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Identification
NameCitric Acid
Accession NumberDB04272  (EXPT00922)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsNutraceutical, Vet Approved
Description

A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-Hydroxytricarballylic acid
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxypentane-1,5-dioic acid
3-Carboxy-3-hydroxypentane-1,5-dioic acid
Citronensäure
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Whitening Lemon Peelliquid.007 g/mLtopicalAmi Cosmetic Co.,Ltd.2013-08-31Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acd Solution Modifiedsolution8 mg/mLintravenousAnazao Health Corporation2012-05-23Not applicableUs
Stop Hairspray7 mg/mLtopicalMila Beauty Pty Ltd2012-07-01Not applicableUs
Stop Hairspray.7 mg/100mLtopicalStop Hair Pty Ltd2012-09-01Not applicableUs
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
A-C-D SolutionDraximage A Division Of Draxis Specialty Pharmaceuticals Inc
Acd ATerumo Bct Ltd
Acd Blood-pack Units (pl 146 Plastic)Fenwal, Inc.
Acd-AHaemonetics Manufacturing Inc
Alka SeltzerSalimex, S.A.
Alka Seltzer EvtMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Alka Seltzer FlavouredMiles Canada Inc. Consumer Health Care Division
Alka-seltzerBayer Inc Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer FlavouredBayer Inc Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer Flavoured - EvtBayer Inc Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer GoldBayer Health Care Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer HeartburnBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer Lemon LimeBayer Health Care Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer OriginalBayer Health Care Consumer Care
Alka-seltzer Xtra StrengthBayer Health Care Llc, Consumer Care
All-natural Pen SprayHangzhou Karic Commodities Co., Ltd.
Anticoagulant Citrate Dextr Sol Formula A USPCutter Med & Biol, Division Of Miles Canada Ltd.
Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose ACitra Labs
Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose A Acd-AArteriocyte Medical Systems, Inc.
Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution USP (acd) Formula AFenwal Inc
Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose Solution USP (acd) Formula BFenwal Inc
Anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose (cpd) Blood-pack Units In Pl 146 PlasticFenwal, Inc.
As 3Terumo Bct Ltd
BicaruvasProsana Distribuciones, S.A. De C.V.
Bromo SeltzerTower Laboratories Ltd
CitracleenLaboratorios Casen Fleet, S.L.U.
Citrasate C0125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C10125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C1125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C1150Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C2125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C2150Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C3125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C3150Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrasate C4125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Citrocarbonate Eff PwsRoberts Pharmaceutical Canada Inc.
CpdFenwal, Inc.
Cpda-1Fenwal, Inc.
Cpda-1 Blood Collection SystemHaemonetics Manufacturing Inc
Cytra-K CrystalsCypress Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Effervescent Antacid and Pain ReliefCardinal Health Inc.
Effervescent Pain ReliefWestern Family Foods, Inc.
Effervescent Pain Relief Fast ReliefDeseret Laboratories, Inc.
Effervescent Pain Relief Fast Relief Fast ReliefMajor Pharmaceuticals
Haemonetics Additive Solution Formula 3 (as-3)Haemonetics Corporation
Haemonetics Anticoagulant Citrate Dextrose SolutionHaemonetics Corporation
Haemonetics Anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Double Dextrose Solution (cp2d)Haemonetics Corporation
Hemasate Ultra Hs0125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs1125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs1150Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs2125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs2150Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs3125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs3150Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemasate Ultra Hs4125Chief Medical Supplies Ltd
Hemosate Ultra Hs0125Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs1125Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs1150Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs2125Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs2150Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs3125Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs3150Tqm Enterprises Limited
Hemosate Ultra Hs4125Tqm Enterprises Limited
Heparin Sodium 1000units In 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USPB. Braun Medical Inc
Heparin Sodium In 5% Dextrose Injection, 25000unit/500mlB. Braun Medical Inc
Leukotrap Wb SystemHaemonetics Manufacturing Inc
LytrenMead Johnson Nutritionals
Lytren Rhs LiqMead Johnson Nutritionals
Medique Medi SeltzerUnifirst First Aid Corporation
Neutra-seltzerTeva Canada Limited
Nutricel Additive System - As-3Medsep Corporation
Nutricel Additive System - Cp2dMedsep Corporation
OracitCarolina Medical Products Company
Oral PurgativeOdan Laboratories Ltd
Pain Relief Fast ReliefSelect Brand
Pico-salaxFerring Inc
PicodanOdan Laboratories Ltd
PicofloPharmascience Inc
Picot Plus EffervescentBristol Myers Squibb De Mexico, S. De R.L. De C.V.
