You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameItraconazole
Accession NumberDB01167  (APRD00040)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

One of the triazole antifungal agents that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes resulting in impairment of ergosterol synthesis. It has been used against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, cryptococcal meningitis & aspergillosis. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ItraconazolSpanishNot Available
ItraconazoleNot AvailableNot Available
ItraconazolumLatinNot Available
Itrizole (tn)Not AvailableNot Available
OriconazoleNot AvailableNot Available
Sporanox (tn)Not AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Onmeltablet200 mgoralMerz Pharmaceuticals, LLC2012-11-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Itraconazolecapsule100 mgoralPatriot Pharmaceuticals2005-02-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sporanoxcapsule100 mgoralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1992-09-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sporanoxsolution10 mg/mLoralJanssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.1997-02-21Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sporanoxcapsule100 mgoralbryant ranch prepack1992-09-11Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Itraconazolecapsule100 mgoralCarilion Materials Management2005-02-01Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Sporanoxcapsule100 mgoralJanssen IncNot AvailableNot AvailableCanada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Itraconazolecapsule100 mgoralEon Labs, Inc.2004-05-28Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Itraconazolecapsule100 mgoralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2012-07-26Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ItrizoleNot Available
OriconazoleNot Available
SporalNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
CAS number84625-61-6
WeightAverage: 705.633
Monoisotopic: 704.239307158
Chemical FormulaC35H38Cl2N8O4
InChI KeyVHVPQPYKVGDNFY-ZPGVKDDISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C35H38Cl2N8O4/c1-3-25(2)45-34(46)44(24-40-45)29-7-5-27(6-8-29)41-14-16-42(17-15-41)28-9-11-30(12-10-28)47-19-31-20-48-35(49-31,21-43-23-38-22-39-43)32-13-4-26(36)18-33(32)37/h4-13,18,22-25,31H,3,14-17,19-21H2,1-2H3/t25?,31-,35-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
1-(butan-2-yl)-4-{4-[4-(4-{[(2R,4S)-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]methoxy}phenyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl}-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5-one
SMILES
CCC(C)N1N=CN(C1=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)N1CCN(CC1)C1=CC=C(OC[C@H]2CO[C@@](CN3C=NC=N3)(O2)C2=C(Cl)C=C(Cl)C=C2)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpiperazines. These are compounds containing a phenylpiperazine skeleton, which consists of a piperazine bound to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazinanes
Sub ClassPiperazines
Direct ParentPhenylpiperazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-arylpiperazine
  • Phenylpiperazine
  • Phenyl-1,3,4-triazole
  • Phenyl-1,2,4-triazole
  • Phenyltriazole
  • Substituted aniline
  • Dialkylarylamine
  • Phenol ether
  • 1,3-dichlorobenzene
  • Glycerol ether
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • Aniline
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • 1,2,4-triazole
  • Triazole
  • Azole
  • Meta-dioxolane
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of the following fungal infections in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised patients: pulmonary and extrapulmonary blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and onychomycosis.
PharmacodynamicsItraconazole is an imidazole/triazole type antifungal agent. Itraconazole is a highly selective inhibitor of fungal cytochrome P-450 sterol C-14 α-demethylation via the inhibition of the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase. This enzyme converts lanosterol to ergosterol, and is required in fungal cell wall synthesis. The subsequent loss of normal sterols correlates with the accumulation of 14 α-methyl sterols in fungi and may be partly responsible for the fungistatic activity of fluconazole. Mammalian cell demethylation is much less sensitive to fluconazole inhibition. Itraconazole exhibits in vitro activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida spp. Fungistatic activity has also been demonstrated in normal and immunocompromised animal models for systemic and intracranial fungal infections due to Cryptococcus neoformans and for systemic infections due to Candida albicans.
Mechanism of actionItraconazole interacts with 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme necessary to convert lanosterol to ergosterol. As ergosterol is an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, inhibition of its synthesis results in increased cellular permeability causing leakage of cellular contents. Itraconazole may also inhibit endogenous respiration, interact with membrane phospholipids, inhibit the transformation of yeasts to mycelial forms, inhibit purine uptake, and impair triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis.
AbsorptionThe absolute oral bioavailability of itraconazole is 55%, and is maximal when taken with a full meal.
Volume of distribution
  • 796 ± 185 L
Protein binding99.8%
Metabolism

