Identification

Name
Adapalene
Accession Number
DB00210  (APRD00780)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

Adapalene is a topical retinoid primarily used in the treatment of acne and is also used (off-label) to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions. It is currently marketed by Galderma under the trade names Differin in some countries, and Adaferin in India.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 6-(3-(1-Adamantyl)-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-naphthoic acid
  • Adaferin
  • Adapaleno
  • Adapalenum
  • Differine
External IDs
CD 271 / CD-271
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AdapaleneCream0.1 g/100gTopicalPerrigo New York Inc.2010-10-26Not applicableUs
DifferinLotion0.1 g/100mLTopicalGalderma2010-03-31Not applicableUs
DifferinGel3 mg/1gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2008-10-24Not applicableUs
DifferinSolution1 mg/1mLTopicalDPT Laboratories, Ltd.1998-01-282006-01-31Us
DifferinGel1 mg/1gTopicalGalderma1996-05-31Not applicableUs
DifferinLotion1 mg/1gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-04-27Not applicableUs
DifferinLotion0.1 %TopicalGaldermaNot applicableNot applicableCanada
DifferinCream0.1 %TopicalGalderma1998-01-08Not applicableCanada
DifferinCream1 mg/1gTopicalGalderma2009-11-24Not applicableUs
DifferinGel3 mg/1gTopicalGalderma2009-09-15Not applicableUs
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AdapaleneLotion.1 g/100mLTopicalOwen Laboratories2010-03-31Not applicableUs
AdapaleneSolution1 mg/1mLTopicalAllegis Pharmaceuticals, LLC2018-08-20Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel3 mg/1gTopicalActavis Pharma Company2014-10-27Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel1 mg/1gTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-07-09Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel45 g/1gTopicalPru Gen Pharmaceuticals2016-03-04Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel3 mg/1gTopicalOwen Laboratories2009-09-15Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel1 mg/1gTopicalTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.2010-06-02Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel1 mg/1gTopicalTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.1996-05-31Not applicableUs
AdapaleneCream1 mg/1gTopicalE. Fougera & Co. a division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc.2010-06-30Not applicableUs
AdapaleneGel3 mg/1gTopicalSandoz2014-04-28Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DifferinGel1 mg/1gTopicalGalderma2016-07-08Not applicableUs
Proactiv MD Adapalene Acne TreatmentGel0.1 g/100gTopicalThe Proactiv Company, Llc2017-03-27Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adapalene and Benzoyl PeroxideAdapalene (1 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalActavis Pharma Company2017-07-27Not applicableUs
ADAPALENE and BENZOYL PEROXIDEAdapalene (1 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalTaro Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc.2018-01-24Not applicableUs
Adapalene and Benzoyl PeroxideAdapalene (1 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrasco, Laboratories2017-08-03Not applicableUs
Adapalene and Benzoyl PeroxideAdapalene (1 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalSandoz Inc.2018-05-23Not applicableUs
Adapalene and Benzoyl PeroxideAdapalene (0.1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g)GelTopicalPerrigo New York Inc.2018-01-24Not applicableUs
EpiduoAdapalene (1 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-02-24Not applicableUs
EpiduoAdapalene (1 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalGalderma2008-12-08Not applicableUs
Epiduo ForteAdapalene (3 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalGalderma2015-07-01Not applicableUs
TactupumpAdapalene (0.1 %) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 %)GelTopicalGalderma2011-05-13Not applicableCanada
Tactupump ForteAdapalene (0.3 %) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 %)GelTopicalGalderma2016-01-04Not applicableCanada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Clindap-TAdapalene (0.15 g/0.15g) + Clindamycin phosphate (0.5 g/0.5g)KitAccumix Pharmaceuticals2014-12-152015-07-17Us
NuvyaAdapalene (0.15 g/0.15g) + Diclofenac sodium (1 g/1g) + Tamoxifen citrate (0.1 g/0.1g)KitAccumix Pharmaceuticals2014-12-152015-07-17Us
International/Other Brands
Adaferin
Categories
UNII
1L4806J2QF
CAS number
106685-40-9
Weight
Average: 412.5201
Monoisotopic: 412.203844762
Chemical Formula
C28H28O3
InChI Key
LZCDAPDGXCYOEH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C28H28O3/c1-31-26-7-6-23(21-2-3-22-12-24(27(29)30)5-4-20(22)11-21)13-25(26)28-14-17-8-18(15-28)10-19(9-17)16-28/h2-7,11-13,17-19H,8-10,14-16H2,1H3,(H,29,30)
IUPAC Name
6-[3-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-methoxyphenyl]naphthalene-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
COC1=C(C=C(C=C1)C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C=C(C=C2)C(O)=O)C12CC3CC(CC(C3)C1)C2

Pharmacology

Indication

For the topical treatment of comedo, papular and pustular acne (acne vulgaris) of the face, chest or back.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Adapalene is a chemically stable retinoid-like compound. Biochemical and pharmacological profile studies have demonstrated that adapalene is a modulator of cellular differentiation, keratinization, and inflammatory processes all of which represent important features in the pathology of acne vulgaris.

