Identification

Name
Fish oil
Accession Number
DB13961
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Fish oil is a component of SMOFLIPID, which was FDA approved in July 2016. It is indicated in adults as a source of calories and essential fatty acids for parenteral nutrition when oral or enteral nutrition is not possible, insufficient, or contraindicated.

More commonly, fish oil refers to the omega-3-fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [Label]. In general, dietary or pharmaceutical intake of these acids is primarily the only way to increase their levels in the human body where they are overall an essential element to dietary health as they have demonstrated abilities in minimizing or preventing hypertriglyceridemia when taken as an adjunct to a healthy diet [Label].

Such fish oils are available in both non-prescription and prescription-only varieties at different concentrations. For many individuals, taking non-prescription fish oils as part of their multivitamin regimen is an effective way to supplement their diets with the healthy fatty acids. However, prescription-only fish oil products are sometimes prescribed for individuals who demonstrate severe (>= 500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia [Label].

Furthermore, a variety of studies regarding additional potential actions of fish oil omega-3-fatty acids EPA and DHA are ongoing. Such experimental actions include inflammation modulation, cardioprotective effects, the attenuation of oxidative stress, and more. Regardless, the specific mechanisms of action for these effects have yet to be formally elucidated.

Synonyms
  • Fish oil containing omega-3 acids
  • Fish oils
  • Omega-3 fish oil
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
OmegavenInjection, emulsion0.1 g/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2018-07-27Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
SmofkabivenFish oil (0.57 g) + Calcium Chloride (0.028 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (12.7 g) + Glycine (0.56 g) + Histidine (0.15 g) + L-Alanine (0.71 g) + L-Arginine (0.61 g) + L-Isoleucine (0.25 g) + L-Leucine (0.38 g) + L-Lysine (0.34 g) + L-Phenylalanine (0.26 g) + L-Proline (0.57 g) + L-Threonine (0.22 g) + L-Tryptophan (0.10 g) + L-Tyrosine (0.02 g) + L-Valine (0.31 g) + Magnesium sulfate (0.061 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (1.14 g) + Methionine (0.22 g) + Nitrogen (0.8 g) + Olive oil (0.95 g) + Potassium Chloride (0.23 g) + Serine (0.33 g) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (0.17 g) + Sodium glycerophosphate (0.21 g) + Soybean oil (1.14 g) + Taurine (0.05 g) + Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (0.00066 g)EmulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2015-09-15Not applicableCanada
Smofkabiven Electrolyte FreeFish oil (0.57 g) + Dextrose, unspecified form (12.7 g) + Glycine (0.56 g) + Histidine (0.15 g) + L-Alanine (0.71 g) + L-Arginine (0.61 g) + L-Isoleucine (0.25 g) + L-Leucine (0.38 g) + L-Lysine (0.34 g) + L-Phenylalanine (0.26 g) + L-Proline (0.57 g) + L-Threonine (0.22 g) + L-Tryptophan (0.10 g) + L-Tyrosine (0.02 g) + L-Valine (0.31 g) + Medium-chain triglycerides (1.14 g) + Methionine (0.22 g) + Nitrogen (0.8 g) + Olive oil (0.95 g) + Serine (0.33 g) + Soybean oil (1.14 g) + Taurine (0.05 g)EmulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2015-09-15Not applicableCanada
Smofkabiven PeripheralFish oil (420 mg) + Calcium Chloride (18 mg) + Dextrose, unspecified form (7.1 g) + Glycine (350 mg) + Histidine (93 mg) + L-Alanine (440 mg) + L-Arginine (380 mg) + L-Isoleucine (160 mg) + L-Leucine (230 mg) + L-Lysine (210 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (160 mg) + L-Proline (350 mg) + L-Threonine (140 mg) + L-Tryptophan (63 mg) + L-Tyrosine (12 mg) + L-Valine (200 mg) + Magnesium sulfate (38 mg) + Medium-chain triglycerides (850 mg) + Methionine (130 mg) + Olive oil (700 mg) + Potassium Chloride (140 mg) + Serine (210 mg) + Sodium acetate trihydrate (110 mg) + Sodium glycerophosphate (130 mg) + Soybean oil (850 mg) + Taurine (32 mg) + Zinc sulfate heptahydrate (0.4 mg)EmulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi2017-02-14Not applicableCanada
SmoflipidFish oil (3 g/100mL) + Medium-chain triglycerides (6 g/100mL) + Olive oil (5 g/100mL) + Soybean oil (6 g/100mL)Injection, emulsionIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2016-07-13Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Prenatal Plus Multivitamin Plus DHA MiniCapsFish oil (312 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (200 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (10 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.84 mg/1) + Tocopherol (22 mg/1) + Vitamin A (4000 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitSancilio & Company, Inc.2016-11-152016-11-16Us
Tricare Prenatal DHA OneFish oil (500 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (60 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (100 ug/1) + Doconexent (215 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (25 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (45 mg/1) + Inositol nicotinate (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc sulfate monohydrate (10 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMedecor Pharma, Llc2012-01-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Omegaven (Fresenius SE & Co. KGaA)
Categories
UNII
XGF7L72M0F
CAS number
Not Available
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
Not Available
InChI Key
Not Available
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Under FDA approval, fish oil pharmaceuticals are typically products consisting of a combination of the omega-3-fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are indicated primarily as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride levels in adult patients with severe (>=500 mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia [Label].