Potassium Citrate and Citric AcidPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.
Potassium Citrate Citric Acid CrystalsVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC
Potassium Citrate-citric AcidMethod Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Potassium Citrate-sodium Citrate-citric AcidMethod Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Premier Value Antacid and Pain Relief MedicineChain Drug Consortium, LLC
PrepopikFerring Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Purg-odanOdan Laboratories Ltd
RenacidinGuardian Laboratories, Division Of United Guardian Inc.
Sal De Uvas PicotBristol Myers Squibb De Mexico, S. De R.L. De C.V.
Sodium Citrate and Citric AcidPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.
Sodium Citrate-citric AcidMethod Pharmaceuticals, Llc
Sterile Cord Blood Collection UnitMedsep Corporation
Teruflex Blood Bag System Anticoagulant Citrate Phosphate Dextrose Adenine (cpda-1)Terumo Corporation
TricitratesPharmaceutical Associates, Inc.
Vida Mia Pain ReliefNavarro Discount Pharmacies, LLC
Winco Foods Effervescent Antacid and Pain ReliefWin Co Foods, Llc
Zee-seltzer Antacid and Pain RelieverZEE MEDICAL
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Citric acid monohydrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001502
Categories
UNIIXF417D3PSL
CAS number77-92-9
WeightAverage: 192.1235
Monoisotopic: 192.02700261
Chemical FormulaC6H8O7
InChI KeyInChIKey=KRKNYBCHXYNGOX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H8O7/c7-3(8)1-6(13,5(11)12)2-4(9)10/h13H,1-2H2,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)(H,11,12)
IUPAC Name
2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CC(O)(CC(O)=O)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tricarboxylic acids and derivatives. These are carboxylic acids containing exactly three carboxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassTricarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentTricarboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationNot Available
PharmacodynamicsNot Available
Mechanism of actionNot Available
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityORAL (LD50): Acute: 5040 mg/kg [Mouse]. 3000 mg/kg [Rat].
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
The oncogenic action of FumarateDiseaseSMP02295
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyDiseaseSMP00549
Warburg EffectMetabolicSMP00654
Congenital lactic acidosisDiseaseSMP00546
Fumarase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00547
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencyDiseaseSMP00548
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)DiseaseSMP00551
Citric Acid CycleMetabolicSMP00057
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaMetabolicSMP00466
Glutaminolysis and CancerDiseaseSMP02298
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)DiseaseSMP00550
The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarateDiseaseSMP02291
The oncogenic action of SuccinateDiseaseSMP02292
The oncogenic action of L-2-hydroxyglutarate in HydroxygluaricaciduriaDiseaseSMP02358
The oncogenic action of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria DiseaseSMP02359
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7518
Blood Brain Barrier+0.855
Caco-2 permeable-0.8634
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6125
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9694
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9658
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9624
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8641
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8932
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6809
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9336
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9399
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9476
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9396
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8735
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9904
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8206
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.6288
Rat acute toxicity1.7748 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9948
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9577
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidintravenous
Solutionintravenous8 mg/mL
Tablet (effervescent)oral
Tablet, effervescentoral
Granule, effervescentoral
Aerosol, spraytopical
Injection, solutionextracorporeal
Solution0-unassigned
Injection, solutionintravenous
Granulesoral
Solutiondialysis
Powder (effervescent)oral
Solutionintravenous
Granule, for solutionoral
Solutionextracorporeal
Liquidoral
Powder for solutionoral
Powderoral
Powder, meteredoral
Powder for solutionirrigation; topical
Solutionirrigation
Powder, for solutionoral
Solutionoral
Spraytopical.7 mg/100mL
Spraytopical7 mg/mL
Liquidtopical.007 g/mL
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8450338 No2008-10-102028-10-10Us
US8481083 No2008-10-102028-10-10Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point153 °CPhysProp
water solubility5.92E+005 mg/L (at 20 °C)MERCK INDEX (1989)
logP-1.64AVDEEF,A (1997)
logS0.51ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.79SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility106.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-1.3ChemAxon
logS-0.26ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.05ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area132.