You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on DrugBank.
Identification
NameArformoterol
Accession NumberDB01274
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Arformoterol is a bronchodilator. It works by relaxing muscles in the airways to improve breathing. Arformoterol inhalation is used to prevent bronchoconstriction in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. The use of arformoterol is pending revision due to safety concerns in regards to an increased risk of severe exacerbation of asthma symptoms, leading to hospitalization as well as death in some patients using long acting beta agonists for the treatment of asthma.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Formoterol
(R,R)-formoterol
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Brovanasolution15 ug/2mLrespiratory (inhalation)Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-04-01Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Arformoterol tartrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001387
Categories
UNIIF91H02EBWT
CAS number67346-49-0
WeightAverage: 344.4049
Monoisotopic: 344.173607266
Chemical FormulaC19H24N2O4
InChI KeyInChIKey=BPZSYCZIITTYBL-YJYMSZOUSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H24N2O4/c1-13(9-14-3-6-16(25-2)7-4-14)20-11-19(24)15-5-8-18(23)17(10-15)21-12-22/h3-8,10,12-13,19-20,23-24H,9,11H2,1-2H3,(H,21,22)/t13-,19+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
N-{2-hydroxy-5-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-{[(2R)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]amino}ethyl]phenyl}formamide
SMILES
COC1=CC=C(C[C@@H](C)NC[[email protected]](O)C2=CC(NC=O)=C(O)C=C2)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amphetamines and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing or derived from 1-phenylpropan-2-amine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenethylamines
Direct ParentAmphetamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenylpropane
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • N-[2-hydroxy-5-(1-hydroxy-2-\{[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-yl]amino\}ethyl)phenyl]formamide (CHEBI:408174 )
Pharmacology
IndicationA bronchodilator used for the long term, symptomatic treatment of reversible bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
PharmacodynamicsArformoterol, the active (R,R)-enantiomer of formoterol, is a selective long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist (beta2-agonist) that has two-fold greater potency than racemic formoterol (which contains both the (S,S) and (R,R)-enantiomers). The (S,S)-enantiomer is about 1,000-fold less potent as a β2-agonist than the (R,R)-enantiomer. Arformoterol seems to have little or no effect on β1-adrenergic receptors.
Mechanism of actionWhile it is recognized that β2-receptors are the predominant adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and β1-receptors are the predominant receptors in the heart, data indicate that there are also β2-receptors in the human heart comprising 10% to 50% of the total beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors has not been established, but they raise the possibility that even highly selective β2-agonists may have cardiac effects. The pharmacologic effects of β2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs, including arformoterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of proinflammatory mediators from cells, especially from mast cells. In vitro tests show that arformoterol is an inhibitor of the release of mast cell mediators, such as histamine and leukotrienes, from the human lung. Arformoterol also inhibits histamine-induced plasma albumin extravasation in anesthetized guinea pigs and inhibits allergen-induced eosinophil influx in dogs with airway hyper-response.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingThe binding of arformoterol to human plasma proteins in vitro was 52-65% at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL of radiolabeled arformoterol.
Metabolism

Arformoterol was almost entirely metabolized following oral administration of 35 mcg of radiolabeled arformoterol in eight healthy subjects. Direct conjugation of arformoterol with glucuronic acid was the major metabolic pathway. O-Desmethylation is a secondary route catalyzed by the CYP enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.

Route of eliminationAfter administration of a single oral dose of radiolabeled arformoterol to eight healthy male subjects, 63% of the total radioactive dose was recovered in urine and 11% in feces within 48 hours. Direct glucuronidation of arformoterol is mediated by several UGT enzymes and is the primary elimination route.
Half lifeIn COPD patients given 15 mcg inhaled arformoterol twice a day for 14 days, the mean terminal half-life of arformoterol was 26 hours.
