Evening primrose oil

Identification

Name
Evening primrose oil
Accession Number
DB11358
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

Evening primrose oil comes from the extraction from Oenothera biennis seeds and it is commonly used as an alternative source for omega-6 essential fatty acids. In its composition it presents some fatty acids such as Alpha-Linolenic Acid and Gamolenic acid.[1] Evening primrose oil has been filled for the FDA by Humanetics Corporation on April 2000 to be a new dietary ingredient but its current status is "Inadequate basis for expectation of safety".[5] By Health Canada, evening primrose oil is approved in over-the-counter combination dietary supplements.[6] By the EMA, evening primrose oil is approved in herbal preparations.[7]

Synonyms
  • Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) oil
  • Oenothera biennis (evening primrose) seed extract
  • Oenothera biennis l. oil
  • Oenothera biennis seed extract
  • Oenothera biennis seed oil
  • Oenothera lamarckiana l. oil
  • Oenothera muricata seed oil
  • Oenothera oil
  • Oenothera pycnocarpa seed oil
  • Oenotherae biennis oleum
  • Oils, glyceridic, evening primrose
  • Oleum oenotherae erythrospinae
  • Primrose oil
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Efamol CapEvening primrose oil (.6 ml) + Vitamin E (13.6 unit)CapsuleOralEfamol Research Inc.1982-12-311999-10-25Canada
Evening Primrose Oil CapEvening primrose oil (500 mg) + Vitamin E (13.6 unit)CapsuleOralNature's Way Of Canada Ltd.1984-12-312004-07-26Canada
Evening Primrose Oil With Vitamin EEvening primrose oil (500 mg/1) + Vitamin E (15 unit/1)CapsuleOralAshbury Research CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Categories
UNII
3Q9L08K71N
CAS number
308064-97-3
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Evening primrose oil is used as part of over-the-counter dietary supplements.[6]

It is also used for the treatment of systemic inflammatory diseases and for women's health conditions such as cyclical mastalgia. These indications do not have sufficient evidence of their effectiveness. It was used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in the United Kingdom but it is currently withdrawn due to lack of evidence of effectiveness.[1]

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

The effectivity of evening primrose oil is debatable as the evidence is very limited.[9] Evening primrose oil improves the essential fatty acid content in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet lipids. It has also been registered to increase alpha-tocopherol levels in non-diabetic and type I diabetic patients. Evening primrose oil affects the fatty acid composition of serum lipids and adipose tissue as well as it helps maintain normal cellular structures and it serves as a prostaglandin precursor. Administration of evening primrose oil is part of long-term therapy and thus, immediate results are never expected.[4]

Mechanism of action

Evening primrose oil presents a content of 74% Alpha-Linolenic Acid and 9% Gamolenic acid from which the later seems to be the key active ingredient of this oil. These major essential fatty acids are required for the normal structure of cell membranes and they are not synthesized endogenously.[4] The therapeutic activity of evening primrose oil is attributed to the direct action of its essential fatty acids on immune cells as well as to an indirect effect on the synthesis of eicosanoids. The actions of highly unsaturated fatty acids in tissues and eicosanoids are thought to be implicated in inflammatory and immunologic pathogeneses.[1]

The essential fatty acids found in evening primrose oil are involved in the biosynthesis of prostaglandin. For this activity, the main involved component is the Gamolenic acid. The presence of this essential fatty acid allows the synthesis of anti-inflammatory substances such as 15-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid and prostaglandin E1.[4]

Absorption

The pharmacokinetics of evening primrose oil is mainly studied by analyzing its active ingredient Gamolenic acid. After administration, Gamolenic acid is rapidly absorbed and converted directly to Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid and other precursors.[4] When orally administered, the tmax was directly dependent to the time of administration, being of 2.7 hours in the evening and 4.4 hours in the morning. The Cmax and AUC were registered to be approximately 21 mcg/ml and 274 mcg.h/ml.[2] The bioavailability of Gamolenic acid acid is influenced by triglyceride composition, cellular kinetics of phospholipases and acyltransferases.[3]

Volume of distribution

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Protein binding

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Metabolism

The main component of evening primrose oil, Alpha-Linolenic Acid is usually desaturated by delta-6-desaturase which transforms this fatty acid to Gamolenic acid. This metabolic activity usually is limited by external factors such as stress, aging, alcohol, smoking, inflammation, diabetes, etc. In presence of these circumstances, the linoleic acid gets accumulated in the body and it inhibits the activity of the enzyme delta-6-desaturase. In proper conditions, Gamolenic acid forms Dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid by the action of elongases and it can further act as a substrate for production of prostaglandins or to be denaturated to arachidonic acid.[4]

Route of elimination

The major components of the primrose oil are highly metabolized and the majority of the generated metabolites are excreted in the urine.[8]

Half life

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Clearance

No pharmacokinetic data available.