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity35.62 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability15.54 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0002-0941000000-c310fda0e6a19bf6ae40View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0002-0941000000-f1dfda3e9abc7cfb6b2aView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-006t-0952000000-ba3a1a80815f65afd05cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0002-0951000000-48857e9baebe16d9fc8dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00di-9531000000-b6fd7d038634694f0873View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-00di-0593000000-b193bbba8c0cefdfe42aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-03di-2900000000-956001b034bbc0b7da96View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000l-9100000000-55e34e2c1616942fd4f2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9000000000-7b8be3e90a4daf85f04aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0911200000-af80d22f720facc4813aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-6f4fedbb19821898fb22View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-8eff68ab89f7ce2262beView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0fsi-0019300000-b370c4c3dd656c8eb729View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0912100000-05e8ceb6dd97f7b9af98View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-e4b67745443c48a63bd6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-92536abec982e0a653a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-35772df08490f451d828View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-0900000000-35856cc258368d13e1ffView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-3900000000-7170fdcb9749e6d6c2fbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-01p9-9500000000-9a502981b0a9e1ea35adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-000i-9100000000-ed0c86b90e1f4966d025View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9000000000-b8a975c2d639d8c91afbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-30970a4250098e148658View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-002f-9400000000-fb757b614278bb898b54View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Karl E. Wiegand, “Chemical process for producing citric acid.” U.S. Patent US3962287, issued 0000.

US3962287
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesA09AB04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (49.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabAbciximab may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
AcenocoumarolCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
AlteplaseAlteplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Aminosalicylic AcidAminosalicylic Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
AnagrelideAnagrelide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ApixabanApixaban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ArgatrobanCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.
Bismuth SubsalicylateBismuth Subsalicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
BivalirudinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.
CaffeineCaffeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
CangrelorCangrelor may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
CilostazolCilostazol may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
CitalopramCitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ClopidogrelClopidogrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Collagenase clostridium histolyticumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Collagenase clostridium histolyticum.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Cyproterone acetate.
Dabigatran etexilateDabigatran etexilate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DalteparinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DanaparoidCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.
DasatinibDasatinib may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Deferasirox.
Deoxycholic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Deoxycholic Acid.
DesirudinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.
DesogestrelDesogestrel may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DesvenlafaxineDesvenlafaxine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DiclofenacDiclofenac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Dienogest.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DihydrocodeineDihydrocodeine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DrospirenoneDrospirenone may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
DuloxetineDuloxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
EdoxabanEdoxaban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
EnoxaparinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EpoprostenolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epoprostenol is combined with Citric Acid.
EptifibatideEptifibatide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
EscitalopramEscitalopram may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
EstradiolEstradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Estrone sulfateEstropipate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Ethinyl EstradiolEthinyl Estradiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Ethynodiol diacetateEthynodiol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
EtonogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Etonogestrel.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
FloctafenineFloctafenine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
FluoxetineFluoxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
FluvoxamineFluvoxamine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Fondaparinux sodiumCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
HeparinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.
Hydroxyprogesterone caproateThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Hydroxyprogesterone caproate.
Ibritumomab tiuxetanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Ibritumomab.
IbrutinibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibrutinib is combined with Citric Acid.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
IcosapentIcosapent may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Icosapent ethylIcosapent ethyl may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
IloprostThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Iloprost is combined with Citric Acid.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
KetorolacKetorolac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
LevomilnacipranLevomilnacipran may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
LevonorgestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Levonorgestrel.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Medroxyprogesterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Megestrol acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Megestrol acetate.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
MestranolMestranol may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
MilnacipranMilnacipran may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
NadroparinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.
