Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidFor nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.
DB00159IcosapentEPA can be used for lowering elevated triglycerides in those who are hyperglyceridemic. In addition, EPA may play a therapeutic role in patients with cystic fibrosis by reducing disease severity and may play a similar role in type 2 diabetics in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
DB00965Ethiodized oilFor use as a radio-opaque medium for hysterosalpingography and lymphography, and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. It is also used in follow-up imaging for chemoembolization.
DB02955Ricinoleic AcidNot Available
DB08887Icosapent ethylIcosapent ethyl is used as adjunct therapy to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adults with severe (>500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia.
DB09422Soybean oilIndicated for parenteral nutrition as a source of calories and essential fatty acids when oral or enteral nutrition is not possible, insufficient, or contraindicated.
DB09446Safflower oilNo approved therapeutic indications.
DB09539Omega-3-acid ethyl estersOmega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters capsules, USP are indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)[FDA Label][A176687].
DB09543Methyl salicylateOintments or liniments containing methyl salicylate are applied topically as counter irritant for relief of acute pain associated with lumbago,sciatica and rheumatic conditions. Local analgesics for human and veterinary medicine.
DB09567Olive oilFor use in adults as a source of calories and fatty acids in total parenteral nutrition [FDA Label]. Sometimes used as an additive in cosmetic products.
DB11113Castor oilIndicated for over-the-counter use as a laxative for oral use and as a soothing agent for topical use on skin and hair.
DB11120TurpentineTurpentine has been used experimentally in a bath for the treatment of disseminated sclerosis and sexual dysfunction. It also has been studied for its antibacterial activity and inhibition of osteoclast activity. Turpentine is utilized in experimental models of inflammation to induce a systemic inflammatory immune response in animals.
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acidsProvided as daily supplements. Aa preparation of omega-3-acid ethyl esters is licensed in UK for prevention of recurrent events after myocardial infarction in addition to treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia.
DB11172Sesame oilNot Available
DB11198Peppermint oilIndicated for the over-the-counter use for: -the symptomatic relief of minor spasms of the gastrointestinal tract, flatulence and abdominal pain, especially in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. -the temporary relief of itching associated with insect bites, eczema, minor burn, sunburn, minor skin irritations, minor cuts, scrapes, atopic dermatitis and other skin disorders. -the temporary symptomatic relief of mild joint and muscle pain as a local topical analgesic. -the temporary relief of tension-type headache.
DB11218Tea tree oilIndicated for topical use to help protect against infection in minor cuts, scrapes, and burns. No FDA-approved therapeutic indications.
DB11238Borage oilNot Available
DB11293Rice bran oilNot Available
DB11321Cod liver oilCod liver oil is predominantly manufactured, marketed, and used by the population at large as a general nutraceutical dietary supplement [A27154, A33159, L2872]. Historically, cod liver oil was often given to children because the vitamin d content in the oil had been shown to prevent or treat vitamin D deficiency and condition of rickets associated with it [A33159]. Over time, this common use in children growing up may have conferred upon cod liver oil its identity as a healthy and useful all-purpose dietary supplement. However, since cod liver oil is a composite of several other nutritional compounds including the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as well as vitamin A and vitamin D [A33159, L2872, L2871], the presence in varying amounts of all of these compounds at once makes it difficult to recommend or use cod liver oil as an appropriate supplement to confer any one particular health effect or for any one particular nutritional deficiency. Regardless, because it does contain a combination of a number of important and healthy nutritional compounds, cod liver oil has sometimes been recommended in the literature for conferring the health effects of some of these compounds, such as the potential use of cod liver oil supplements in post-heart attack patients for secondary prophylaxis associated with the use of omega-3 fatty acids [A33165].
DB11338Clove oilClove oil is primarily indicated in conditions like colic, flatulence, and toothache [L2849].
DB11357Linseed oilNot Available
DB11358Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil is used as part of over-the-counter dietary supplements.[L1113] It is also used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases and for women's health conditions such as cyclical mastalgia. These indications do not have sufficient evidence of their effectiveness. It was used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in the United Kingdom but it is currently withdrawn due to lack of evidence of effectiveness.[A33131]
DB13105Resolvin E1Not Available
DB13153LevomenolLevomenol has been known to elicit a number of potentially beneficial pharmacological effects, including anti-irritant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial actions. Bisabolol is also demonstrated to enhance the percutaneous absorption of certain molecules
DB13961Fish oilUnder FDA approval, fish oil pharmaceuticals are typically products consisting of a combination of the omega-3-fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are indicated primarily as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride levels in adult patients with severe (>=500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia [FDA Label, F36]. Under EMA approval, such fish oil pharmaceuticals comprised of virtually the same fish and fish oil derived omega-3-fatty acids EPA and DHA are indicated specifically for (a) adjuvant treatment in secondary prevention after myocardial infarction, in addition to other standard therapy (ie. statins, antiplatelet medicinal products, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors), and (b) as a supplement to diet when dietary measures alone are insufficient to produce an adequate response, particularly with type IV hypertriglyceridemia in monotherapy or type IIb/III in combination with statins, when control of triglycerides is insufficient [L2661]. In addition, prescribing information for EMA approved fish oil pharmaceuticals are also indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (>=500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients, much like similar FDA approved indications [F37, FDA Label].