Mechanism of action

Mechanistically, adapalene binds to specific retinoic acid nuclear receptors (gamma and beta) and retinoid X receptors but does not bind to the cytosolic receptor protein. Although the exact mode of action of adapalene is unknown, it is suggested that topical adapalene may normalize the differentiation of follicular epithelial cells resulting in decreased microcomedone formation.

TargetActionsOrganism
ARetinoic acid receptor gamma
agonist
Human
ARetinoic acid receptor beta
agonist
Human
ARetinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma
agonist
Human
ARetinoic acid receptor RXR-beta
agonist
Human
URetinoic acid receptor alpha
agonist
Human
NRetinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha
other/unknown
Human
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
inhibitor
Human
Absorption

Absorption of adapalene through human skin is low. Only trace amounts (<0.25 ng/mL) of parent substance have been found in the plasma of acne patients following chronic topical application of adapalene in controlled clinical trials

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Metabolized mainly by O-demethylation, hydroxylation and conjugation, and excretion is primarily by the biliary route.

Route of elimination

Excretion appears to be primarily by the biliary route.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The acute oral toxicity of adapalene in mice and rats is greater than 10 mL/kg. Chronic ingestion of the drug may lead to the same side effects as those associated with excessive oral intake of Vitamin A.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
ChlormadinoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlormadinone can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.
ChlortetracyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlortetracycline is combined with Adapalene.
ClomocyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clomocycline is combined with Adapalene.
Cyproterone acetateThe therapeutic efficacy of Cyproterone acetate can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.
DemeclocyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Demeclocycline is combined with Adapalene.
DemegestoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Demegestone can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.
DesogestrelThe therapeutic efficacy of Desogestrel can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.
DienogestThe therapeutic efficacy of Dienogest can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.
DoxycyclineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxycycline is combined with Adapalene.
DrospirenoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Drospirenone can be decreased when used in combination with Adapalene.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Graziano Castaldi, Pietro Allegrini, Gabriele Razzetti, Mauro Ercoli, "Process for the preparation of adapalene." U.S. Patent US20060229465, issued October 12, 2006.