Under EMA approval, such fish oil pharmaceuticals comprised of virtually the same fish and fish oil derived omega-3-fatty acids EPA and DHA are indicated specifically for (a) adjuvant treatment in secondary prevention after myocardial infarction, in addition to other standard therapy (ie. statins, antiplatelet medicinal products, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors), and (b) as a supplement to diet when dietary measures alone are insufficient to produce an adequate response, particularly with type IV hypertriglyceridemia in monotherapy or type IIb/III in combination with statins, when control of triglycerides is insufficient [6]. In addition, prescribing information for EMA approved fish oil pharmaceuticals are also indicated as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (>=500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients, much like similar FDA approved indications [11].

Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

In general, the only practical method of obtaining and increasing the levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) fish oil omega-3-fatty acids in the body is to consume them directly from foods and/or dietary supplements [5]. Having EPA and DHA is important because they facilitate numerous important functions in the human body. As an example, such supplementation of fish oil EPA and DHA demonstrates a legitimate ability to decrease triglyceride levels as their presence in the body can act as poor substrates for the enzymes that are ordinarily responsible for triglyceride synthesis and also inhibit the esterification of other fatty acids, among other mechanisms [Label].

Moreover, such fish oil acids can become important components of the phospholipids that form the structures of cell membranes [5]. Specifically, DHA is particularly high in the retina, brain, and sperm [5]. Additionally, these acids also provide energy for the body and are used to form eicosanoids - signaling molecules that have similar chemical structures to the fish oil fatty acids from which they are derived [5]. Furthermore, such eicosanoids possess wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, pulmonary, immune, and endocrine systems [5].

Mechanism of action

The specific mechanism of action by which the fish oil EPA and DHA acids are capable of reducing serum triglyceride levels is not yet fully understood [Label]. Nevertheless, it is proposed that such omega-3-fatty acids may not be the preferred substrates of the enzyme diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase that participates in the generation of triglycerides; that they might interact with nuclear transcription factors that manage lipogenesis; or that their presence and increase in levels can cause cellular metabolism to subsequently shift toward a decrease in triglyceride synthesis and an increase in fatty acid oxidation [3]. Moreover, the EPA and DHA acids are also believed to be able to promote apolipoprotein B degradation in the liver through the stimulation of an autophagic process [3]. It may also be possible that these fish oil acids can accelerate the clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and chylomicron [3]. The combination of all these actions results in fewer VLDL particles being assembled and secreted, which is of considerable importance as VLDL particles are the major endogenous source of triglycerides [3].

Moreover, new paradigms of how inflammation is contained and dissipated involve various newly discovered chemical mediators, resolvins, and protectins [3]. Such agents are believed to be directly involved in blocking neutrophil migration, infiltration, recruitment, as well as blocking T-cell migration and promoting T-cell apoptosis [3]. Additionally, such protectins can also reduce tumor necrosis factor and interferon secretion [3]. Of particular importance, however, is the fact that protectins and resolvins are exclusively derived from omega-3-fatty acids and that EPA is the substrate of the resolvins family and DHA can be converted to both resolvins and protectins [3]. It is believed that these effects of such fish oil acids underlie the actions that fish oil have demonstrated on eliciting stability for vulnerable inflammatory plaques [3].