NaproxenNaproxen may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
NintedanibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Nintedanib.
NorethisteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Norethindrone.
NorgestimateNorgestimate may decrease the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ObinutuzumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Obinutuzumab.
Omega-3 fatty acidsOmega-3 fatty acids may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Omega-3-acid ethyl estersOmega-3-acid ethyl esters may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ParoxetineParoxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Pentosan PolysulfatePentosan Polysulfate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
PrasugrelPrasugrel may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ProgesteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Citric Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Progesterone.
ReteplaseReteplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
RivaroxabanCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.
SalsalateSalsalate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
SertralineSertraline may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
SulindacSulindac may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TenecteplaseTenecteplase may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TicagrelorTicagrelor may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TiclopidineTiclopidine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TinzaparinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Tinzaparin.
TipranavirTipranavir may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TirofibanTirofiban may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TolmetinTolmetin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
TositumomabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Citric Acid is combined with Tositumomab.
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Citric Acid.
VenlafaxineVenlafaxine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
VilazodoneVilazodone may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
Vitamin EVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
VorapaxarThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vorapaxar is combined with Citric Acid.
VortioxetineVortioxetine may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
WarfarinCitric Acid may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning
Specific Function:
This protein is essential to the cell-division process. It seems to assemble into a dynamic ring on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane at the place where division will occur, and the formation of the ring is the signal for septation to begin. Binds to and hydrolyzes GTP
Gene Name:
ftsZ
Uniprot ID:
P64170
Molecular Weight:
38756.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rrna binding
Specific Function:
Binds to actin on the surface of endothelial cells; once bound, angiogenin is endocytosed and translocated to the nucleus. Stimulates ribosomal RNA synthesis including that containing the initiation site sequences of 45S rRNA. Cleaves tRNA within anticodon loops to produce tRNA-derived stress-induced fragments (tiRNAs) which inhibit protein synthesis and triggers the assembly of stress granules...
Gene Name:
ANG
Uniprot ID:
P03950
Molecular Weight:
16549.95 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus cereus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Can hydrolyze carbapenem compounds.
Gene Name:
blm
Uniprot ID:
P04190
Molecular Weight:
28092.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Uridine kinase activity
Specific Function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-...
Gene Name:
UCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZX2
Molecular Weight:
29298.92 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Cytokine that binds to TNFRSF13B/TACI and TNFRSF17/BCMA. TNFSF13/APRIL binds to the same 2 receptors. Together, they form a 2 ligands -2 receptors pathway involved in the stimulation of B- and T-cell function and the regulation of humoral immunity. A third B-cell specific BAFF-receptor (BAFFR/BR3) promotes the survival of mature B-cells and the B-cell response.Isoform 2 seems to inhibit isoform...
Gene Name:
TNFSF13B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y275
Molecular Weight:
31222.48 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the irreversible oxidation of choline.
Gene Name:
BHMT
Uniprot ID:
Q93088
Molecular Weight:
44998.205 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Geobacillus stearothermophilus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tryptophan-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
trpS
Uniprot ID:
P00953
Molecular Weight:
37192.385 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glyceraldehyde oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular Weight:
35853.125 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CS
Uniprot ID:
O75390
Molecular Weight:
51712.025 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) to catalyze the transfer of a sulfo group to an N-unsubstituted glucosamine linked to a 2-O-sulfo iduronic acid unit on heparan sulfate. Catalyzes the O-sulfation of glucosamine in IdoUA2S-GlcNS and also in IdoUA2S-GlcNH2. The substrate-specific O-sulfation generates an enzyme-modified heparan sulfate which acts as a binding r...
Gene Name:
HS3ST3A1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y663
Molecular Weight:
44899.155 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. This phosphodiesterase catalyzes the specific hydrolysis of cGMP to 5'-GMP (PubMed:9714779, PubMed:15489334). Specifically regulates nitric-oxide-generated cGMP (PubMed:15489334).