Itraconazole is extensively metabolized by the liver into a large number of metabolites, including hydroxyitraconazole, the major metabolite. The main metabolic pathways are oxidative scission of the dioxolane ring, aliphatic oxidation at the 1-methylpropyl substituent, N-dealkylation of this 1-methylpropyl substituent, oxidative degradation of the piperazine ring and triazolone scission.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Itraconazole
hydroxyitraconazoleDetails
Route of eliminationItraconazole is metabolized predominately by the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system (CYP3A4) in the liver, resulting in the formation of several metabolites, including hydroxyitraconazole, the major metabolite. Fecal excretion of the parent drug varies between 3-18% of the dose. Renal excretion of the parent drug is less than 0.03% of the dose. About 40% of the dose is excreted as inactive metabolites in the urine. No single excreted metabolite represents more than 5% of a dose.
Half life21 hours
Clearance
  • 381 +/- 95 mL/minute [IV administration]
ToxicityNo significant lethality was observed when itraconazole was administered orally to mice and rats at dosage levels of 320 mg/kg or to dogs at 200 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Fungi, yeast and protozoans
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9973
Blood Brain Barrier-0.6151
Caco-2 permeable+0.5511
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6397
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7973
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.88
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7497
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8116
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7408
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7666
CYP450 2C9 substrateInhibitor0.618
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8622
CYP450 2C19 substrateInhibitor0.5703
CYP450 3A4 substrateInhibitor0.5279
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8219
Ames testAMES toxic0.5303
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7478
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity3.3118 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.5782
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6096
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral100 mg
Solutionoral10 mg/mL
Tabletoral200 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Itraconazole 28 100 mg capsule Disp Pack270.89USD disp
Itraconazole powder32.13USD g
Sporanox 100 mg capsule12.14USD capsule
Itraconazole 100 mg capsule9.46USD capsule
Sporanox 10 mg/ml Solution1.41USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
Canada13364981995-08-012012-08-01
Canada21428481999-11-162013-08-27
United States56330151994-05-272014-05-27
United States64070791999-06-182019-06-18
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point166.2 °CNot Available
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP5.66HTTP://WWW.RXLIST.COM
pKa3.70Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00964 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.48ALOGPS
logP7.31ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)3.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count9ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.79 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity200.4 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability74.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings7ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Jong-Soo Woo, Hong-Gi Yi, “Antifungal oral composition containing itraconazole and process for preparing same.” U.S. Patent US6039981, issued May, 1998.

