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Identification
NameGlucosamine
Accession NumberDB01296  (EXPT01563)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionGlucosamine is commonly used as a treatment for osteoarthritis, although its acceptance as a medical therapy varies. It is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of joint cartilage, supplemental glucosamine may help to rebuild cartilage and treat arthritis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose
Chitosamine
D-Glucosamine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Remaxazon External PatchHome Aide Diagnostics, Inc.
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Glucosamine sulfate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001596
Categories
UNIIN08U5BOQ1K
CAS number3416-24-8
WeightAverage: 179.1711
Monoisotopic: 179.079372531
Chemical FormulaC6H13NO5
InChI KeyInChIKey=MSWZFWKMSRAUBD-IVMDWMLBSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H13NO5/c7-3-5(10)4(9)2(1-8)12-6(3)11/h2-6,8-11H,1,7H2/t2-,3-,4-,5-,6?/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(3R,4R,5S,6R)-3-amino-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,4,5-triol
SMILES
N[[email protected]]1C(O)O[[email protected]](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as amino sugars. These are sugars having one alcoholic hydroxy group replaced by an amino group; systematically known as x-amino-x-deoxymonosaccharides. These compounds do not include Glycosylamines.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassAminosaccharides
Direct ParentAmino sugars
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucosamine
  • Amino sugar
  • Oxane
  • Monosaccharide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Hemiacetal
  • 1,2-diol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationGlucosamine is usually used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, although its efficacy is still in question.
PharmacodynamicsOsteoarthritis is characterized by the progressive degeneration of cartilage glycosaminoglycans. The formation of glucosamine is the rate limiting step in glycosaminoglycans synthesis thus the addition is glucosamine, would in theory provide a building block towards the synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and thus slow down the progression of osteoarthritis. Thus far however, the results have not been conclusive.
Mechanism of actionGlucosamine is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Oral glucosamine is commonly used for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of joint cartilage, supplemental glucosamine may help to rebuild cartilage and treat arthritis. Its use as a therapy for osteoarthritis appears safe, but there is conflicting evidence as to its effectiveness with more recent studies showing limited to no clinical benefit of use. In the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical use in humans. Since glucosamine is classified as a dietary supplement, safety and formulation are solely the responsibility of the manufacturer; evidence of safety and efficacy is not required as long as it is not advertised as a treatment for a medical condition.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAdverse effects are generally mild: itching, diarrhea, heartburn, nausea and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseDiseaseSMP00240
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDiseaseSMP00217
Amino Sugar MetabolismMetabolicSMP00045
Tay-Sachs DiseaseDiseaseSMP00390
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDiseaseSMP00216
G(M2)-Gangliosidosis: Variant B, Tay-sachs diseaseDiseaseSMP00534
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8589
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9143
Caco-2 permeable-0.8221
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7833
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9452
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.976
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9261
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8377
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8469
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7168
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9503
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9347
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9494
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9115
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9777
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9769
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7558
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9716
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8286
Rat acute toxicity1.2287 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9659
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.969
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Patchtopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Glucosamine hcl (d) powder1.05USD g
Cidatrine 500 mg tablet0.81USD tablet
Glucosamine 500 mg tablet0.23USD tablet
Glucosamine hcl 500 mg tablet0.21USD tablet
Sm glucosamine hcl 1500 mg tablet0.2USD tablet
Eql glucosamine 1000 mg tablet0.17USD tablet
Glucosamine sulf 750 mg cplt0.16USD caplet
Glucosamine 500 mg caplet0.12USD tablet
Glucosamine relief 1000 mg tablet0.09USD tablet
Glucosamine 750 mg caplet0.08USD caplet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point88 °CPhysProp
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility551.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-3ChemAxon
logS0.49ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.73ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.23ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area116.17 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity37.58 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability16.87 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Yuichi Yamamura, Ichiro Azuma, Shigeru Kobayashi, “Glucosamine peptide derivatives, their production and use.” U.S. Patent US4369178, issued July, 1978.