Clearance
  • renal cl=8.9 L/hr [Healthy male subjects]
ToxicityA death was reported in dogs after a single oral dose of 5 mg/kg (approximately 4500 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). As with all inhaled sympathomimetic medications, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8991
Blood Brain Barrier-0.8026
Caco-2 permeable-0.6916
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.747
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8773
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8561
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8818
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.714
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7086
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5556
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6609
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8994
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8757
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8442
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7517
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8704
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.992
Rat acute toxicity2.4047 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9611
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6602
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutionrespiratory (inhalation)15 ug/2mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Brovana 15 mcg/2 ml solution3.41USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5795564 No1995-04-032012-04-03Us
US6040344 No1996-11-122016-11-12Us
US6472563 No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
US6667344 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US6720453 No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
US6814953 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7145036 No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
US7348362 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7462645 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7465756 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7473710 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US7541385 No2001-06-222021-06-22Us
US8110706 No2001-11-092021-11-09Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP2.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0416 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.91ALOGPS
logP1.06ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.81ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.82 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity97.87 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability36.56 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Vaman Vaishali Haldavanekar, Mangesh Prabhu, Dharmaraj Ramachandra Rao, Rajendra Narayanrao Kankan, “Process for the Synthesis of Arformoterol.” U.S. Patent US20110166237, issued July 07, 2011.

US20110166237
General References
  1. Hanania NA, Donohue JF, Nelson H, Sciarappa K, Goodwin E, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: The safety and efficacy of arformoterol and formoterol in COPD. COPD. 2010 Feb;7(1):17-31. doi: 10.3109/15412550903499498. [PubMed:20214460 ]
  2. Donohue JF, Hanania NA, Sciarappa KA, Goodwin E, Grogan DR, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: Arformoterol and salmeterol in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a one year evaluation of safety and tolerance. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2008 Apr;2(2):37-48. doi: 10.1177/1753465808089455. [PubMed:19124357 ]
  3. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Lotvall J: Ultra long-acting beta 2-agonists in development for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Jul;14(7):775-83. [PubMed:16022567 ]
  4. Panettieri RA Jr, MacIntyre N, Sims M, Kerwin E, Fogarty C, Noonan M, Claus R, Andrews WT: Comparison of the efficacy and safety of arformoterol 15 microg twice daily and arformoterol 30 microg once daily in COPD: a single-dose, multicenter, randomized, modified-blind, two-way crossover study. Clin Ther. 2009 Aug;31(8):1716-23. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.08.012. [PubMed:19808130 ]
  5. Kharidia J, Fogarty CM, Laforce CF, Maier G, Hsu R, Dunnington KM, Curry L, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study comparing arformoterol tartrate inhalation solution and racemic formoterol dry powder inhaler in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;21(4):657-62. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2008.03.003. Epub 2008 Apr 7. [PubMed:18501650 ]
  6. Baumgartner RA, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Hanrahan JP: Nebulized arformoterol in patients with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):261-78. [PubMed:17472819 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS Codes
  • 12:12.08.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with Arformoterol.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Arformoterol.
AmphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amphetamine is combined with Arformoterol.
AtomoxetineAtomoxetine may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.
AtosibanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arformoterol is combined with Atosiban.
BenzphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzphetamine is combined with Arformoterol.
BetahistineThe therapeutic efficacy of Arformoterol can be decreased when used in combination with Betahistine.
ChlorphentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphentermine is combined with Arformoterol.
CitalopramArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Citalopram.
ClenbuterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clenbuterol is combined with Arformoterol.
DobutamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dobutamine is combined with Arformoterol.
DofetilideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Dofetilide.
DopamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dopamine is combined with Arformoterol.
DoxofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arformoterol is combined with Doxofylline.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the tachycardic activities of Arformoterol.
EpinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epinephrine is combined with Arformoterol.
EsmololEsmolol may decrease the activities of Arformoterol.
FenoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoterol is combined with Arformoterol.
FormoterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Formoterol is combined with ArFormoterol.
GoserelinArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Goserelin.
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Arformoterol.
IsoprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoprenaline is combined with Arformoterol.
LabetalolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Labetalol is combined with Arformoterol.
LeuprolideArformoterol may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Leuprolide.