DB13964Peanut oilPeanut oil is widely used in food and it is even the component for the adulteration of olive oil.[T41] It is used in over-the-counter ear drops to help lubricate the ear wax.[F124] It was also used as an ingredient in cleansing soaps, in emollient cream preparations or in laxatives.[L2892, F125] Peanut oil is also used usually to solubilize drugs with poor water solubility as part of the oral formulation.[T224] When orally administered, peanut oil has as well been researched and used to prevent heart diseases and lower cholesterol levels as well as to aid in weight loss and decrease appetite.[L2897]
DB14291WormwoodNot Available
DB14309Meadowfoam seed oilNot Available
DB14310Argan oilNot Available
DB14322Coconut oilNot Available
DB14329Sunflower oilNot Available
DB14335Bergamot oilNot Available
DB14377Palm oilNot Available
DB14566Lavender oilNot Available
DB14689Rosemary oilNot Available
DB03756DoconexentUsed as a high-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oral supplement.
DB10917Juniperus virginianaNot Available
DB11114Eucalyptus oilAs an active agent, eucalyptus oil has been indicated for relief of the symptoms of catarrhal colds, and/or the relief of the symptoms of minor muscular sprains and cramps [L1857].
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidFatty acid-binding protein, braincarrier
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidFatty acid desaturase 1target
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidFatty acid desaturase 2target
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidSodium/calcium exchanger 1target
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidElongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4target
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidBile acid receptortarget
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltatarget
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00132alpha-Linolenic acidRetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphatarget
DB00159IcosapentProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00159IcosapentProstaglandin G/H synthase 1target
DB00159IcosapentFree fatty acid receptor 1target
DB00159IcosapentFatty acid-binding protein, braincarrier
DB00159IcosapentFatty acid desaturase 1target
DB00159IcosapentLong-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 4target
DB00159IcosapentLong-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 3target
DB00159IcosapentSodium/calcium exchanger 1target
DB00159IcosapentPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00159IcosapentPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltatarget
DB00159IcosapentTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB00159IcosapentPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB00159IcosapentSerum albumincarrier
DB02955Ricinoleic AcidCannabinoid receptor 1target
DB02955Ricinoleic AcidCannabinoid receptor 2target
DB02955Ricinoleic AcidTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB09422Soybean oilPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB09539Omega-3-acid ethyl estersSterol O-acyltransferase 1enzyme
DB09539Omega-3-acid ethyl estersSterol regulatory element-binding protein 1target
DB11113Castor oilProstaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtypetarget
DB11113Castor oilProstaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtypetarget
DB11120TurpentineMitogen-activated protein kinase 1target
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acidsPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acidsProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acidsArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseenzyme
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acidsPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB11133Omega-3 fatty acidsSterol regulatory element-binding protein 1target
DB11198Peppermint oilCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB11198Peppermint oilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB11338Clove oilVascular cell adhesion protein 1target
DB11338Clove oilC-X-C motif chemokine 10target
DB11338Clove oilCollagen alpha-1(I) chaintarget
DB11338Clove oilGranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alphatarget
DB11358Evening primrose oilElongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5enzyme
DB11358Evening primrose oilFatty acid desaturase 1enzyme
DB11358Evening primrose oilFatty acid desaturase 2enzyme
DB13153LevomenolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB13153LevomenolSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB13961Fish oilDiacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2target
DB13961Fish oilProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB13961Fish oilFree fatty acid receptor 4target
DB13961Fish oilVoltage gated L-type calcium channeltarget
DB13961Fish oilVoltage gated sodium channeltarget
DB13961Fish oilFree radicalstarget
DB13961Fish oilNuclear factor NF-kappa-Btarget
DB13961Fish oilSterol regulatory element-binding protein 1target
DB13961Fish oilPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB13961Fish oilPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB13961Fish oilPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltatarget
DB13961Fish oilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB03756DoconexentFatty acid-binding protein, braincarrier
DB03756DoconexentCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB03756DoconexentPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB03756DoconexentPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB03756DoconexentSterol regulatory element-binding protein 1target
DB03756DoconexentRetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphatarget
DB03756DoconexentRetinoic acid receptor RXR-betatarget
DB03756DoconexentRetinoic acid receptor RXR-gammatarget