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Identification
NameLevobunolol
Accession NumberDB01210  (APRD00165)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionA nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist used in the treatment of glaucoma. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Bunolol
(S)-5-(3-((1,1-Dimethylethyl)amino)-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone
Levobunolol
Levobunololum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Betagansolution/ drops5 mg/mLophthalmicAllergan, Inc.1986-07-24Not applicableUs
Betagan 0.5% Ophthalmic Solliquid5 mgophthalmicAllergan Inc1985-12-31Not applicableCanada
Betagan Oph Soln 0.25%liquid0.25 %ophthalmicAllergan Inc1990-12-31Not applicableCanada
Levobunolol Hydrochloridesolution/ drops5 mg/mLophthalmicPacific Pharma, Inc.1997-07-15Not applicableUs
Levobunolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solutionliquid0.25 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Levobunolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solutionliquid0.50 %ophthalmicAlcon Canada IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Levobunolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solutionliquid0.25 %ophthalmicBausch & Lomb Pharmaceuticals Inc.1997-09-242003-07-14Canada
Levobunolol Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solutionliquid0.50 %ophthalmicBausch & Lomb Pharmaceuticals Inc.1997-09-242003-07-14Canada
Novo-levobunolol - Liq 0.25%liquid0.25 %ophthalmicNovopharm Limited1996-07-302015-10-26Canada
Novo-levobunolol - Liq 0.5%liquid0.5 %ophthalmicNovopharm Limited1996-07-302015-10-26Canada
PMS-levobunololliquid0.5 %ophthalmicPharmascience Inc1998-08-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-levobunololliquid0.25 %ophthalmicPharmascience IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Ratio-levobunololsolution0.5 %ophthalmicTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ratio-levobunololsolution0.25 %ophthalmicTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Levobunololliquid0.25 %ophthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-08-21Not applicableCanada
Sandoz Levobunololliquid0.5 %ophthalmicSandoz Canada Incorporated2000-08-21Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo-levobunolol Ophthalmic Solution USP 0.25%liquid0.25 %ophthalmicApotex Inc2000-02-21Not applicableCanada
Apo-levobunolol Ophthalmic Solution USP 0.5%liquid0.5 %ophthalmicApotex Inc2000-02-21Not applicableCanada
Levobunolol Hydrochloridesolution/ drops5 mg/mLophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated1994-03-04Not applicableUs
Levobunolol Hydrochloridesolution/ drops2.5 mg/mLophthalmicBausch & Lomb Incorporated1994-03-04Not applicableUs
Levobunolol Hydrochloridesolution/ drops5 mg/mLophthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1995-02-23Not applicableUs
Levobunolol Hydrochloridesolution5 mg/mLophthalmicSandoz Inc1997-01-30Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AkbetaNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Probeta - Liq OphAllergan Inc
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Levobunolol Hydrochloride
27912-14-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: DNTDOBSIBZKFCP-YDALLXLXSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 327.16012141
  • Average Mass: 327.846
DBSALT000251
Categories
UNIIG6317AOI7K
CAS number47141-42-4
WeightAverage: 291.3853
Monoisotopic: 291.183443671
Chemical FormulaC17H25NO3
InChI KeyInChIKey=IXHBTMCLRNMKHZ-LBPRGKRZSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H25NO3/c1-17(2,3)18-10-12(19)11-21-16-9-5-6-13-14(16)7-4-8-15(13)20/h5-6,9,12,18-19H,4,7-8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
5-[(2S)-3-(tert-butylamino)-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-one
SMILES
CC(C)(C)NC[[email protected]](O)COC1=CC=CC2=C1CCCC2=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tetralins. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a tetralin moiety, which consists of a benzene fused to a cyclohexane.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassTetralins
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentTetralins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tetralin
  • Aryl alkyl ketone
  • Aryl ketone
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and may be used in patients with chronic open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.
PharmacodynamicsLevobunolol is an ophthalmic beta-blocker, equally effective at β(1)- and β(2)-receptor sites. Levobunolol reduces both elevated and normal IOP in patients with or without glaucoma. In patients with elevated IOP, levobunolol reduces mean IOP by approximately 25-40% from baseline. As the drug is a nonselective &beta-adrenergic blocking agent, it can produce both systemic pulmonary and cardiovascular effects following topical application to the eye. These effects include adverse pulmonary effects (eg. bronchoconstriction, increased airway resistance), and a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate.