Gene Name:
PDE5A
Uniprot ID:
O76074
Molecular Weight:
99984.14 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sh3/sh2 adaptor activity
Specific Function:
Non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase which is activated following engagement of many different classes of cellular receptors including immune response receptors, integrins and other adhesion receptors, receptor protein tyrosine kinases, G protein-coupled receptors as well as cytokine receptors. Participates in signaling pathways that control a diverse spectrum of biological activities including...
Gene Name:
SRC
Uniprot ID:
P12931
Molecular Weight:
59834.295 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ribonuclease a activity
Specific Function:
Endonuclease that catalyzes the cleavage of RNA on the 3' side of pyrimidine nucleotides. Acts on single-stranded and double-stranded RNA.
Gene Name:
RNASE1
Uniprot ID:
P07998
Molecular Weight:
17644.125 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus subtilis (strain 168)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
icd
Uniprot ID:
P39126
Molecular Weight:
46417.39 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glycine n-methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the methylation of glycine by using S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to form N-methylglycine (sarcosine) with the concomitant production of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). Possible crucial role in the regulation of tissue concentration of AdoMet and of metabolism of methionine.
Gene Name:
GNMT
Uniprot ID:
Q14749
Molecular Weight:
32742.0 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ribonuclease activity
Specific Function:
Cytotoxin and helminthotoxin with low-efficiency ribonuclease activity. Possesses a wide variety of biological activities. Exhibits antibacterial activity, including cytoplasmic membrane depolarization of preferentially Gram-negative, but also Gram-positive strains. Promotes E.coli outer membrane detachment, alteration of the overall cell shape and partial loss of cell content.
Gene Name:
RNASE3
Uniprot ID:
P12724
Molecular Weight:
18385.145 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus licheniformis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Beta-lactamase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
penP
Uniprot ID:
P00808
Molecular Weight:
33995.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Molybdenum cofactor guanylyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Transfers a GMP moiety from GTP to Mo-molybdopterin (Mo-MPT) cofactor (Moco or molybdenum cofactor) to form Mo-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide (Mo-MGD) cofactor. Is also involved in the biosynthesis of the bis-MGD form of the Moco cofactor (Mo-bisMGD) in which the metal is symmetrically ligated by the dithiolene groups of two MGD molecules. Is necessary and sufficient for the in vitro activa...
Gene Name:
mobA
Uniprot ID:
P32173
Molecular Weight:
21642.735 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Fumarate hydratase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible addition of water to fumarate to give L-malate.
Gene Name:
fumC
Uniprot ID:
P05042
Molecular Weight:
50488.44 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
6-phosphogluconolactonase activity
Specific Function:
Hydrolysis of 6-phosphogluconolactone to 6-phosphogluconate.
Gene Name:
pgl
Uniprot ID:
Q9X0N8
Molecular Weight:
25324.955 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nad(p)h nitroreductase activity
Specific Function:
Reduction of a variety of nitroaromatic compounds using NADH (and to lesser extent NADPH) as source of reducing equivalents; two electrons are transferred. Capable of reducing nitrofurazone, quinones and the anti-tumor agent CB1954 (5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide). The reduction of CB1954 results in the generation of cytotoxic species.
Gene Name:
nfsB
Uniprot ID:
P38489
Molecular Weight:
23904.99 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
RSV-SRA
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Capsid protein p27 forms the spherical core of the virus that encapsulates the genomic RNA-nucleocapsid complex.The aspartyl protease mediates proteolytic cleavages of Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins during or shortly after the release of the virion from the plasma membrane. Cleavages take place as an ordered, step-wise cascade to yield mature proteins. This process is called maturation. Displays ...
Gene Name:
gag-pro-pol
Uniprot ID:
Q04095
Molecular Weight:
173931.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL4I1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RQ9
Molecular Weight:
62880.52 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate...
