010 Jan;20(1):16-21. Pubmed
  8. Tella SR, Goldberg SR: Monoamine transporter and sodium channel mechanisms in the rapid pressor response to cocaine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998 Feb;59(2):305-12. Pubmed

2. Potassium channel subfamily K member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium channel subfamily K member 1 O00180 Details

References:

  1. Lesage F, Guillemare E, Fink M, Duprat F, Lazdunski M, Romey G, Barhanin J: TWIK-1, a ubiquitous human weakly inward rectifying K+ channel with a novel structure. EMBO J. 1996 Mar 1;15(5):1004-11. Pubmed
  2. Fink M, Duprat F, Lesage F, Reyes R, Romey G, Heurteaux C, Lazdunski M: Cloning, functional expression and brain localization of a novel unconventional outward rectifier K+ channel. EMBO J. 1996 Dec 16;15(24):6854-62. Pubmed

3. Potassium channel subfamily K member 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium channel subfamily K member 6 Q9Y257 Details

References:

  1. Patel AJ, Maingret F, Magnone V, Fosset M, Lazdunski M, Honore E: TWIK-2, an inactivating 2P domain K+ channel. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 15;275(37):28722-30. Pubmed
  2. Guerard NC, Traebert M, Suter W, Dumotier BM: Selective block of IKs plays a significant role in MAP triangulation induced by IKr block in isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008 Jul-Aug;58(1):32-40. Epub 2008 Jun 8. Pubmed

4. Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2 Q12809 Details

References:

  1. Po SS, Wang DW, Yang IC, Johnson JP Jr, Nie L, Bennett PB: Modulation of HERG potassium channels by extracellular magnesium and quinidine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1999 Feb;33(2):181-5. Pubmed
  2. Dong DL, Li Z, Wang HZ, Du ZM, Song WH, Yang BF: Acidification alters antiarrhythmic drug blockade of the ether-a-go-go-related Gene (HERG) Channels. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2004 May;94(5):209-12. Pubmed
  3. Wolpert C, Schimpf R, Giustetto C, Antzelevitch C, Cordeiro J, Dumaine R, Brugada R, Hong K, Bauersfeld U, Gaita F, Borggrefe M: Further insights into the effect of quinidine in short QT syndrome caused by a mutation in HERG. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Jan;16(1):54-8. Pubmed
  4. Lin C, Ke X, Cvetanovic I, Ranade V, Somberg J: The influence of extracellular acidosis on the effect of IKr blockers. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar;10(1):67-76. Pubmed
  5. Lin C, Cvetanovic I, Ke X, Ranade V, Somberg J: A mechanism for the potential proarrhythmic effect of acidosis, bradycardia, and hypokalemia on the blockade of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) channels. Am J Ther. 2005 Jul-Aug;12(4):328-36. Pubmed
  6. Guerard NC, Traebert M, Suter W, Dumotier BM: Selective block of IKs plays a significant role in MAP triangulation induced by IKr block in isolated rabbit heart. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008 Jul-Aug;58(1):32-40. Epub 2008 Jun 8. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Ludwig E, Schmid J, Beschke K, Ebner T: Activation of human cytochrome P-450 3A4-catalyzed meloxicam 5’-methylhydroxylation by quinidine and hydroquinidine in vitro. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Jul;290(1):1-8. Pubmed
  2. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  4. Ekins S, Bravi G, Wikel JH, Wrighton SA: Three-dimensional-quantitative structure activity relationship analysis of cytochrome P-450 3A4 substrates. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):424-33. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

3. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  2. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  3. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  4. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  5. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  6. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  7. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  8. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  9. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  10. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  11. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed
  12. van Montfoort JE, Hagenbuch B, Fattinger KE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Meier PJ: Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Oct;291(1):147-52. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

8. Cytochrome P450 2C8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

9. Cytochrome P450 2C9

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9 P11712 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Carriers

1. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 P02763 Details

References:

  1. Li JH, Xu JQ, Cao XM, Ni L, Li Y, Zhuang YY, Gong JB: Influence of the ORM1 phenotypes on serum unbound concentration and protein binding of quinidine. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 Mar;317(1-2):85-92. Pubmed
  2. McCollam PL, Crouch MA, Arnaud P: Caucasian versus African-American differences in orosomucoid: potential implications for therapy. Pharmacotherapy. 1998 May-Jun;18(3):620-6. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Solute carrier family 22 member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 2 O15244 Details