US4369178
General References
  1. Towheed TE, Maxwell L, Anastassiades TP, Shea B, Houpt J, Robinson V, Hochberg MC, Wells G: Glucosamine therapy for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002946. [PubMed:15846645 ]
  2. Roseman S: Reflections on glycobiology. J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 9;276(45):41527-42. Epub 2001 Sep 11. [PubMed:11553646 ]
  3. GHOSH S, BLUMENTHAL HJ, DAVIDSON E, ROSEMAN S: Glucosamine metabolism. V. Enzymatic synthesis of glucosamine 6-phosphate. J Biol Chem. 1960 May;235:1265-73. [PubMed:13827775 ]
  4. Buse MG: Hexosamines, insulin resistance, and the complications of diabetes: current status. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jan;290(1):E1-E8. [PubMed:16339923 ]
  5. Laverty S, Sandy JD, Celeste C, Vachon P, Marier JF, Plaas AH: Synovial fluid levels and serum pharmacokinetics in a large animal model following treatment with oral glucosamine at clinically relevant doses. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jan;52(1):181-91. [PubMed:15641100 ]
External Links
ATC CodesM01AX05
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
Acetylsalicylic acidGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlprostadilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Alprostadil.
AnagrelideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.
ArgatrobanGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Argatroban.
ArmodafinilThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Armodafinil.
AzelastineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Azelastine.
BeraprostGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Beraprost.
BortezomibThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Bortezomib.
CangrelorGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.
CarbamazepineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Carbamazepine.
ChloramphenicolThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Chloramphenicol.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CilostazolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClopidogrelGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be decreased when it is combined with Dabrafenib.
DefibrotideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Defibrotide.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
DipyridamoleGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
EfavirenzThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Efavirenz.
EpinastineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epinastine.
EpoprostenolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epoprostenol.
EptifibatideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.
Eslicarbazepine acetateThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Eslicarbazepine acetate.
EsomeprazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Esomeprazole.
EtravirineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Etravirine.
FluconazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Fluconazole.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosphenytoinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Fosphenytoin.
GemfibrozilThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Gemfibrozil.
IbudilastGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.
Icosapent ethylGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.
IfenprodilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.
IloprostGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Iloprost.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Lopinavir.
LuliconazoleThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be increased when it is combined with Luliconazole.
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Glucosamine can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.
MilrinoneGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milrinone.
MoclobemideThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Moclobemide.
ModafinilThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Modafinil.
NCX 4016Glucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of NCX 4016.
NelfinavirThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Nelfinavir.
NicardipineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Nicardipine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NimesulideGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nimesulide.
OmeprazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Omeprazole.
PantoprazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Pantoprazole.
PentoxifyllineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.
PhenytoinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Phenytoin.
PrasugrelGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.
ResveratrolGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Resveratrol.
RidogrelGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ridogrel.
RifampicinThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be increased when combined with Rifampicin.
SCH-530348Glucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of SCH-530348.
SertralineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sevoflurane.
SRT501Glucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of SRT501.
StiripentolThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Stiripentol.
TesmilifeneGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tesmilifene.
TiclopidineGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TirofibanGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.
TopiramateThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Topiramate.
TranilastGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrapidilGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.
TriflusalGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Triflusal.
VorapaxarGlucosamine may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.
VoriconazoleThe metabolism of Glucosamine can be decreased when combined with Voriconazole.
WarfarinGlucosamine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves type IV and type V collagen into large C-terminal three quarter fragments and shorter N-terminal one quarter fragments. Degrades fibronectin but not laminin or Pz-peptide.
Gene Name:
MMP9
Uniprot ID:
P14780
Molecular Weight:
78457.51 Da
References
  1. Fenton JI, Chlebek-Brown KA, Caron JP, Orth MW: Effect of glucosamine on interleukin-1-conditioned articular cartilage. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2002 Sep;(34):219-23. [PubMed:12405690 ]
  2. Mendis E, Kim MM, Rajapakse N, Kim SK: Carboxy derivatized glucosamine is a potent inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in HT1080 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3105-10. Epub 2006 Apr 17. [PubMed:16616490 ]
  3. Chu SC, Yang SF, Lue KH, Hsieh YS, Lee CY, Chou MC, Lu KH: Glucosamine sulfate suppresses the expressions of urokinase plasminogen activator and inhibitor and gelatinases during the early stage of osteoarthritis. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Oct;372(1-2):167-72. Epub 2006 Jun 6. [PubMed:16756968 ]
  4. Rajapakse N, Mendis E, Kim MM, Kim SK: Sulfated glucosamine inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9 expressions in human fibrosarcoma cells. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Jul 15;15(14):4891-6. Epub 2007 Apr 29. [PubMed:17498959 ]
  5. Dodge GR, Jimenez SA: Glucosamine sulfate modulates the levels of aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase-3 synthesized by cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Jun;11(6):424-32. [PubMed:12801482 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function:
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-co...