Toxicity

Evening primrose oil seems to have little toxicological effect in humans. The reported LD50 values in the mouse are 3.12 x 10^4 mcg/kg. The toxicological effects are very minimal and it has proven to not have an effect on tumor incidence nor to present effects on fertility studies.[9]

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
(4R)-limoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when (4R)-limonene is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
16-BromoepiandrosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with 16-Bromoepiandrosterone.Investigational
19-norandrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with 19-norandrostenedione.Experimental, Illicit
5-androstenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with 5-androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AbciximabEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcebutololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.Approved, Investigational
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Aceclofenac.Approved, Investigational
AcemetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Acemetacin.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
AcenocoumarolEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved, Investigational
AcetaminophenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Acetaminophen.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adapalene is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
AlclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Alclofenac.Approved, Withdrawn
AlclometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Alclometasone.Approved
AldosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Aldosterone.Experimental, Investigational
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Alendronic acid.Approved
AliskirenEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.Approved, Investigational
AlminoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Alminoprofen.Experimental
AlprenololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Alprenolol.Approved, Withdrawn
AlprostadilThe therapeutic efficacy of Alprostadil can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
AmcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Amcinonide.Approved
AmikacinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
AmilorideEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amiloride.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Aminosalicylic Acid.Approved
AmiodaroneEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
AncrodEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Approved, Investigational
AndrographolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Andrographolide is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
AndrostenedioneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Androstenedione.Experimental, Illicit
AnecortaveThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Anecortave.Investigational
anecortave acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with anecortave acetate.Investigational
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Anisodamine.Investigational
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Antipyrine.Approved, Investigational
Antithrombin III humanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
AntrafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Antrafenine.Approved
ApixabanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
ApocyninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Apocynin.Investigational
ApramycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Apramycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental, Vet Approved
ApremilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
ArbekacinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Arbekacin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ArdeparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
ArotinololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Arotinolol.Investigational
AsenapineEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Asenapine.Approved
AtamestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Atamestane.Investigational
AtenololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.Approved
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azapropazone is combined with Evening primrose oil.Withdrawn
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
Azficel-TThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Azficel-T.Approved, Investigational
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
AzosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Azosemide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Balsalazide.Approved, Investigational
BecaplerminEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
Beclomethasone dipropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Beclomethasone dipropionate.Approved, Investigational
BefunololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Befunolol.Experimental
BekanamycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Bekanamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Benazepril.Approved, Investigational
BendazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Bendazac.Experimental
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bendroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
BenorilateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Benorilate.Experimental
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benoxaprofen is combined with Evening primrose oil.Withdrawn
BenzthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzthiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
BenzydamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Benzydamine.Approved
BeraprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Beraprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
BetamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Betamethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
BetaxololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol.Approved, Investigational
BetrixabanThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Betrixaban is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
BevantololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bevantolol.Approved
BevoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Bevonium.Experimental
BimatoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Bimatoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
BisoprololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bisoprolol.Approved
BivalirudinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BopindololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.Approved
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Bromfenac.Approved
BucillamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Bucillamine.Investigational
BucindololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bucindolol.Investigational
BudesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Budesonide.Approved
BufexamacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Bufexamac.Approved, Experimental
BufuralolEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bufuralol.Experimental, Investigational
BumadizoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Bumadizone.Experimental
BumetanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bumetanide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
BupranololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bupranolol.Approved
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
Candesartan cilexetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan cilexetil is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
CandoxatrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Candoxatril.Experimental
CapsaicinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Capsaicin.Approved
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Captopril.Approved
Carbaspirin calciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Carbaspirin calcium.Experimental, Investigational
Carboprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Carprofen.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CarteololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carteolol.Approved
CarvedilolEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carvedilol.Approved, Investigational
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Castanospermine is combined with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Celecoxib.Approved, Investigational
CeliprololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Celiprolol.Approved, Investigational
CertoparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved, Investigational
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorphenesinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Chlorphenesin.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Evening primrose oil resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved, Investigational
Choline magnesium trisalicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Choline magnesium trisalicylate.Approved
CiclesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ciclesonide.Approved, Investigational
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Cilazapril.Approved
CimicoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Cimicoxib.Investigational
CinoxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Cinoxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
CiprofloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
CisplatinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Cisplatin.Approved
Citric AcidEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Clobetasol.Approved, Investigational
Clobetasol propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Clobetasol propionate.Approved
ClobetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Clobetasone.Approved
ClocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Clocortolone.Approved
Clodronic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Clodronic Acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonixin is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
CloprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Vet Approved
CloranololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Cloranolol.Experimental
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Evening primrose oil resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Evening primrose oil resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Cortexolone 17α-propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Cortexolone 17α-propionate.Investigational
CorticosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Corticosterone.Experimental
Cortisone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Cortisone acetate.Approved, Investigational
CurcuminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Curcumin.Approved, Investigational
CyclopenthiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyclopenthiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
CyclosporineEvening primrose oil may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dabigatran etexilateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DeflazacortThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Deflazacort.Approved, Investigational
DelaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Delapril.Experimental
DesipramineEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Desipramine.Approved, Investigational
DesirudinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Desmopressin.Approved
DesonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Desonide.Approved, Investigational
DesoximetasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Desoximetasone.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone acetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Desoxycorticosterone acetate.Approved
Desoxycorticosterone PivalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Desoxycorticosterone Pivalate.Experimental, Vet Approved
DexamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Dexamethasone.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dexamethasone isonicotinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Dexamethasone isonicotinate.Vet Approved
DexibuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Dexibuprofen.Approved, Investigational
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
DextranEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
DibekacinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Dibekacin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
Dibotermin alfaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Dibotermin alfa.Approved, Investigational
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Vet Approved
DicoumarolEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DifenpiramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Difenpiramide.Experimental
DiflorasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Diflorasone.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Diflunisal.Approved, Investigational
DifluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Difluocortolone.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
DifluprednateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
DihydrostreptomycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Dihydrostreptomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational, Vet Approved
DinoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
Dinoprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Vet Approved
DinoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
DrospirenoneEvening primrose oil may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.Approved
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Droxicam.Withdrawn
DuvelisibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Duvelisib.Investigational
E-6201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with E-6201.Investigational
Edetic AcidEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Enalapril.Approved, Vet Approved
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Enalaprilat.Approved
EnoxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Enoxacin.Approved, Investigational
EnoxaparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EnprostilThe therapeutic efficacy of Enprostil can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
EpanololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Epanolol.Experimental
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirizole is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
EpitizideThe therapeutic efficacy of Epitizide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
EplerenoneEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Eplerenone.Approved
EpoprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Epoprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
EquileninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Equilenin.Experimental
EquilinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Equilin.Approved
EsatenololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esatenolol.Experimental
EsmololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.Approved
EstroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Estrone.Approved
Estrone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Estrone sulfate.Approved
Etacrynic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Etacrynic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Etanercept.Approved, Investigational
EthenzamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ethenzamide.Experimental
Ethyl biscoumacetateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Etidronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Etidronic acid.Approved
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Etodolac.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etofenamate is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Etoricoxib.Approved, Investigational
ExisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Exisulind is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
FelbinacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbinac is combined with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenbufen is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fenoprofen.Approved
FenprostaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Fenprostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Vet Approved
FentiazacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fentiazac.Experimental
FeprazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Feprazone.Experimental
Ferulic acidEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FimasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fimasartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
Fish oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fish oil.Approved, Nutraceutical
FleroxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Fleroxacin.Approved
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Withdrawn
FluasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluasterone.Investigational
FludrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fludrocortisone.Approved, Investigational
FluindioneEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Approved, Investigational
FlumequineEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Flumequine.Withdrawn
FlumethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Flumethasone.Approved, Vet Approved
FlunisolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Flunisolide.Approved, Investigational
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Flunixin.Vet Approved
FlunoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Flunoxaprofen.Experimental
Fluocinolone AcetonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluocinolone Acetonide.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
FluocinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluocinonide.Approved, Investigational
FluocortoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluocortolone.Approved, Withdrawn
FluorometholoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluorometholone.Approved, Investigational
FluprednideneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluprednidene.Approved, Withdrawn
FluprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluprednisolone.Approved
FluprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Fluprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Vet Approved
FlurandrenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Flurandrenolide.Approved