LinezolidLinezolid may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Arformoterol is combined with Loxapine.
MephentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mephentermine is combined with Arformoterol.
MetaraminolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaraminol is combined with Arformoterol.
MethamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methamphetamine is combined with Arformoterol.
MethoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxamine is combined with Arformoterol.
MidodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midodrine is combined with Arformoterol.
MifepristoneMifepristone may increase the QTc-prolonging activities of Arformoterol.
NadololNadolol may decrease the activities of Arformoterol.
NaphazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naphazoline is combined with Arformoterol.
NorepinephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Norepinephrine is combined with Arformoterol.
OrciprenalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orciprenaline is combined with Arformoterol.
OxymetazolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymetazoline is combined with Arformoterol.
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenelzine is combined with Arformoterol.
PhenmetrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenmetrazine is combined with Arformoterol.
PhentermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phentermine is combined with Arformoterol.
PhenylephrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylephrine is combined with Arformoterol.
PhenylpropanolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylpropanolamine is combined with Arformoterol.
RitodrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ritodrine is combined with Arformoterol.
SalmeterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salmeterol is combined with Arformoterol.
Tedizolid PhosphateTedizolid Phosphate may increase the hypertensive activities of Arformoterol.
TerbutalineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Terbutaline is combined with Arformoterol.
TorasemideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Arformoterol.
TrichlormethiazideArformoterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Trichlormethiazide.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Beta-adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The beta-2-adrenergic receptor binds epinephrine with an approximately 30-fold greater affinity than it does norepinephrine.
Gene Name:
ADRB2
Uniprot ID:
P07550
Molecular Weight:
46458.32 Da
References
  1. Authors unspecified: Arformoterol: (R,R)-eformoterol, (R,R)-formoterol, arformoterol tartrate, eformoterol-sepracor, formoterol-sepracor, R,R-eformoterol, R,R-formoterol. Drugs R D. 2004;5(1):25-7. [PubMed:14725487 ]
  2. Op't Holt TB: Inhaled beta agonists. Respir Care. 2007 Jul;52(7):820-32. [PubMed:17594727 ]
  3. Matera MG, Cazzola M: ultra-long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonists: an emerging therapeutic option for asthma and COPD? Drugs. 2007;67(4):503-15. [PubMed:17352511 ]
  4. Cazzola M, Hanania NA, Matera MG: Arformoterol tartrate in the treatment of COPD. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2010 Apr;4(2):155-62. doi: 10.1586/ers.10.16. [PubMed:20406080 ]
  5. Cazzola M, Matera MG, Lotvall J: Ultra long-acting beta 2-agonists in development for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2005 Jul;14(7):775-83. [PubMed:16022567 ]
  6. Kharidia J, Fogarty CM, Laforce CF, Maier G, Hsu R, Dunnington KM, Curry L, Baumgartner RA, Hanrahan JP: A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study comparing arformoterol tartrate inhalation solution and racemic formoterol dry powder inhaler in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;21(4):657-62. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2008.03.003. Epub 2008 Apr 7. [PubMed:18501650 ]
  7. Baumgartner RA, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Hanrahan JP: Nebulized arformoterol in patients with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2007 Feb;29(2):261-78. [PubMed:17472819 ]
  8. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976 ]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976 ]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular Weight:
56501.005 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976 ]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Somers GI, Lindsay N, Lowdon BM, Jones AE, Freathy C, Ho S, Woodrooffe AJ, Bayliss MK, Manchee GR: A comparison of the expression and metabolizing activities of phase I and II enzymes in freshly isolated human lung parenchymal cells and cryopreserved human hepatocytes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Oct;35(10):1797-805. Epub 2007 Jul 12. [PubMed:17627976 ]
  2. Zhang M, Fawcett JP, Kennedy JM, Shaw JP: Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Feb;49(2):152-7. [PubMed:10671910 ]
Comments
comments powered by Disqus
Drug created on May 16, 2007 14:28 / Updated on May 24, 2016 02:06