US6039981
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ02AC02
AHFS Codes
  • 08:14.08
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (1.58 MB)
MSDSDownload (73.6 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolMay increase the serum concentration of Vitamin K Antagonists.
ado-trastuzumab emtansineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansine. Specifically, strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may increase concentrations of the cytotoxic DM1 component.
AfatinibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Afatinib.
AlfuzosinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alfuzosin.
AliskirenItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Aliskiren.
AlmotriptanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Almotriptan.
AlosetronCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Alosetron.
AlprazolamMay increase the serum concentration of ALPRAZolam.
Aluminum hydroxideMay decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
AmlodipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
Amphotericin BAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may diminish the therapeutic effect of Amphotericin B.
AmrinoneAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
ApixabanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Apixaban.
AripiprazoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of ARIPiprazole.
AstemizoleCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Astemizole.
AtorvastatinMay increase the serum concentration of AtorvaSTATin.
AvanafilItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Avanafil.
AxitinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Axitinib.
BedaquilineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bedaquiline.
BepridilAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
BoceprevirMay increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Itraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Boceprevir.
BortezomibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bortezomib.
BosentanMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
BosutinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Bosutinib.
Brentuximab vedotinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brentuximab Vedotin. Specifically, concentrations of the active monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) component may be increased.
BrinzolamideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Brinzolamide.
BuspironeAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of BusPIRone. Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
BusulfanAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Busulfan. Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
CabazitaxelCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabazitaxel.
CabozantinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cabozantinib.
Calcium carbonateMay decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
CarbamazepineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
CilostazolCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Cilostazol.
CimetidineH2-Antagonists may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
CisaprideAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Cisapride. Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
ColchicineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Colchicine.
ConivaptanAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Conivaptan. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
CrizotinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Crizotinib.
Dabigatran etexilateP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Dabigatran Etexilate.
DabrafenibMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DapoxetineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dapoxetine.
DarunavirMay increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Itraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Darunavir.
DasatinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dasatinib.
DeferasiroxMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
DidanosineMay decrease the absorption of Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic). Enteric coated didanosine capsules are not expected to affect these antifungals.
DigoxinMay increase the serum concentration of Cardiac Glycosides.
DihydroergotamineMay increase the serum concentration of Dihydroergotamine.
DisopyramideMay increase the serum concentration of Disopyramide.
DocetaxelAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of DOCEtaxel. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
DofetilideAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Dofetilide.
DomperidoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Domperidone.
DronabinolCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronabinol.
DronedaroneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dronedarone.
DutasterideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Dutasteride.
EfavirenzMay decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
EletriptanMay increase the serum concentration of Eletriptan.
EliglustatCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Eliglustat.
EnzalutamideCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
EplerenoneMay increase the serum concentration of Eplerenone.
Ergoloid mesylateMay increase the serum concentration of Ergoloid Mesylates.
ErgonovineItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Ergonovine.
ErgotamineMay increase the serum concentration of Ergotamine.
ErlotinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Erlotinib.
EsomeprazoleProton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
EstazolamItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Estazolam.
EtravirineMay decrease the serum concentration of Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic). This would be anticipated with itraconazole or ketoconazole. Etravirine may increase the serum concentration of Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic). This would be anticipated with voriconazole. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Etravirine. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
EverolimusCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Everolimus.
FamotidineH2-Antagonists may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
FelodipineMay increase the serum concentration of Felodipine.
FentanylCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of FentaNYL.
FesoterodineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fesoterodine.
FexofenadineMay increase the serum concentration of Fexofenadine.
FlunarizineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
FosamprenavirItraconazole may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Fosamprenavir. Specifically, amprenavir concentrations may be increased. Fosamprenavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
FosphenytoinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
GabapentinAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
GuanfacineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of GuanFACINE.
HalofantrineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Halofantrine.
HydrocodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Hydrocodone.
IfosfamideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ifosfamide.
IloperidoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Iloperidone. Specifically, concentrations of the metabolites P88 and P95 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Iloperidone.
ImatinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Imatinib.
IndinavirIndinavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole. Itraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Indinavir.
IrinotecanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Irinotecan. Specifically, serum concentrations of SN-38 may be increased. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Irinotecan.
IsoniazidIsoniazid may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
IsradipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
IvacaftorCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ivacaftor.
IxabepiloneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ixabepilone.
LacosamideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lacosamide.
LamotrigineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
LansoprazoleProton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
LapatinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lapatinib.
LedipasvirP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Ledipasvir.
LercanidipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
LevobupivacaineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levobupivacaine.
LevomilnacipranCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Levomilnacipran.
LomitapideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lomitapide.
LopinavirMay increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
LosartanAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Losartan. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
LovastatinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lovastatin.
LULICONAZOLEMay increase the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
LurasidoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Lurasidone.
MACITENTANCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Macitentan.