Gene Name:
MIF
Uniprot ID:
P14174
Molecular Weight:
12476.19 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Preferentially catalyzes the dephosphorylation of 'Ser-5' within the tandem 7 residue repeats in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A. Negatively regulates RNA polymerase II transcription, possibly by controlling the transition from initiation/capping to processive transcript elongation. Recruited by REST to neuronal genes that contain RE-1 elements, leadi...
Gene Name:
CTDSP1
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZU7
Molecular Weight:
29202.94 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nadph binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADP-dependent rearrangement and reduction of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (DXP) to 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP).
Gene Name:
dxr
Uniprot ID:
P45568
Molecular Weight:
43387.575 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus (strain HB27 / ATCC BAA-163 / DSM 7039)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Tryptophan synthase activity
Specific Function:
The alpha subunit is responsible for the aldol cleavage of indoleglycerol phosphate to indole and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate.
Gene Name:
trpA
Uniprot ID:
P16608
Molecular Weight:
28936.25 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Micromonospora viridifaciens
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Exo-alpha-(2->8)-sialidase activity
Specific Function:
To release sialic acids for use as carbon and energy sources for this non-pathogenic bacterium while in pathogenic microorganisms, sialidases have been suggested to be pathogenic factors.
Gene Name:
nedA
Uniprot ID:
Q02834
Molecular Weight:
68829.78 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Identical protein binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the degradation of glucose via the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Catalyzes the reversible, stereospecific retro-aldol cleavage of 2-Keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) to pyruvate and D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. In the synthetic direction, it catalyzes the addition of pyruvate to electrophilic aldehydes with si-facial selectivity. It accepts some nucleophiles other than pyruvate, i...
Gene Name:
eda
Uniprot ID:
P0A955
Molecular Weight:
22283.8 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P83787
Molecular Weight:
35354.415 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein domain specific binding
Specific Function:
Involved in intracellular signal transduction mediated by cytokines and growth factors. When associated with STAM, it suppresses DNA signaling upon stimulation by IL-2 and GM-CSF. Could be a direct effector of PI3-kinase in vesicular pathway via early endosomes and may regulate trafficking to early and late endosomes by recruiting clathrin. May concentrate ubiquitinated receptors within clathri...
Gene Name:
HGS
Uniprot ID:
O14964
Molecular Weight:
86191.46 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype I (strain IP32953)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Invasin is a protein that allows enteric bacteria to penetrate cultured mammalian cells. The entry of invasin in the cell is mediated by binding several beta-1 chain integrins.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P11922
Molecular Weight:
106543.46 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Enterobacteria phage T4
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Endonuclease activity
Specific Function:
This endonuclease is specific to the thymidylate synthase (td) gene splice junction and is involved in intron homing.
Gene Name:
ITEVIR
Uniprot ID:
P13299
Molecular Weight:
28232.2 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Enterobacteria phage T4
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Structural component of the short tail fiber. Adhesion protein that binds irreversibly to the lipopolysaccharides component (LPS) on the cell surface of Escherichia coli B strains during virus attachment. After at least three long tail fibers have bound, short tail fibers extend and bind irreversibly to the core region of the host cell LPS.
Gene Name:
12
Uniprot ID:
P10930
Molecular Weight:
56204.88 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MDH2
Uniprot ID:
P40926
Molecular Weight:
35502.935 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Acetobacter aceti
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
5-(carboxyamino)imidazole ribonucleotide mutase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of N5-carboxyaminoimidazole ribonucleotide (N5-CAIR) to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR).
Gene Name:
purE
Uniprot ID:
Q2QJL3
Molecular Weight:
18734.295 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural constituent of ribosome
Specific Function:
One of the primary rRNA binding proteins, this protein initially binds near the 5'-end of the 23S rRNA. It is important during the early stages of 50S assembly. It makes multiple contacts with different domains of the 23S rRNA in the assembled 50S subunit and ribosome (By similarity).This protein only weakly controls expression of the E.coli S10 operon. It is incorporated into E.coli ribosomes,...