Gene Name:
NFKB2
Uniprot ID:
Q00653
Molecular Weight:
96748.355 Da
References
  1. Largo R, Alvarez-Soria MA, Diez-Ortego I, Calvo E, Sanchez-Pernaute O, Egido J, Herrero-Beaumont G: Glucosamine inhibits IL-1beta-induced NFkappaB activation in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2003 Apr;11(4):290-8. [PubMed:12681956 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tumor necrosis factor receptor binding
Specific Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. It is mainly secreted by macrophages and can induce cell death of certain tumor cell lines. It is potent pyrogen causing fever by direct action or by stimulation of interleukin-1 secretion and is implicated in the induction of cachexia, Under certain conditions it can stimulate cell proliferation and induce cell differentiation. Impairs ...
Gene Name:
TNF
Uniprot ID:
P01375
Molecular Weight:
25644.15 Da
References
  1. Delcommenne M, Kannagi R, Johnson P: TNF-alpha increases the carbohydrate sulfation of CD44: induction of 6-sulfo N-acetyl lactosamine on N- and O-linked glycans. Glycobiology. 2002 Oct;12(10):613-22. [PubMed:12244074 ]
  2. Bitler CM, Viale TM, Damaj B, Crea R: Hydrolyzed olive vegetation water in mice has anti-inflammatory activity. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1475-9. [PubMed:15930455 ]
  3. Chen JT, Liang JB, Chou CL, Chien MW, Shyu RC, Chou PI, Lu DW: Glucosamine sulfate inhibits TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced production of ICAM-1 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Feb;47(2):664-72. [PubMed:16431966 ]
  4. Yi HA, Yi SD, Jang BC, Song DK, Shin DH, Mun KC, Kim SP, Suh SI, Bae JH: Inhibitory effects of glucosamine on lipopolysaccharide-induced activation in microglial cells. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Dec;32(12):1097-103. [PubMed:16445576 ]
  5. Lapaque N, Takeuchi O, Corrales F, Akira S, Moriyon I, Howard JC, Gorvel JP: Differential inductions of TNF-alpha and IGTP, IIGP by structurally diverse classic and non-classic lipopolysaccharides. Cell Microbiol. 2006 Mar;8(3):401-13. [PubMed:16469053 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Interferon-gamma receptor binding
Specific Function:
Produced by lymphocytes activated by specific antigens or mitogens. IFN-gamma, in addition to having antiviral activity, has important immunoregulatory functions. It is a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of the type I interferons.
Gene Name:
IFNG
Uniprot ID:
P01579
Molecular Weight:
19348.165 Da
References
  1. Sarrazin S, Bonnaffe D, Lubineau A, Lortat-Jacob H: Heparan sulfate mimicry: a synthetic glycoconjugate that recognizes the heparin binding domain of interferon-gamma inhibits the cytokine activity. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 11;280(45):37558-64. Epub 2005 Sep 9. [PubMed:16155294 ]
  2. Chen JT, Liang JB, Chou CL, Chien MW, Shyu RC, Chou PI, Lu DW: Glucosamine sulfate inhibits TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma-induced production of ICAM-1 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Feb;47(2):664-72. [PubMed:16431966 ]
  3. Lortat-Jacob H: Interferon and heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):461-4. [PubMed:16709188 ]
  4. Chen JT, Chen CH, Horng CT, Chien MW, Lu DW, Liang JB, Tai MC, Chang YH, Chen PL, Chen YH: Glucosamine sulfate inhibits proinflammatory cytokine-induced icam-1 production in human conjunctival cells in vitro. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Dec;22(6):402-16. [PubMed:17238806 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus circulans
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Chitosanase activity
Specific Function:
Aids in the defense against invading fungal pathogens by degrading their cell wall chitosan.
Gene Name:
csn
Uniprot ID:
P33673
Molecular Weight:
33425.53 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kurakake M, Yo-u S, Nakagawa K, Sugihara M, Komaki T: Properties of chitosanase from Bacillus cereus S1. Curr Microbiol. 2000 Jan;40(1):6-9. [PubMed:10568796 ]
  4. Kimoto H, Kusaoke H, Yamamoto I, Fujii Y, Onodera T, Taketo A: Biochemical and genetic properties of Paenibacillus glycosyl hydrolase having chitosanase activity and discoidin domain. J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 26;277(17):14695-702. Epub 2002 Feb 19. [PubMed:11854270 ]
  5. Shimono K, Shigeru K, Tsuchiya A, Itou N, Ohta Y, Tanaka K, Nakagawa T, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M: Two glutamic acids in chitosanase A from Matsuebacter chitosanotabidus 3001 are the catalytically important residues. J Biochem. 2002 Jan;131(1):87-96. [PubMed:11754739 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23