Magnesium oxideMay decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
Magnesium SulfateAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
MaravirocCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Maraviroc.
MeloxicamMay decrease the serum concentration of Meloxicam.
MethadoneMay increase the serum concentration of Methadone.
MethylergometrineMay increase the serum concentration of Methylergonovine.
MethylprednisoloneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of MethylPREDNISolone.
MidazolamMay increase the serum concentration of Midazolam.
MifepristoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Mifepristone.
NevirapineNevirapine may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
NicardipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
NilotinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Nilotinib.
NimodipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
NisoldipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
NitrendipineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
NizatidineH2-Antagonists may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
OmeprazoleProton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
OspemifeneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ospemifene.
OxybutyninCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Oxybutynin.
OxycodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of OxyCODONE. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of OxyCODONE. Serum concentrations of the active metabolite oxymorphone may also be increased.
PaliperidoneItraconazole may enhance the QTc-prolonging effect of Paliperidone. Itraconazole may decrease the metabolism of Paliperidone.
PanobinostatCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Panobinostat.
PantoprazoleProton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
ParicalcitolCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Paricalcitol.
PazopanibP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of PAZOPanib.
PerhexilineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
PhenobarbitalCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
PhenytoinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
PimecrolimusCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease the metabolism of Pimecrolimus.
PimozideAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the arrhythmogenic effect of Pimozide. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Pimozide. This increase in serum concentrations may lead to QTc interval prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
PonatinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PONATinib.
PranlukastCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Pranlukast.
PrasugrelCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Prasugrel.
PravastatinMay increase the serum concentration of Pravastatin.
PrednisoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of PredniSONE.
PrenylamineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
PrimidoneCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
PropafenoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Propafenone.
prucaloprideP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Prucalopride.
QuetiapineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of QUEtiapine.
QuinidineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of QuiNIDine. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
RabeprazoleProton Pump Inhibitors may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
RanitidineH2-Antagonists may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
RanolazineAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Ranolazine. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
RegorafenibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Regorafenib.
RepaglinideCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Repaglinide.
RetapamulinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Retapamulin.
RifampicinCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
RifapentineCYP3A4 Inducers (Strong) may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
RifaximinP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Rifaximin.
RilpivirineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rilpivirine.
RiociguatItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Riociguat.
RisedronateAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
RitonavirRitonavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
RivaroxabanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Rivaroxaban. For clarithromycin, refer to more specific clarithromycin-rivaroxaban monograph recommendations.
RomidepsinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of RomiDEPsin.
RosuvastatinMay increase the serum concentration of Rosuvastatin.
RuxolitinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ruxolitinib.
SalmeterolCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Salmeterol.
SaquinavirItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Saquinavir. Saquinavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
SaxagliptinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Saxagliptin.
SildenafilMay increase the serum concentration of Sildenafil.
SilodosinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Silodosin.
SiltuximabMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
SimeprevirCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simeprevir.
SimvastatinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Simvastatin.
SirolimusMay increase the serum concentration of Sirolimus.
Sodium bicarbonateAntacids may decrease the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
SolifenacinAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Solifenacin. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
SorafenibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of SORAfenib.
SucralfateMay decrease the absorption of Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic).
SunitinibAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of SUNItinib. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
SuvorexantCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Suvorexant.
TadalafilMay increase the serum concentration of Tadalafil.
TamsulosinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tamsulosin.
TelaprevirItraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Telaprevir. Telaprevir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
TemsirolimusItraconazole may increase serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Temsirolimus.
TerfenadineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Terfenadine.
TicagrelorCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may decrease serum concentrations of the active metabolite(s) of Ticagrelor. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ticagrelor.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the serum concentration of Itraconazole.
TocilizumabMay decrease the serum concentration of CYP3A4 Substrates.
TofacitinibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tofacitinib.
TolterodineCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolterodine.
TolvaptanCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Tolvaptan.
TopotecanP-glycoprotein/ABCB1 Inhibitors may increase the serum concentration of Topotecan.
ToremifeneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Toremifene. CYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Toremifene.
TrabectedinCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Trabectedin.
TriazolamMay increase the serum concentration of Triazolam.
UlipristalCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Ulipristal.
VardenafilMay increase the serum concentration of Vardenafil.
VemurafenibCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vemurafenib.
VerapamilAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Calcium Channel Blockers. Specifically, itraconazole may enhance the negative inotropic effects of verapamil or diltiazem. Antifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may decrease the metabolism of Calcium Channel Blockers. Fluconazole and isavuconazonium likely exert weaker effects than other azoles and are addressed in separate monographs.
VilazodoneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vilazodone.
VinblastineMay increase the serum concentration of VinBLAStine.
VincristineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of VinCRIStine. Itraconazole may increase the serum concentration of VinCRIStine.
VinorelbineMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Vinorelbine. Itraconazole may increase the serum concentration of Vinorelbine.
VorapaxarCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Vorapaxar.
ZolpidemAntifungal Agents (Azole Derivatives, Systemic) may increase the serum concentration of Zolpidem. Applicable Isavuconazonium considerations are addressed in separate monographs.
ZopicloneCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zopiclone.
ZuclopenthixolCYP3A4 Inhibitors (Strong) may increase the serum concentration of Zuclopenthixol.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid milk, calcium containing dairy products, iron, antacids, or aluminum salts 2 hours before or 6 hours after using antacids while on this medication.
  • Avoid taking with grapefruit juice.
  • Take after a full meal.
  • Take with food.