Finally, fish oil acids have demonstrated certain direct electrophysiological effects on the myocardium [3]. In animal studies, it was shown that the ventricular fibrillation threshold could be increased in both animals fed or infused with omega-3-fatty acids [3]. Further studies subsequently revealed that such fatty acids could reduce both sodium currents and L-type calcium currents on a cellular and ion channel level [3]. It is consequently hypothesized that during ischemia, a reduction in the sodium ion current protects hyperexcitable tissue, and a reduction in the calcium ion current could reduce arrhythmogenic depolarizing currents - and that perhaps the use of EPA and DHA fish oil acids could facilitate such activity [3]. For the time being, however, omega-3-fatty acids in pharmaceutical supplement form have not been shown to elicit such protection against heart conditions [7].

TargetActionsOrganism
ADiacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2
agonist
Human
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
AFree fatty acid receptor 4
agonist
inhibits downstream inflammation cascades
Human
UVoltage dependent L type calcium channel
inhibitor
Human
UVoltage gated sodium channel
inhibitor
human
UFree radicalsNot AvailableHuman
UNuclear factor NF-kappa-B
regulator
Human
USterol regulatory element-binding protein 1
regulator
Human
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
regulator
Human
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
regulator
Human
Absorption

The absorption process of fish oil EPA and DHA acids have been documented as being very efficient, with an absorption rate of about 95%, which is similar to that of other ingested fats [5].

Volume of distribution

The volume of distribution of EPA is documented as being approximately 82 L [1] while that of DHA is about 8,216 ml/kg in male rat animal models [2].

Protein binding

DHA demonstrates a high binding capacity with human plasma proteins at 76%-82% [2].

Metabolism

During and after absorption there are three main pathways for the metabolism of the fish oil omega-3-fatty acids: (a) the acids are transported to the liver where they are incorporated into various categories of lipoproteins and then channeled to the peripheral lipid stores, or (b) the cell membrane phospholipids are replaced by lipoprotein phospholipids and the fatty acids can then act as precursors for various eicosanoids, or (c) the majority of the fatty acids are oxidised to meet energy requirements [8, 6]. The concentration of the EPA and DHA fish oil omega-3-fatty acids in the plasma phospholipids corresponds to the EPA and DHA incorporated into the cell membranes [8, 6]. Ultimately, animal pharmacokinetic studies have shown that there is a complete hydrolysis of the ethyl ester accompanied by satisfactory absorption and incorporation of EPA and DHA into the plasma phospholipids and cholesterol esters [6].

Route of elimination

The majority of elimination of DHA is observed to be via urinary excretion at 52% of the administered dose [2].

Half life

The half-life of EPA is recorded to be about 37 hours while that of DHA is documented to be about 46 hours [Label].

Clearance

The clearance of EPA is recorded to be about 548 ml/hr while that of DHA is documented to be about 518 ml/hr hours [Label].

Toxicity

There have been some concerns that high doses of DHA and/or EPA (in the range of 900mg/day or EPA plus 600 mg/day of DHA or more for several weeks) could potentially reduce an individual's immune function due to the suppression of inflammatory responses [5]. However, according to the European Food Safety Authority, long-term consumption of EPA and DHA supplements at combined doses of up to about 5 g/day appears to be safe [5].

Commonly reported side effects of omega-3 supplements are usually mild [5]. These include unpleasant taste, bad breath, heartburn, nausea, gastrointestinal discomfort, diarrhea, headache, and odoriferous sweat [5].