Mechanism of actionLevobunolol's mechanism of action in reducing IOP is not clearly defined, but is believed to be due to a reduction of the production of aqueous humor via blockage of endogenous catecholamine-stimulated increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) concentrations within the ciliary processes.
Related Articles
Absorption80%
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life20 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityBradycardia, hypotension, bronchospasm, and acute cardiac failure, LD50=700 mg/kg (orally in rat).
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Levobunolol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00666
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9923
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8738
Caco-2 permeable-0.6105
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8227
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5712
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5691
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8179
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7696
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8547
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5554
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8378
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8825
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9039
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.1253 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9613
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.593
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution/ dropsophthalmic5 mg/mL
Liquidophthalmic5 mg
Liquidophthalmic0.25 %
Solutionophthalmic5 mg/mL
Solution/ dropsophthalmic2.5 mg/mL
Liquidophthalmic0.50 %
Liquidophthalmic0.5 %
Liquidophthalmic
Solutionophthalmic0.25 %
Solutionophthalmic0.5 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Levobunolol HCl 0.5% Solution 15ml Bottle50.25USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.5% Solution 10ml Bottle33.58USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.25% Solution 10ml Bottle32.59USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.5% Solution 5ml Bottle17.26USD bottle
Levobunolol HCl 0.25% Solution 5ml Bottle16.45USD bottle
Betagan 0.5% Solution6.39USD ml
Betagan 0.5% eye drops6.1USD ml
Betagan 0.25% eye drops4.9USD ml
Betagan 0.5 % Solution3.7USD ml
Levobunolol 0.5% eye drops3.24USD ml
Levobunolol 0.25% eye drops2.83USD ml
Pms-Levobunolol 0.5 % Solution1.63USD ml
Ratio-Levobunolol 0.5 % Solution1.63USD ml
Sandoz Levobunolol 0.5 % Solution1.63USD ml
Ratio-Levobunolol 0.25 % Solution1.23USD ml
Sandoz Levobunolol 0.25 % Solution1.23USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point209-211 °CNot Available
logP2.40HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.251 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.06ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-3.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.09ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.66ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.56 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity83.28 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Ishibashi T, Yokoi N, Kinoshita S: Comparison of the effects of topical levobunolol and timolol solution on the human ocular surface. Cornea. 2003 Nov;22(8):709-15. [PubMed:14576520 ]
  2. Ogasawara H, Yoshida A, Fujio N, Konno S, Ishiko S: [Effect of topical levobunolol on retinal, optic nerve head, and choroidal circulation in normal volunteers]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 1999 Jul;103(7):544-50. [PubMed:10443129 ]
  3. Leung M, Grunwald JE: Short-term effects of topical levobunolol on the human retinal circulation. Eye (Lond). 1997;11 ( Pt 3):371-6. [PubMed:9373479 ]
  4. Dong Y, Ishikawa H, Wu Y, Yoshitomi T: Vasodilatory mechanism of levobunolol on vascular smooth muscle cells. Exp Eye Res. 2007 Jun;84(6):1039-46. Epub 2007 Jan 27. [PubMed:17459374 ]
  5. Gonzalez JP, Clissold SP: Ocular levobunolol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987 Dec;34(6):648-61. [PubMed:2892662 ]
  6. Lesar TS: Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1987 Jun;6(6):451-63. [PubMed:2891463 ]
  7. Novack GD: Levobunolol for the long-term treatment of glaucoma. Gen Pharmacol. 1986;17(4):373-7. [PubMed:3019819 ]
External Links
ATC CodesS01ED03
AHFS Codes
  • 52:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (850 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Levobunolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
AcetazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetazolamide is combined with Levobunolol.
AcetohexamideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Acetohexamide.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Acetylcholine.
AcetyldigitoxinLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
AdapaleneAdapalene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aldesleukin is combined with Levobunolol.
AlimemazineAlimemazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
AliskirenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Aliskiren.
AmilorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amiloride is combined with Levobunolol.
AmiodaroneAmiodarone may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
AmlodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amlodipine is combined with Levobunolol.
AmobarbitalAmobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
AmodiaquineThe metabolism of Levobunolol can be decreased when combined with Amodiaquine.
AmoxapineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Amoxapine.
Amyl NitriteThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Amyl Nitrite.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ApraclonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apraclonidine is combined with Levobunolol.
ApremilastApremilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ArecolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Arecoline.
AripiprazoleAripiprazole may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
AtenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Atenolol is combined with Levobunolol.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
AzelastineAzelastine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Azilsartan medoxomil.
BalsalazideBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
BarbitalBarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Levobunolol.
BendroflumethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bendroflumethiazide is combined with Levobunolol.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
BeractantLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Beractant.
BetaxololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betaxolol is combined with Levobunolol.
BethanecholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Bethanechol.
BisoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bisoprolol is combined with Levobunolol.
BretyliumBretylium may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
BretyliumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Bretylium.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brimonidine is combined with Levobunolol.
BromfenacBromfenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
BromocriptineLevobunolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Bromocriptine.
BumetanideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bumetanide is combined with Levobunolol.
BupivacaineThe serum concentration of Bupivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Levobunolol.
CabergolineLevobunolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Cabergoline.
CalfactantLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Calfactant.
CanagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Canagliflozin.
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Levobunolol.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Levobunolol.
CarbacholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Carbachol.
CarprofenCarprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
CarteololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carteolol is combined with Levobunolol.
CarvedilolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carvedilol is combined with Levobunolol.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
CeritinibLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ceritinib.
CevimelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Cevimeline.
ChloroquineChloroquine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ChlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorothiazide is combined with Levobunolol.
ChlorpromazineChlorpromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
ChlorpropamideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Chlorpropamide.
ChlorthalidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorthalidone is combined with Levobunolol.
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Cilazapril.
ClevidipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Clevidipine.
ClomipramineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonidine is combined with Levobunolol.
ClonixinClonixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
CrizotinibLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Crizotinib.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Dapagliflozin.
DapoxetineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Dapoxetine.
DeslanosideLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Deslanoside.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Levobunolol.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
DiclofenamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenamide is combined with Levobunolol.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
DigitoxinLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digitoxin.
DigoxinLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Digoxin.
DihydroergotamineLevobunolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Dihydroergotamine.
DiltiazemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diltiazem is combined with Levobunolol.
DinutuximabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Dinutuximab.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
DipyridamoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Dipyridamole.
DisopyramideDisopyramide may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
DonepezilDonepezil may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
DoxazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxazosin is combined with Levobunolol.
DronedaroneLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Dronedarone.
DroxicamDroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
DuloxetineLevobunolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Duloxetine.
EmpagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Empagliflozin.
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Levobunolol.
EPIBATIDINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with EPIBATIDINE.
EpirizoleEpirizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Levobunolol.
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Levobunolol.
Ergoloid mesylateLevobunolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergoloid mesylate.
ErgonovineLevobunolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergonovine.
ErgotamineLevobunolol may increase the vasoconstricting activities of Ergotamine.
EsmololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Esmolol is combined with Levobunolol.
Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Levobunolol.
EtanerceptEtanercept may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
EtodolacEtodolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
EtoperidoneThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Etoperidone.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
exisulindexisulind may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
FelodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felodipine is combined with Levobunolol.
FenbufenFenbufen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
FenfluramineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Fenfluramine.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
FingolimodLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Fingolimod.
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Levobunolol.
FlunixinFlunixin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
FluoxetineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Fluoxetine.
FluphenazineFluphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Levobunolol.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Levobunolol.
GalantamineGalantamine may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
GlibornurideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glibornuride.
GliclazideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliclazide.
GlimepirideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glimepiride.
GlipizideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glipizide.
GliquidoneLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Gliquidone.
GlisoxepideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glisoxepide.
GlyburideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Glyburide.
GTS-21The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with GTS-21.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with Levobunolol.
HexobarbitalHexobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
HydralazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Levobunolol.
HydroxychloroquineThe metabolism of Levobunolol can be decreased when combined with Hydroxychloroquine.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
IcatibantIcatibant may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
IndalpineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Indalpine.
IndapamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indapamide is combined with Levobunolol.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Levobunolol.
Isosorbide DinitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Dinitrate is combined with Levobunolol.
Isosorbide MononitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isosorbide Mononitrate is combined with Levobunolol.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
IsoxsuprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Isoxsuprine.
IsradipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isradipine is combined with Levobunolol.
IvabradineLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ivabradine.
KebuzoneKebuzone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
KetorolacKetorolac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Levobunolol.
LacosamideLevobunolol may increase the atrioventricular blocking (AV block) activities of Lacosamide.
LanreotideLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lanreotide.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
LevodopaLevobunolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LidocaineThe serum concentration of Lidocaine can be increased when it is combined with Levobunolol.
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Levobunolol.
LobelineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Lobeline.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Levobunolol.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Lu AA21004The serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Lu AA21004.
LucinactantLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Lucinactant.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
MannitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mannitol is combined with Levobunolol.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mecamylamine is combined with Levobunolol.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
MepivacaineThe serum concentration of Mepivacaine can be increased when it is combined with Levobunolol.
MesalazineMesalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
MesoridazineMesoridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
MetamizoleMetamizole may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
MethacholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Methacholine.
MethazolamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methazolamide is combined with Levobunolol.
MethohexitalMethohexital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
MethotrimeprazineMethotrimeprazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
MethyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyclothiazide is combined with Levobunolol.
MethyldopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methyldopa is combined with Levobunolol.
Methylene blueMethylene blue may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
MethylphenobarbitalMethylphenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
MetipranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Metipranolol.
MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Levobunolol.
MetoprololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metoprolol is combined with Levobunolol.
MidodrineLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Midodrine.
MilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Milnacipran.
MinoxidilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Minoxidil is combined with Levobunolol.
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Levobunolol.
MoricizineMoricizine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NabumetoneNabumetone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NadololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nadolol is combined with Levobunolol.
NaftifineNaftifine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NaproxenNaproxen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NebivololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Nebivolol.
NepafenacNepafenac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NesiritideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Nesiritide.
NicardipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nicardipine is combined with Levobunolol.
NicorandilNicorandil may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
NicotineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Nicotine.
Nicotine bitartrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Nicotine bitartrate.
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
NifedipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Nifedipine.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NimesulideNimesulide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
NimodipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimodipine is combined with Levobunolol.
NisoldipineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nisoldipine is combined with Levobunolol.
NitroglycerinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroglycerin is combined with Levobunolol.
NitroprussideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroprusside is combined with Levobunolol.
OctreotideOctreotide may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Olanzapine.
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Levobunolol.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
OlsalazineOlsalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
OrgoteinOrgotein may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
OuabainLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Ouabain.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
PapaverineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Papaverine is combined with Levobunolol.
ParecoxibParecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ParoxetineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Paroxetine.
PasireotideLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Pasireotide.
PenbutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Penbutolol.
PentobarbitalPentobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Levobunolol.
PerphenazinePerphenazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
PhenobarbitalPhenobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
PilocarpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Pilocarpine.
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
PindololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pindolol is combined with Levobunolol.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Poractant alfaLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Poractant alfa.
PrazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazosin is combined with Levobunolol.
PrimaquineThe metabolism of Levobunolol can be decreased when combined with Primaquine.
PrimidonePrimidone may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
ProchlorperazineProchlorperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
PromazinePromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
PromethazinePromethazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
PropafenoneThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Propafenone.
PropafenoneLevobunolol may increase the bradycardic activities of Propafenone.
PropranololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propranolol is combined with Levobunolol.
PTC299PTC299 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Levobunolol.
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Levobunolol.
RegorafenibRegorafenib may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
ReserpineReserpine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Reserpine.
ResveratrolResveratrol may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
RiociguatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Riociguat.
RisperidoneLevobunolol may increase the hypotensive activities of Risperidone.