US20060229465
General References
  1. Rolewski SL: Clinical review: topical retinoids. Dermatol Nurs. 2003 Oct;15(5):447-50, 459-65. [PubMed:14619325]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0014355
KEGG Drug
D01112
PubChem Compound
60164
PubChem Substance
46505019
ChemSpider
54244
BindingDB
50048280
ChEBI
31174
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1265
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000115
PharmGKB
PA448047
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Adapalene
ATC Codes
D10AD53 — Adapalene, combinationsD10AD03 — Adapalene
AHFS Codes
  • 84:92.00 — Misc. Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents
FDA label
Download (25.9 KB)
MSDS
Download (57.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableAcne Vulgaris1
1CompletedNot AvailableCutaneous Inflammation1
1CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris3
1CompletedTreatmentSkin Manifestations2
1WithdrawnNot AvailableAcne Vulgaris1
2CompletedTreatmentAcne Scars1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentSenile Purpura1
3CompletedTreatmentAcne3
3CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris4
3CompletedTreatmentPhotodamage / Solar Elastosis1
3CompletedTreatmentSolar Elastosis1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcne Vulgaris3
3WithdrawnTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4CompletedNot AvailableP Acnes Colonization1
4CompletedPreventionAcne Vulgaris / Atrophic Acne Scars1
4CompletedSupportive CareAcne1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris21
4RecruitingTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4TerminatedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcne1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAcne Vulgaris1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris / Diet Modification1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Nycomed us inc
  • Galderma laboratories lp
  • Glenmark generics inc usa
  • Pliva hrvatska doo
  • Galderma research and development inc
  • Galderma Laboratories
Packagers
  • Ameri-Pac Inc.
  • DPT Laboratories Ltd.
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Galderma Laboratories
  • Glenmark Generics Ltd.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CreamTopical0.1 g/100g
CreamTopical1 mg/1g
GelTopical1 mg/1g
GelTopical45 g/1g
LotionTopical.1 g/100mL
SwabTopical1 mg/1mL
Kit
CreamTopical0.1 %
GelTopical3 mg/1g
LotionTopical0.1 g/100mL
LotionTopical0.1 %
LotionTopical1 mg/1g
SolutionTopical1 mg/1mL
GelTopical0.1 %
LiquidTopical0.1 %
GelTopical0.3 %
GelTopical0.1 g/100g
GelTopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Differin 0.1% Cream 45 gm Tube227.13USD tube
Differin 0.1% Gel 45 gm Tube227.13USD tube
Differin 0.3% Gel 45 gm Tube219.65USD tube
Differin 0.1% cream4.85USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US4717720No1993-05-312010-05-31Us
US8909305No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US7579377No2005-02-232025-02-23Us
US7834060No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US7868044No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US8703820No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US7838558No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US7737181No2004-08-292024-08-29Us
US7964202No2004-09-012024-09-01Us
US8071644No2007-07-182027-07-18Us
US8080537No2007-07-182027-07-18Us
US8105618No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8129362No2007-07-182027-07-18Us
US8445543No2007-07-122027-07-12Us
US8809305No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8936800No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8241649No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US7820186No2005-11-232025-11-23Us
US7998467No2008-05-312028-05-31Us
US8435502No2006-09-152026-09-15Us
US8709392No2006-09-152026-09-15Us
US8785420No2002-12-232022-12-23Us
US8729127No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US9381179No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US9387187No2003-03-122023-03-12Us
US9814690No2002-12-232022-12-23Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityPractically InsolubleNot Available
logP8.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.01e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.06ALOGPS
logP6.46ChemAxon
logS-8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area46.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity122.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7061
Caco-2 permeable+0.8439
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5408
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8074
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.5
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8646
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7171
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8925
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5116
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7812
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.7758
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9466
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.653
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8246
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8509
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8575
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8707
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9715
Rat acute toxicity2.6913 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9774
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8855
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as retinoids. These are oxygenated derivatives of 3,7-dimethyl-1-(2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-1-enyl)nona-1,3,5,7-tetraene and derivatives thereof.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Retinoids
Direct Parent
Retinoids
Alternative Parents
Phenylnaphthalenes / Naphthalenecarboxylic acids / Phenoxy compounds / Methoxybenzenes / Anisoles / Alkyl aryl ethers / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Adapalene / Phenylnaphthalene / 2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid / 2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid or derivatives / Naphthalene / Phenoxy compound / Anisole / Methoxybenzene / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
monocarboxylic acid, adamantanes (CHEBI:31174)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RARG
Uniprot ID
P13631
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
50341.405 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RARB
Uniprot ID
P10826
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor beta
Molecular Weight
50488.63 Da
References
  1. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085]
  2. Shroot B, Michel S, Allec J, Chatelus A, Wagner N: A new concept of drug delivery for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):165-70. [PubMed:9557255]
  3. Michel S, Jomard A, Demarchez M: Pharmacology of adapalene. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:3-7. [PubMed:9990413]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRG
Uniprot ID
P48443
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma
Molecular Weight
50870.72 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRB
Uniprot ID
P28702
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-beta
Molecular Weight
56921.38 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RARA
Uniprot ID
P10276
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
50770.805 Da
References
  1. Shroot B, Michel S: Pharmacology and chemistry of adapalene. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997 Jun;36(6 Pt 2):S96-103. [PubMed:9204085]
  2. Griffiths CE, Ancian P, Humphries J, Poncet M, Rizova E, Michel S, Clucas A: Adapalene 0.1% gel and adapalene 0.1% cream stimulate retinoic acid receptor mediated gene transcription without significant irritative effects in the skin of healthy human volunteers. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:12-6. [PubMed:9990415]
  3. Michel S, Jomard A, Demarchez M: Pharmacology of adapalene. Br J Dermatol. 1998 Oct;139 Suppl 52:3-7. [PubMed:9990413]
  4. Shroot B, Michel S, Allec J, Chatelus A, Wagner N: A new concept of drug delivery for acne. Dermatology. 1998;196(1):165-70. [PubMed:9557255]
  5. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
No
Actions
Other/unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRA
Uniprot ID
P19793
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha
Molecular Weight
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Bernard BA: Adapalene, a new chemical entity with retinoid activity. Skin Pharmacol. 1993;6 Suppl 1:61-9. [PubMed:8142113]
  2. Kim MJ, Ciletti N, Michel S, Reichert U, Rosenfield RL: The role of specific retinoid receptors in sebocyte growth and differentiation in culture. J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):349-53. [PubMed:10651997]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Hung LF, Lai JH, Lin LC, Wang SJ, Hou TY, Chang DM, Liang CC, Ho LJ: Retinoid acid inhibits IL-1-induced iNOS, COX-2 and chemokine production in human chondrocytes. Immunol Invest. 2008;37(7):675-93. doi: 10.1080/08820130802307237. [PubMed:18821215]
  2. Eisinger AL, Nadauld LD, Shelton DN, Prescott SM, Stafforini DM, Jones DA: Retinoic acid inhibits beta-catenin through suppression of Cox-2: a role for truncated adenomatous polyposis coli. J Biol Chem. 2007 Oct 5;282(40):29394-400. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M609768200. Epub 2007 Aug 2. [PubMed:17673467]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 16, 2018 08:24