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
AbafunginThe therapeutic efficacy of Abafungin can be increased when used in combination with Fish oil.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Fish oil.
AcetazolamideThe metabolism of Fish oil can be decreased when combined with Acetazolamide.
Acetylsalicylic acidFish oil may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlbaconazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Albaconazole can be increased when used in combination with Fish oil.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Fish oil can be decreased when combined with Albendazole.
AlclometasoneThe metabolism of Fish oil can be decreased when combined with Alclometasone.
AlcuroniumFish oil may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Alcuronium.
AlfentanilThe metabolism of Alfentanil can be decreased when combined with Fish oil.
AlfuzosinThe risk or severity of hypotension can be increased when Alfuzosin is combined with Fish oil.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN: Pharmacokinetics of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Plasma and Red Blood Cells After Multiple Oral Dosing With Icosapent Ethyl in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2014 Mar;3(2):101-108. Epub 2013 Oct 22. [PubMed:26097787]
  2. Xie LH, Li Q, Zhang J, Weina PJ: Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and mass balance of radiolabeled dihydroartemisinin in male rats. Malar J. 2009 May 26;8:112. doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-112. [PubMed:19470172]
  3. Weitz D, Weintraub H, Fisher E, Schwartzbard AZ: Fish oil for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cardiol Rev. 2010 Sep-Oct;18(5):258-63. doi: 10.1097/CRD.0b013e3181ea0de0. [PubMed:20699674]
  4. Visioli F, Giordano E, Nicod NM, Davalos A: Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic Fatty acids - "micromanaging" cellular response. Front Physiol. 2012 Feb 29;3:42. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00042. eCollection 2012. [PubMed:22393325]
  5. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements: Omega-3 Fatty Acids Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Link]
  6. Electronic Medicines Compendium: Omacor (omega-3-acid ethyl esters 90) Monograph [Link]
  7. NIH National Centre for Complementary and Integrative Health: Omega-3 Supplements - In Depth [Link]
  8. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing Therapeutic Goods Administration: Australian Public Assessment Report for Omega-3-acid ethyl esters 90 [File]
  9. Smoflipid FDA Label [File]
  10. Lovaza FDA Label [File]
  11. Omacor (omega-3-fatty ethyl esters) EMA Prescribing Information [File]
External Links
Wikipedia
Fish_oil
FDA label
Download (185 KB)
MSDS
Download (47.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedPreventionCholestasis / Parenteral Nutrition1
1CompletedTreatmentColitis / Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC)1
1RecruitingSupportive CareHematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT)1
1, 2CompletedNot AvailableSudden Cardiac Death / Ventricular Tachycardia (VT)1
1, 2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentParenteral Nutrition Associated Cholestasis1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentCholestasis1
1, 2Unknown StatusPreventionTreated Hypertension1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionAge Related Cognitive Decline / Alzheimer's Disease (AD) / Dementia, Vascular / Endothelial Dysfunction / Executive Dysfunction1
2CompletedPreventionEpilepsies1
2CompletedTreatmentAnorexia Nervosa (AN) / Feeling Anxious1
2CompletedTreatmentCessation, Smoking / Pregnancy Related / Tobacco Use in Childbirth1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Hypertriglyceridemias1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentTotal Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis2
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentImperforate oesophagus1
2RecruitingTreatmentCholestasis1
2RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2TerminatedTreatmentCancers / Hepatic Injury1
2TerminatedTreatmentCholestasis / Total Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasm, Gastric / Neoplasms, Esophageal1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCholestasis / Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease PNALD1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentCholestasis / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentTotal Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAsthma, Allergic / Bronchial Inflammation / House Dust Mite Allergy1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCardiac Surgical Procedures / Inflammatory Reaction1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver / Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentCholestasis / Cholestasis of Parenteral Nutrition / Gastroschisis / Infant, Premature, Diseases / Intestinal Atresia / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) / Total Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentGastrointestinal Diseases / Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD) / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS)1
3CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Dyslipidemias / Insulin Resistance1
3CompletedTreatmentCarcinoma Surgery / Parenteral Nutrition / Post-Operative Hospital Stay1
3CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
3CompletedTreatmentParents2
3CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCholestasis / Cholestasis of Parenteral Nutrition1
3RecruitingTreatmentCholestasis1
3RecruitingTreatmentTotal Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentMajor Liver Surgery1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNicotine Dependence / Tobacco Dependence1
4CompletedTreatmentAtrial Flutter / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
4CompletedTreatmentGastrointestinal Surgery1
4CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
4CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation3
4CompletedTreatmentParenteral Nutrition1
4CompletedTreatmentSevere Sepsis1
4RecruitingTreatmentParenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD)1
4TerminatedNot AvailableSchizo-Affective Disorder / Schizophrenic Disorders1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCritical Ill Patients in SICU1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentGastric Tumors / Neoplasms, Hepatic / Pancreatic Tumors1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableCholestasis of Parenteral Nutrition1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableCholestasis / Liver Diseases1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableCholestasis / Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS)1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableCholestasis / Total Parenteral Nutrition-Induced Cholestasis1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableParenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD)1
Not AvailableAvailableNot AvailableParenteral Nutrition-Associated Liver Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHypertriglyceridemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease Patients on Hemodialysis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentGastric Surgery1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceAtherosclerosis / General Surgery / Platelet Aggregation, Spontaneous1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionCardiovascular System / Inflammatory Reaction / Oxidative Stress / Respiratory System1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationSupportive CareHepatic function abnormal / Liver Diseases / Parenteral Nutrition Associated Liver Disease (PNALD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherElderly Women / Sarcopenia1
Not AvailableRecruitingSupportive CareMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCholestasis2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCholestasis / Cholestasis of Parenteral Nutrition / Parenteral Nutrition1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLiver Injury1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, emulsionIntravenous0.1 g/1mL
Kit
EmulsionIntravenous
Injection, emulsionIntravenous
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US9629821No2003-11-122023-11-12Us
US9566260No2003-11-122023-11-12Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Essential acyltransferase that catalyzes the terminal and only committed step in triacylglycerol synthesis by using diacylglycerol and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. Required for synthesis and storage of intracellular triglycerides. Probably plays a central role in cytosolic lipid accumulation. In liver, is primarily responsible for incorporating endogenously synthesized fatty acids into triglycerides (By similarity). Functions also as an acyl-CoA retinol acyltransferase (ARAT).
Specific Function
2-acylglycerol o-acyltransferase activity
Gene Name
DGAT2
Uniprot ID
Q96PD7
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2
Molecular Weight
43830.475 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Visioli F, Giordano E, Nicod NM, Davalos A: Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic Fatty acids - "micromanaging" cellular response. Front Physiol. 2012 Feb 29;3:42. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00042. eCollection 2012. [PubMed:22393325]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
Inhibits downstream inflammation cascades
General Function
Taste receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for medium and long-chain free fatty acids (FFAs). Signals via a G(q)/G(11)-coupled pathway. Acts as a receptor for omega-3 fatty acids and mediates robust anti-inflammatory effects, parti...
Gene Name
FFAR4
Uniprot ID
Q5NUL3
Uniprot Name
Free fatty acid receptor 4
Molecular Weight
42240.72 Da
References
  1. Visioli F, Giordano E, Nicod NM, Davalos A: Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic Fatty acids - "micromanaging" cellular response. Front Physiol. 2012 Feb 29;3:42. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00042. eCollection 2012. [PubMed:22393325]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hor...