RivastigmineRivastigmine may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
RuxolitinibRuxolitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
SalsalateSalsalate may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
SecobarbitalSecobarbital may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
SertralineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Sertraline.
SotalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sotalol is combined with Levobunolol.
SpironolactoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spironolactone is combined with Levobunolol.
SRT501SRT501 may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
SufentanilSufentanil may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
SulindacSulindac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
SuprofenSuprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Levobunolol.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TerazosinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terazosin is combined with Levobunolol.
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ThiamylalThiamylal may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
ThiethylperazineThiethylperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
ThiopentalThiopental may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
ThioridazineThioridazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TimololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Timolol is combined with Levobunolol.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tizanidine is combined with Levobunolol.
TofacitinibTofacitinib may increase the bradycardic activities of Levobunolol.
TolazamideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolazamide.
TolbutamideLevobunolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Tolbutamide.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TolmetinTolmetin may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Levobunolol.
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Levobunolol.
TranilastTranilast may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
TrazodoneThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Trazodone.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Levobunolol.
TrifluoperazineTrifluoperazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
TriflupromazineTriflupromazine may increase the hypotensive activities of Levobunolol.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Levobunolol.
VareniclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobunolol is combined with Varenicline.
VerapamilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Verapamil is combined with Levobunolol.
VilazodoneThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Vortioxetine.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ZileutonZileuton may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
ZimelidineThe serum concentration of Levobunolol can be increased when it is combined with Zimelidine.
ZomepiracZomepirac may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor signaling protein activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor binds epinephrine and norepinephrine with approximately equal affinity. Mediates Ras activation through G(s)-alpha- and cAMP-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ADRB1
Uniprot ID:
P08588
Molecular Weight:
51322.1 Da
References
  1. Lesar TS: Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1987 Jun;6(6):451-63. [PubMed:2891463 ]
  2. Harris A, Malinovsky V, Martin B: Correlates of acute exercise-induced ocular hypotension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Oct;35(11):3852-7. [PubMed:7928182 ]
  3. Chidlow G, Melena J, Osborne NN: Betaxolol, a beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, reduces Na(+) influx into cortical synaptosomes by direct interaction with Na(+) channels: comparison with other beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Br J Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;130(4):759-66. [PubMed:10864881 ]
  4. Sharif NA, Xu SX, Crider JY, McLaughlin M, Davis TL: Levobetaxolol (Betaxon) and other beta-adrenergic antagonists: preclinical pharmacology, IOP-lowering activity and sites of action in human eyes. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Aug;17(4):305-17. [PubMed:11572462 ]
  5. Brooks AM, Gillies WE: Ocular beta-blockers in glaucoma management. Clinical pharmacological aspects. Drugs Aging. 1992 May-Jun;2(3):208-21. [PubMed:1351412 ]
  6. Gonzalez JP, Clissold SP: Ocular levobunolol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987 Dec;34(6):648-61. [PubMed:2892662 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Quast U, Vollmer KO: Binding of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists to rat and rabbit lung: special reference to levobunolol. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34(5):579-84. [PubMed:6147147 ]
  3. Sharif NA, Xu SX, Crider JY, McLaughlin M, Davis TL: Levobetaxolol (Betaxon) and other beta-adrenergic antagonists: preclinical pharmacology, IOP-lowering activity and sites of action in human eyes. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Aug;17(4):305-17. [PubMed:11572462 ]
  4. Harris A, Malinovsky V, Martin B: Correlates of acute exercise-induced ocular hypotension. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1994 Oct;35(11):3852-7. [PubMed:7928182 ]
  5. Brooks AM, Gillies WE: Ocular beta-blockers in glaucoma management. Clinical pharmacological aspects. Drugs Aging. 1992 May-Jun;2(3):208-21. [PubMed:1351412 ]
  6. Gonzalez JP, Clissold SP: Ocular levobunolol. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy. Drugs. 1987 Dec;34(6):648-61. [PubMed:2892662 ]
  7. Lesar TS: Comparison of ophthalmic beta-blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1987 Jun;6(6):451-63. [PubMed:2891463 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23