Gene Name:
rplD
Uniprot ID:
P38516
Molecular Weight:
26630.77 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CPB1
Uniprot ID:
P15086
Molecular Weight:
47367.11 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
HAdV-2
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Major capsid protein that self-associates to form 240 hexon trimers, each in the shape of a hexagon, building most of the pseudo T=25 capsid. Assembled into trimeric units with the help of the chaperone shutoff protein. Transported by pre-protein VI to the nucleus where it associates with other structural proteins to form an empty capsid. Might be involved, through its interaction with host dyn...
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P03277
Molecular Weight:
109151.995 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Riboflavin kinase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q9WZW1
Molecular Weight:
33613.56 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sucrose alpha-glucosidase activity
Specific Function:
Hydrolysis of sucrose, raffinose, inulin and levan. Specific for the fructose moiety and the beta-anomeric configuration of the glycosidic linkages of its substrates. The enzyme released fructose from sucrose and raffinose, and the fructose polymer inulin is hydrolyzed quantitatively in an exo-type fashion.
Gene Name:
bfrA
Uniprot ID:
O33833
Molecular Weight:
49841.065 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Yersinia pestis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
sspA
Uniprot ID:
Q7CL96
Molecular Weight:
24524.98 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermus thermophilus
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
cit
Uniprot ID:
Q9LCX9
Molecular Weight:
42322.13 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna-3'-phosphate cyclase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 3'-phosphate to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester at the end of RNA. The mechanism of action of the enzyme occurs in 3 steps: (A) adenylation of the enzyme by ATP; (B) transfer of adenylate to an RNA-N3'P to produce RNA-N3'PP5'A; (C) and attack of the adjacent 2'-hydroxyl on the 3'-phosphorus in the diester linkage to produce the cyclic end product. The biological role o...
Gene Name:
rtcA
Uniprot ID:
P46849
Molecular Weight:
35902.925 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
Component of LSm protein complexes, which are involved in RNA processing and may function in a chaperone-like manner, facilitating the efficient association of RNA processing factors with their substrates. Component of the cytoplasmic LSM1-LSM7 complex, which is thought to be involved in mRNA degradation by activating the decapping step in the 5'-to-3' mRNA decay pathway. Component of the nucle...
Gene Name:
LSM6
Uniprot ID:
P62312
Molecular Weight:
9127.525 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate binding
Specific Function:
Binds specifically to phosphatidylinositol 3,4-diphosphate (PtdIns3,4P2), but not to other phosphoinositides. May recruit other proteins to the plasma membrane.
Gene Name:
PLEKHA1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB21
Molecular Weight:
45553.165 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Serratia marcescens
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Part of the ABC transporter complex FbpABC (TC 3.A.1.10.1) involved in Fe(3+) ions import. This protein specifically binds Fe(3+) and is involved in its transmembrane transport (By similarity).
Gene Name:
fbpA
Uniprot ID:
P21408
Molecular Weight:
36157.015 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Gtpase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in targeting and insertion of nascent membrane proteins into the cytoplasmic membrane. Acts as a receptor for the complex formed by the signal recognition particle (SRP) and the ribosome-nascent chain (RNC).
Gene Name:
ftsY
Uniprot ID:
Q9WZ40
Molecular Weight:
32045.975 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Shigella flexneri
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nicotinate-nucleotide adenylyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible adenylation of nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN) to nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD).
Gene Name:
nadD
Uniprot ID:
P0A753
Molecular Weight:
24527.75 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Involved in the transcription termination process.
Gene Name:
nusB
Uniprot ID:
Q9X286
Molecular Weight:
16973.325 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Retinol binding
Specific Function:
C8 is a constituent of the membrane attack complex. C8 binds to the C5B-7 complex, forming the C5B-8 complex. C5-B8 binds C9 and acts as a catalyst in the polymerization of C9. The gamma subunit seems to be able to bind retinol.
Gene Name:
C8G
Uniprot ID:
P07360
Molecular Weight:
22277.285 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium leprae (strain TN)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase activity, thioredoxin disulfide as acceptor
Specific Function:
Provides the precursors necessary for DNA synthesis. Catalyzes the biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides from the corresponding ribonucleotides (By similarity).