References:

  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. Pubmed
  2. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. Pubmed
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. Pubmed

2. Solute carrier family 22 member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 1 O15245 Details

References:

  1. van Montfoort JE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Koepsell H, Meier PJ: Comparison of “type I” and “type II” organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):110-5. Pubmed
  2. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. Pubmed
  3. Zhang L, Dresser MJ, Gray AT, Yost SC, Terashita S, Giacomini KM: Cloning and functional expression of a human liver organic cation transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Jun;51(6):913-21. Pubmed
  4. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. Pubmed
  5. Zhang L, Gorset W, Dresser MJ, Giacomini KM: The interaction of n-tetraalkylammonium compounds with a human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Mar;288(3):1192-8. Pubmed
  6. Sandhu P, Lee W, Xu X, Leake BF, Yamazaki M, Stone JA, Lin JH, Pearson PG, Kim RB: Hepatic uptake of the novel antifungal agent caspofungin. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 May;33(5):676-82. Epub 2005 Feb 16. Pubmed
  7. Sinclair CJ, Chi KD, Subramanian V, Ward KL, Green RM: Functional expression of a high affinity mammalian hepatic choline/organic cation transporter. J Lipid Res. 2000 Nov;41(11):1841-8. Pubmed
  8. Arndt P, Volk C, Gorboulev V, Budiman T, Popp C, Ulzheimer-Teuber I, Akhoundova A, Koppatz S, Bamberg E, Nagel G, Koepsell H: Interaction of cations, anions, and weak base quinine with rat renal cation transporter rOCT2 compared with rOCT1. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2001 Sep;281(3):F454-68. Pubmed
  9. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. Pubmed
  10. Martel F, Vetter T, Russ H, Grundemann D, Azevedo I, Koepsell H, Schomig E: Transport of small organic cations in the rat liver. The role of the organic cation transporter OCT1. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1996 Aug-Sep;354(3):320-6. Pubmed
  11. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Gorboulev V, Akhoundova A, Waldegger S, Lang F, Koepsell H: Monoamine neurotransmitter transport mediated by the polyspecific cation transporter rOCT1. FEBS Lett. 1996 Oct 21;395(2-3):153-6. Pubmed
  12. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Waldegger S, Gorboulev V, Arndt P, Lang F, Koepsell H: Electrogenic properties and substrate specificity of the polyspecific rat cation transporter rOCT1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32599-604. Pubmed

3. Solute carrier family 22 member 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 5 O76082 Details

References:

  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. Pubmed
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Nezu Ji J, Nikaido H, Hashimoto N, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Molecular and physiological evidence for multifunctionality of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN2. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):358-66. Pubmed

4. Bile salt export pump

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bile salt export pump O95342 Details

References:

  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Fluorescent substrates of sister-P-glycoprotein (BSEP) evaluated as markers of active transport and inhibition: evidence for contingent unequal binding sites. Pharm Res. 2003 Apr;20(4):537-44. Pubmed

5. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Choo EF, Leake B, Wandel C, Imamura H, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2000 Jun;28(6):655-60. Pubmed
  2. Gao J, Murase O, Schowen RL, Aube J, Borchardt RT: A functional assay for quantitation of the apparent affinities of ligands of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Pharm Res. 2001 Feb;18(2):171-6. Pubmed
  3. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. Pubmed
  4. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):765-72. Pubmed
  5. Horie K, Tang F, Borchardt RT: Isolation and characterization of Caco-2 subclones expressing high levels of multidrug resistance protein efflux transporter. Pharm Res. 2003 Feb;20(2):161-8. Pubmed
  6. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. Pubmed
  7. Weiss J, Dormann SM, Martin-Facklam M, Kerpen CJ, Ketabi-Kiyanvash N, Haefeli WE: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by newer antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr;305(1):197-204. Pubmed
  8. Tanigawara Y, Okamura N, Hirai M, Yasuhara M, Ueda K, Kioka N, Komano T, Hori R: Transport of digoxin by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (LLC-PK1). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Nov;263(2):840-5. Pubmed
  9. Ito T, Yano I, Tanaka K, Inui KI: Transport of quinolone antibacterial drugs by human P-glycoprotein expressed in a kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):955-60. Pubmed
  10. Kim RB, Fromm MF, Wandel C, Leake B, Wood AJ, Roden DM, Wilkinson GR: The drug transporter P-glycoprotein limits oral absorption and brain entry of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jan 15;101(2):289-94. Pubmed
  11. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed
  12. Jutabha P, Wempe MF, Anzai N, Otomo J, Kadota T, Endou H: Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human P-glycoprotein: probing trans- and cis-inhibitory effects on [3H]vinblastine and [3H]digoxin efflux. Pharmacol Res. 2010 Jan;61(1):76-84. Epub 2009 Jul 21. Pubmed
  13. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. Epub 2009 Jun 18. Pubmed
  14. Dahan A, Sabit H, Amidon GL: The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport. AAPS J. 2009 Jun;11(2):205-13. Epub 2009 Mar 25. Pubmed
  15. Smith BJ, Doran AC, McLean S, Tingley FD 3rd, O’Neill BT, Kajiji SM: P-glycoprotein efflux at the blood-brain barrier mediates differences in brain disposition and pharmacodynamics between two structurally related neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Sep;298(3):1252-9. Pubmed
  16. Adachi Y, Suzuki H, Sugiyama Y: Comparative studies on in vitro methods for evaluating in vivo function of MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 2001 Dec;18(12):1660-8. Pubmed
  17. Neuhoff S, Ungell AL, Zamora I, Artursson P: pH-dependent bidirectional transport of weakly basic drugs across Caco-2 monolayers: implications for drug-drug interactions. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1141-8. Pubmed
  18. Troutman MD, Thakker DR: Novel experimental parameters to quantify the modulation of absorptive and secretory transport of compounds by P-glycoprotein in cell culture models of intestinal epithelium. Pharm Res. 2003 Aug;20(8):1210-24. Pubmed
  19. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. Pubmed
  20. Fromm MF, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport: A unifying mechanism to explain the interaction between digoxin and quinidine [seecomments] Circulation. 1999 Feb 2;99(4):552-7. Pubmed

6. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 P46721 Details

References:

  1. van Montfoort JE, Muller M, Groothuis GM, Meijer DK, Koepsell H, Meier PJ: Comparison of “type I” and “type II” organic cation transport by organic cation transporters and organic anion-transporting polypeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2001 Jul;298(1):110-5. Pubmed
  2. Cvetkovic M, Leake B, Fromm MF, Wilkinson GR, Kim RB: OATP and P-glycoprotein transporters mediate the cellular uptake and excretion of fexofenadine. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Aug;27(8):866-71. Pubmed
  3. Shitara Y, Sugiyama D, Kusuhara H, Kato Y, Abe T, Meier PJ, Itoh T, Sugiyama Y: Comparative inhibitory effects of different compounds on rat oatpl (slc21a1)- and Oatp2 (Slc21a5)-mediated transport. Pharm Res. 2002 Feb;19(2):147-53. Pubmed
  4. van Montfoort, J.E. et al. Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 291, 147-152 (1999).Pubmed

7. Solute carrier family 22 member 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 8 Q8TCC7 Details

References:

  1. Cha SH, Sekine T, Fukushima JI, Kanai Y, Kobayashi Y, Goya T, Endou H: Identification and characterization of human organic anion transporter 3 expressing predominantly in the kidney. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May;59(5):1277-86. Pubmed

8. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

References:

  1. Tang F, Horie K, Borchardt RT: Are MDCK cells transfected with the human MRP2 gene a good model of the human intestinal mucosa? Pharm Res. 2002 Jun;19(6):773-9. Pubmed

9. Solute carrier family 22 member 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier family 22 member 4 Q9H015 Details

References:

  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. Pubmed

10. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

References:

  1. Nozawa T, Tamai I, Sai Y, Nezu J, Tsuji A: Contribution of organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-C to hepatic elimination of the opioid pentapeptide analogue [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Jul;55(7):1013-20. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12