Targets

1. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Yeast

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase P50859 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Gachotte D, Pierson CA, Lees ND, Barbuch R, Koegel C, Bard M: A yeast sterol auxotroph (erg25) is rescued by addition of azole antifungals and reduced levels of heme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Oct 14;94(21):11173-8. Pubmed
  4. Henry KW, Nickels JT, Edlind TD: Upregulation of ERG genes in Candida species by azoles and other sterol biosynthesis inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Oct;44(10):2693-700. Pubmed
  5. Morales IJ, Vohra PK, Puri V, Kottom TJ, Limper AH, Thomas CF Jr: Characterization of a lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase from Pneumocystis carinii. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 Aug;29(2):232-8. Epub 2003 Feb 26. Pubmed

2. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase Q16850 Details

References:

  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed
  2. Cotrim PC, Garrity LK, Beverley SM: Isolation of genes mediating resistance to inhibitors of nucleoside and ergosterol metabolism in Leishmania by overexpression/selection. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 31;274(53):37723-30. Pubmed
  3. Carrillo-Munoz AJ, Giusiano G, Ezkurra PA, Quindos G: Antifungal agents: mode of action in yeast cells. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2006 Jun;19(2):130-9. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Niwa T, Shiraga T, Takagi A: Effect of antifungal drugs on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 activities in human liver microsomes. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1805-8. Pubmed
  2. Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M, Nishikawa M, Niwa T, Jin JS, Nakamura T, Nishiguchi K, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;57(6):759-64. Pubmed
  3. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.
  4. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed
  5. Dresser GK, Spence JD, Bailey DG: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic consequences and clinical relevance of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Jan;38(1):41-57. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 2D6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2D6 P10635 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 3A5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

4. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Flockhart DA. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table. Indiana University School of Medicine (2007). Accessed May 28, 2010.

5. Cytochrome P450 2B6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2B6 P20813 Details

References:

  1. Walsky RL, Astuccio AV, Obach RS: Evaluation of 227 drugs for in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6. J Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;46(12):1426-38. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Wang EJ, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Active transport of fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates: evaluation as markers and interaction with inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001 Nov 30;289(2):580-5. Pubmed
  2. Wang EJ, Lew K, Casciano CN, Clement RP, Johnson WW: Interaction of common azole antifungals with P glycoprotein. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Jan;46(1):160-5. Pubmed
  3. Schwab D, Fischer H, Tabatabaei A, Poli S, Huwyler J: Comparison of in vitro P-glycoprotein screening assays: recommendations for their use in drug discovery. J Med Chem. 2003 Apr 24;46(9):1716-25. Pubmed
  4. Takara K, Tanigawara Y, Komada F, Nishiguchi K, Sakaeda T, Okumura K: Cellular pharmacokinetic aspects of reversal effect of itraconazole on P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance of anticancer drugs. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Dec;22(12):1355-9. Pubmed
  5. Masuda S, Inui K: [Molecular mechanisms on drug transporters in the drug absorption and disposition] Nippon Rinsho. 2002 Jan;60(1):65-73. Pubmed
  6. Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Laitila J, Luurila H, Neuvonen PJ: Itraconazole increases but grapefruit juice greatly decreases plasma concentrations of celiprolol. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Mar;73(3):192-8. Pubmed
  7. Sakaeda T, Iwaki K, Kakumoto M, Nishikawa M, Niwa T, Jin JS, Nakamura T, Nishiguchi K, Okamura N, Okumura K: Effect of micafungin on cytochrome P450 3A4 and multidrug resistance protein 1 activities, and its comparison with azole antifungal drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;57(6):759-64. Pubmed
  8. Saito M, Hirata-Koizumi M, Miyake S, Hasegawa R: Comparison of information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of Ca antagonists in the package inserts from three countries (Japan, USA and UK). Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;61(7):531-6. Epub 2005 Jul 23. Pubmed
  9. Shon JH, Yoon YR, Hong WS, Nguyen PM, Lee SS, Choi YG, Cha IJ, Shin JG: Effect of itraconazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of fexofenadine in relation to the MDR1 genetic polymorphism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Aug;78(2):191-201. Pubmed

Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 04, 2014 21:35