Gene Name:
nrdF
Uniprot ID:
Q9CBQ2
Molecular Weight:
37315.67 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Involved in glutamate-ammonia ligase activity
Specific Function:
ATP + L-glutamate + NH(3) = ADP + phosphate + L-glutamine
Gene Name:
glnA1
Uniprot ID:
P0A590
Molecular Weight:
53570.0 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Antarctic bacterium DS2-3R
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Citrate synthase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the catabolism of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA)(acetyl degradation route) and via the 2-methylcitrate cycle I (propionate degradation route). Catalyzes the Claisen condensation of propionyl-CoA and oxaloacetate (OAA) to yield (2S,3S)-2-methylcitrate (2-MC) and CoA. Also catalyzes the condensation of oxaloacetate with acetyl-CoA but with a lower spec...
Gene Name:
gltA
Uniprot ID:
O34002
Molecular Weight:
41832.0 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Trypanosoma brucei brucei
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Prostaglandin-f synthase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the NADP-dependent formation of prostaglandin F2-alpha from prostaglandin H2. Has also aldo/ketoreductase activity towards the synthetic substrates 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and p-nitrobenzaldehyde.
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q9GV41
Molecular Weight:
30992.385 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Amp binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
Gene Name:
APRT
Uniprot ID:
P07741
Molecular Weight:
19607.535 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (strain ATCC 15692 / PAO1 / 1C / PRS 101 / LMG 12228)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the formation of dTDP-glucose, from dTTP and glucose 1-phosphate, as well as its pyrophosphorolysis.
Gene Name:
rmlA
Uniprot ID:
Q9HU22
Molecular Weight:
32456.65 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus cereus (strain ATCC 14579 / DSM 31)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q81F54
Molecular Weight:
16581.885 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Copper ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
yfiH
Uniprot ID:
P33644
Molecular Weight:
26338.69 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Haemophilus influenzae (strain ATCC 51907 / DSM 11121 / KW20 / Rd)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reversible conversion of ribose-5-phosphate to ribulose 5-phosphate.
Gene Name:
rpiA
Uniprot ID:
P44725
Molecular Weight:
23093.47 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyrophosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the synthesis of GMP from XMP.
Gene Name:
guaA
Uniprot ID:
P04079
Molecular Weight:
58678.78 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Xtp diphosphatase activity
Specific Function:
Pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the non-canonical purine nucleotides inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) as well as 2'-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triposphate (dHAPTP) and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP) to their respective monophosphate derivatives. The enzyme does not distinguish between the deoxy- and ribose forms. Probably excludes non-canonical purines from RNA ...
Gene Name:
ITPA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY32
Molecular Weight:
21445.495 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Enterobacteria phage P1
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Lysozyme activity
Specific Function:
Essential for lysis of bacterial cell wall, by showing cell wall hydrolyzing activity.
Gene Name:
17
Uniprot ID:
Q37875
Molecular Weight:
20256.17 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q9X1F0
Molecular Weight:
19296.645 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cycloisomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes an anti cycloisomerization.
Gene Name:
pcaB
Uniprot ID:
P32427
Molecular Weight:
44675.755 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis (strain ATCC 31821 / ZM4 / CP4)
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thiamine pyrophosphate binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pdc
Uniprot ID:
P06672
Molecular Weight:
60925.005 Da

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as taurocholate, the prostaglandins PGD2, PGE1, PGE2, leukotriene C4, thromboxane B2 and iloprost.
Gene Name:
SLCO2B1
Uniprot ID:
O94956
Molecular Weight:
76709.98 Da
References
  1. Kobayashi D, Nozawa T, Imai K, Nezu J, Tsuji A, Tamai I: Involvement of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP-B (SLC21A9) in pH-dependent transport across intestinal apical membrane. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Aug;306(2):703-8. Epub 2003 Apr 30. [PubMed:12724351 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on June 27, 2016 01:54