Components:
References
  1. Visioli F, Giordano E, Nicod NM, Davalos A: Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic Fatty acids - "micromanaging" cellular response. Front Physiol. 2012 Feb 29;3:42. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00042. eCollection 2012. [PubMed:22393325]
5. Voltage gated sodium channel
Kind
Protein group
Organism
human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
References
  1. Visioli F, Giordano E, Nicod NM, Davalos A: Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic Fatty acids - "micromanaging" cellular response. Front Physiol. 2012 Feb 29;3:42. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00042. eCollection 2012. [PubMed:22393325]
6. Free radicals
Kind
Group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
References
  1. Visioli F, Giordano E, Nicod NM, Davalos A: Molecular targets of omega 3 and conjugated linoleic Fatty acids - "micromanaging" cellular response. Front Physiol. 2012 Feb 29;3:42. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2012.00042. eCollection 2012. [PubMed:22393325]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related...
Gene Name
NFKB2
Uniprot ID
Q00653
Uniprot Name
Nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p100 subunit
Molecular Weight
96748.355 Da
References
  1. Rodriguez-Cruz M, Serna DS: Nutrigenomics of omega-3 fatty acids: Regulators of the master transcription factors. Nutrition. 2017 Sep;41:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 May 2. [PubMed:28760435]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
Transcriptional activator required for lipid homeostasis. Regulates transcription of the LDL receptor gene as well as the fatty acid and to a lesser degree the cholesterol synthesis pathway (By sim...
Gene Name
SREBF1
Uniprot ID
P36956
Uniprot Name
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
121673.6 Da
References
  1. Rodriguez-Cruz M, Serna DS: Nutrigenomics of omega-3 fatty acids: Regulators of the master transcription factors. Nutrition. 2017 Sep;41:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 May 2. [PubMed:28760435]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Rodriguez-Cruz M, Serna DS: Nutrigenomics of omega-3 fatty acids: Regulators of the master transcription factors. Nutrition. 2017 Sep;41:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 May 2. [PubMed:28760435]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Rodriguez-Cruz M, Serna DS: Nutrigenomics of omega-3 fatty acids: Regulators of the master transcription factors. Nutrition. 2017 Sep;41:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 May 2. [PubMed:28760435]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Regulator
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-lin...
Gene Name
PPARD
Uniprot ID
Q03181
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Molecular Weight
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Rodriguez-Cruz M, Serna DS: Nutrigenomics of omega-3 fatty acids: Regulators of the master transcription factors. Nutrition. 2017 Sep;41:90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 May 2. [PubMed:28760435]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Uesawa Y, Takeuchi T, Mohri K: Integrated analysis on the physicochemical properties of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers in grapefruit juice interactions. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2012 Jul;13(9):1705-17. [PubMed:22039822]

Drug created on January 17, 2018 10:17 / Updated on October 01, 2018 15:40