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Flurbiprofen.Approved, Investigational
FluticasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluticasone.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
Fluticasone furoateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluticasone furoate.Approved
Fluticasone propionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fluticasone propionate.Approved
Folic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Folic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
FondaparinuxEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Approved, Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
ForasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Forasartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
FormestaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Formestane.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Fosinopril.Approved
FramycetinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Framycetin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved
FurosemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Furosemide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Vet Approved
GabexateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
GarenoxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Garenoxacin.Investigational
GatifloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gatifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GemeprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Gemeprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Withdrawn
GemifloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GeneticinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Geneticin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
GentamicinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Gentamicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
GENTAMICIN C1AEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of GENTAMICIN C1A which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
GinsengThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ginseng.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
GrepafloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Grepafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
GuacetisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Guacetisal.Experimental
HalcinonideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Halcinonide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Haloperidol.Approved
HE3286The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with HE3286.Investigational
HeparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HigenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Higenamine.Investigational
HydralazineEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.Approved
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Vet Approved
HydrocortisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Hydrocortisone.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
Hygromycin BEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Hygromycin B which could result in a higher serum level.Vet Approved
IbandronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ibandronate.Approved, Investigational
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ibuprofen.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuproxam is combined with Evening primrose oil.Withdrawn
IcatibantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Icatibant is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
IcosapentThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Icosapent.Approved, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IloprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Iloprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
ImidaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Imidapril.Investigational
Imidazole salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Imidazole salicylate.Experimental
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Indapamide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
IndenololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Indenolol.Withdrawn
IndobufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Indobufen.Investigational
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Indomethacin.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoprofen is combined with Evening primrose oil.Withdrawn
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
IsepamicinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Isepamicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxicam is combined with Evening primrose oil.Withdrawn
IstaroximeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Istaroxime.Investigational
KanamycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Kanamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Kebuzone is combined with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ketoprofen.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
LabetalolEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Labetalol.Approved
LandiololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Landiolol.Investigational
LatanoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
Latanoprostene BunodThe therapeutic efficacy of Latanoprostene Bunod can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Leflunomide is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
LepirudinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LevobetaxololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobetaxolol.Approved, Investigational
LevobunololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.Approved
LevofloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LimaprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Limaprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
LipegfilgrastimEvening primrose oil may increase the myelosuppressive activities of Lipegfilgrastim.Approved, Investigational
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Lisinopril.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Lisofylline.Investigational
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
LomefloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Lomefloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LonazolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Lonazolac.Experimental
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Lornoxicam.Approved, Investigational
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
LoteprednolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Loteprednol.Approved
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxoprofen is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
LubiprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Lubiprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Lumiracoxib.Approved, Investigational
LuprostiolThe therapeutic efficacy of Luprostiol can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Vet Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Magnesium salicylate.Approved
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Masoprocol is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
ME-609The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with ME-609.Investigational
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Meclofenamic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
MedrysoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Medrysone.Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Mefenamic acid.Approved
MelagatranEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MelengestrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Melengestrol.Vet Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Meloxicam.Approved, Vet Approved
MepindololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Mepindolol.Experimental
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Mesalazine.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
MethylprednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Methylprednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
MetipranololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metipranolol.Approved
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metolazone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
MetoprololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metoprolol.Approved, Investigational
MicronomicinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Micronomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
MifamurtideThe therapeutic efficacy of Mifamurtide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Experimental
MisoprostolThe therapeutic efficacy of Misoprostol can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
MizoribineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Mizoribine.Investigational
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Moexipril.Approved
MofebutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Mofebutazone.Experimental
MometasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Mometasone.Approved, Vet Approved
MorniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morniflumate is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
MoxifloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolate mofetil is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Nabumetone.Approved
NadololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.Approved
NadroparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved, Investigational
NafamostatEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
Nalidixic AcidEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nalidixic Acid.Approved, Investigational
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Naproxen.Approved, Vet Approved
NCX 1022The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with NCX 1022.Investigational
NeamineEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Neamine which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
NebivololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nebivolol.Approved, Investigational
NemonoxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Nemonoxacin.Investigational
NeomycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Neomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Nepafenac.Approved, Investigational
NetilmicinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Netilmicin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
NifenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Nifenazone.Experimental
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Niflumic Acid.Approved
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Nimesulide.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Nitroaspirin.Investigational
NorfloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Norfloxacin.Approved
OfloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Ofloxacin.Approved
Oleoyl-estroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Oleoyl-estrone.Investigational
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
OlsalazineEvening primrose oil may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Olsalazine.Approved
Omacetaxine mepesuccinateThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Omacetaxine mepesuccinate.Approved, Investigational
OmapatrilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Omapatrilat.Investigational
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Orgotein.Vet Approved
OtamixabanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Oxaprozin.Approved
Oxolinic acidEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Oxolinic acid.Experimental
OxprenololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Oxprenolol.Approved
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenbutazone is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Withdrawn
PalmidrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Palmidrol.Experimental, Nutraceutical
PamidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Pamidronate.Approved
ParamethasoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Paramethasone.Approved
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Parecoxib.Approved
ParomomycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Paromomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
ParthenolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Parthenolide.Approved, Investigational
PazufloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pazufloxacin.Investigational
PefloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pefloxacin.Approved
PenbutololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.Approved, Investigational
Pentaerythritol TetranitrateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate.Approved
Pentosan PolysulfateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Perindopril.Approved
PhenindioneEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved, Investigational
PhenprocoumonEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved, Investigational
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Phenylbutazone.Approved, Vet Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
PindololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Pindolol.Approved, Investigational
Pipemidic acidEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Pipemidic acid.Experimental
PiretanideThe therapeutic efficacy of Piretanide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirfenidone is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
Piromidic acidEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Piromidic acid.Experimental
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Piroxicam.Approved, Investigational
PirprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Pirprofen.Experimental
PitolisantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Pitolisant.Approved, Investigational
Platelet Activating FactorEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Platelet Activating Factor.Experimental
PlazomicinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Plazomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Polythiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Pomalidomide.Approved
Potassium CitrateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Potassium Citrate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PractololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Practolol.Approved
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
PranoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Pranoprofen.Experimental, Investigational
PrasteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Prasterone.Approved, Investigational, Nutraceutical
Prasterone sulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Prasterone sulfate.Investigational
PrednicarbateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Prednicarbate.Approved, Investigational
PrednisoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Prednisolone.Approved, Vet Approved
PrednisoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Prednisone.Approved, Vet Approved
PregnenoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Pregnenolone.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Evening primrose oil can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.Approved, Investigational
ProglumetacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Proglumetacin.Experimental
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propacetamol is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
PropafenoneEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propafenone.Approved
PropranololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propranolol.Approved, Investigational
PropyphenazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Propyphenazone.Experimental
ProquazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Proquazone.Experimental
Prostaglandin B2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin B2 can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
Prostaglandin G2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin G2 can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
ProstaleneThe therapeutic efficacy of Prostalene can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Vet Approved
Protein CEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
PrulifloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Prulifloxacin.Investigational
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PTC299 is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
PuromycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Puromycin which could result in a higher serum level.Experimental
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Quinapril.Approved, Investigational
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinethazone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ramipril.Approved
RescinnamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Rescinnamine.Approved
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Resveratrol.Approved, Experimental, Investigational
ReviparinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved, Investigational
RibostamycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Ribostamycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
RimexoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Rimexolone.Approved
RisedronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Risedronate.Approved, Investigational
RivaroxabanEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Rofecoxib.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
RosoxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rosoxacin.Approved, Investigational
RufloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Rufloxacin.Experimental
SacubitrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sacubitril is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylamide is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Salicylic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Salsalate.Approved
SaprisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saprisartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Experimental
SaralasinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saralasin is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
SarilumabSarilumab may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
SeliciclibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Seliciclib.Investigational
SemapimodThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Semapimod.Investigational
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Seratrodast is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
SerrapeptaseThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Serrapeptase.Investigational
SisomicinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Sisomicin which could result in a higher serum level.Investigational
SitafloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sitafloxacin.Experimental, Investigational
Sodium CitrateEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sodium Citrate.Approved, Investigational
Sodium phosphateSodium phosphate may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Evening primrose oil.Approved
SotalolEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Sotalol.Approved
SparfloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Sparfloxacin.Approved, Investigational
SpiraprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Spirapril.Approved
SpironolactoneEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Spironolactone.Approved
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when SRT501 is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
StreptomycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Streptomycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Sulfasalazine.Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Sulindac.Approved, Investigational
SulodexideEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
SulprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Suprofen.Approved, Withdrawn
SuxibuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Suxibuzone.Experimental
TacrolimusEvening primrose oil may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tacrolimus.Approved, Investigational
TafluprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Tafluprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
TalinololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Talinolol.Investigational
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Talniflumate is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
TarenflurbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tarenflurbil is combined with Evening primrose oil.Investigational
TasosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tasosartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m etidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Technetium Tc-99m etidronate.Approved
Technetium Tc-99m medronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Technetium Tc-99m medronate.Approved
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
TemafloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Temafloxacin.Withdrawn
TemocaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Temocapril.Experimental, Investigational
TenidapThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tenidap.Experimental
Tenofovir disoproxilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tenofovir disoproxil.Approved, Investigational
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tenoxicam.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tepoxalin.Vet Approved
TerbutalineEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Terbutaline.Approved
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Teriflunomide is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
TertatololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Tertatolol.Experimental
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tiaprofenic acid.Approved
Tiludronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tiludronic acid.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
TimololEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tinoridine.Investigational
TixocortolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tixocortol.Approved, Withdrawn
TobramycinEvening primrose oil may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a higher serum level.Approved, Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolfenamic Acid is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tolmetin.Approved
TorasemideThe therapeutic efficacy of Torasemide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Trandolapril.Approved
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranilast is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
TravoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
TriamcinoloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Triamcinolone.Approved, Vet Approved
TriamtereneEvening primrose oil may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Triamterene.Approved
TribenosideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Tribenoside.Experimental
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trichlormethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Vet Approved
TriptolideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Triptolide.Investigational
Trolamine salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Trolamine salicylate.Approved
TrovafloxacinEvening primrose oil may increase the neuroexcitatory activities of Trovafloxacin.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
TroxerutinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
UlobetasolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Ulobetasol.Approved
UnoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Unoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Valdecoxib.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
VancomycinThe serum concentration of Vancomycin can be increased when it is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved
WarfarinEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranEvening primrose oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaltoprofen is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zileuton is combined with Evening primrose oil.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZofenoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Zofenopril.Experimental
Zoledronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Zoledronic acid.Approved
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zomepirac is combined with Evening primrose oil.Withdrawn
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Bayles B, Usatine R: Evening primrose oil. Am Fam Physician. 2009 Dec 15;80(12):1405-8. [PubMed:20000302]
  2. Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Meyer FP: Pharmacokinetic data of gamma-linolenic acid in healthy volunteers after the administration of evening primrose oil (Epogam). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Jul;36(7):363-6. [PubMed:9707349]
  3. Fan YY, Chapkin RS, Ramos KS: Dietary lipid source alters murine macrophage/vascular smooth muscle cell interactions in vitro. J Nutr. 1996 Sep;126(9):2083-8. doi: 10.1093/jn/126.9.2083. [PubMed:8814195]
  4. Wollschlaeger B. (2003). The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. American botanical council.
  5. FDA new dietary ingredients [Link]
  6. Health Canada [Link]
  7. EMA [Link]
  8. Gamma-linolenic acid monograph [File]
  9. Chemical Information Document of the National Toxicology Program [File]
External Links
PubChem Substance
347911198
Wikipedia
Evening_primrose_oil
MSDS
Download (46.8 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
4CompletedTreatmentAtopic Dermatitis (AD) / Neurodermatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentBenign Breast Disease / Fibroadenoma / Fibrocystic Disease of Breast / Mastodynia1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point (°C)240 ºC'MSDS'
water solubilityInsoluble'MSDS'
logP7National Toxicology Program.
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the four that constitute the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process, allows the addition of 2 carbons to the chain of long- and very long-chain fatty acids/VLCFAs per cycle. Condensing enzyme that acts specifically toward polyunsaturated acyl-CoA with the higher activity toward C18:3(n-6) acyl-CoA. May participate in the production of monounsaturated and of polyunsaturated VLCFAs of different chain lengths that are involved in multiple biological processes as precursors of membrane lipids and lipid mediators.
Specific Function
3-oxo-arachidoyl-coa synthase activity
Gene Name
ELOVL5
Uniprot ID
Q9NYP7
Uniprot Name
Elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 5
Molecular Weight
35293.15 Da
References
  1. Wollschlaeger B. (2003). The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. American botanical council.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Isoform 2 does not exhibit any catalytic activity toward 20:3n-6, but it may enhance FADS2 activity (By similarity). Isoform 1 is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that catalyzes biosynthesi...
Gene Name
FADS1
Uniprot ID
O60427
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid desaturase 1
Molecular Weight
51963.945 Da
References
  1. Wollschlaeger B. (2003). The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. American botanical council.
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Stearoyl-coa 9-desaturase activity
Specific Function
Component of a lipid metabolic pathway that catalyzes biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) from precursor essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6) ...
Gene Name
FADS2
Uniprot ID
O95864
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid desaturase 2
Molecular Weight
52259.075 Da
References
  1. Wollschlaeger B. (2003). The ABC Clinical Guide to Herbs. American botanical council.

Drug created on December 03, 2015 09:52 / Updated on June 02, 2018 08:25