Identification

Name
Clindamycin
Accession Number
DB01190  (APRD00566)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Vet approved
Description

Clindamycin is a semi-synthetic lincosamide antibiotic used in the treatment of a variety of serious infections due to susceptible microorganisms14,13 as well as topically for acne vulgaris.12 It has a relatively narrow spectrum of activity that includes anaerobic bacteria as well as gram-positive cocci and bacilli and gram-negative bacilli.8 Interestingly, clindamycin appears to carry some activity against protozoans, and has been used off-label in the treatment of toxoplasmosis, malaria, and babesiosis.9

Clindamycin is derived from, and has largely replaced, lincomycin, a naturally occurring lincosamide and the eponymous member of this antibiotic class, due to its improved properties over the parent compound. The name lincomycin is derived from Lincoln, Nebraska, where it was first isolated from Streptomyces lincolnensis found in a soil sample.8

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 7-CDL
  • 7(S)-Chloro-7-deoxylincomycin
  • Clindamicina
  • Clindamycin
  • Clindamycine
  • Clindamycinum
  • Methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-alpha-D-galacto-octopyranoside
External IDs
U-21,251 / U-21251
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Clindamycin hydrochlorideT20OQ1YN1W21462-39-5AUODDLQVRAJAJM-XJQDNNTCSA-N
Clindamycin palmitate hydrochlorideVN9A8JM7M725507-04-4GTNDZRUWKHDICY-DJHAJVGHSA-N
Clindamycin phosphateEH6D7113I824729-96-2UFUVLHLTWXBHGZ-KUWMELJBSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CleocinCream20 mg/1gVaginalPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1992-08-11Not applicableUs
CleocinSuppository100 mg/1VaginalPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1999-08-13Not applicableUs
CleocinSuppository100 mg/1VaginalU.S. Pharmaceuticals1999-08-13Not applicableUs
CleocinSuppository100 mg/1VaginalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2003-12-302013-06-30Us
CleocinCream20 mg/1gVaginalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.1992-08-112010-06-30Us
Cleocin HydrochlorideCapsule300 mg/1OralPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1970-05-22Not applicableUs
Cleocin HydrochlorideCapsule150 mg/1OralPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1970-05-22Not applicableUs
Cleocin HydrochlorideCapsule75 mg/1OralPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1970-05-22Not applicableUs00009 0331 02 nlmimage10 070803d0
Cleocin PhosphateInjection, solution18 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Cleocin PhosphateInjection, solution12 mg/1mLIntramuscular; IntravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC2014-09-26Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ag-clindamycinCapsuleOralAngita Pharma Inc.2020-01-27Not applicableCanada
Ag-clindamycinCapsuleOralAngita Pharma Inc.2020-02-27Not applicableCanada
Apo-clindamycinCapsuleOralApotex Corporation2002-02-20Not applicableCanada
Apo-clindamycinCapsuleOralApotex Corporation2002-02-20Not applicableCanada
Auro-clindamycinCapsuleOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-03-02Not applicableCanada
Auro-clindamycinCapsuleOralAuro Pharma Inc2015-03-02Not applicableCanada
Ava-clindamycinCapsuleOralAvanstra Inc2011-08-222014-08-21Canada
Ava-clindamycinCapsuleOralAvanstra Inc2011-08-222014-08-21Canada
CleocinGranule, for solution75 mg/5mLOralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-11-28Not applicableUs
Cleocin PediatricGranule, for solution75 mg/5mLOralPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1986-04-17Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AcanyaClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)GelTopicalBausch Health US, LLC2010-07-26Not applicableUs
AcanyaClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1mL) + Benzoyl peroxide (25 mg/1g)KitTopicalDow Pharmaceuticals Sciences2009-02-032014-04-30Us
BenzaclinClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g)GelTopicalDermik Laboratories2009-06-012012-04-30Us
BenzaclinClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g)GelTopicalBausch Health US LLC2000-12-21Not applicableUs
BenzaclinClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g)GelTopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2009-08-27Not applicableUs
Benzaclin Topical GelClindamycin (1 %) + Benzoyl peroxide (5 %)GelTopicalValeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.2004-05-04Not applicableCanada
Biacna Topical GelClindamycin phosphate (1.2 %) + Tretinoin (0.025 %)GelTopicalBausch Health, Canada Inc.2011-05-16Not applicableCanada
CLIN-LIDO-Single Use KitClindamycin phosphate (150 mg/1mL) + Epinephrine (10 ug/1mL) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/1mL) + Sodium bicarbonate (84 mg/1mL)KitIntravenousBurke Therapeutics, LLC2015-06-182015-09-11Us
Clindamycin - Benzoyl PeroxideClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g)GelTopicalPrasco Laboratories2012-06-27Not applicableUs
Clindamycin and Benzoyl PeroxideClindamycin phosphate (10 mg/1g) + Benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/1g)GelTopicalNorthstar RxLLC2019-07-01Not applicableUs
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Adapalene 0.1% / Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Clindamycin 1%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Adapalene (0.1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-10Not applicableUs
Adapalene 0.3% / Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Clindamycin 1%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Adapalene (0.3 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 2% / Tretinoin 0.025%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.025 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-22Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 4%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (4 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 2.5%, Clindamycin Phosphate 1%, Niacinamide 2% / Tretinoin 0.05%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (2.5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.05 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-04Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 2% / Spironolactone 2%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Spironolactone (2 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-11Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 2% / Spironolactone 2% / Tretinoin 0.025%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Spironolactone (2 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.025 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-04Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 2% / Spironolactone 2% / Tretinoin 0.05%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Spironolactone (2 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.05 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida LLC2019-05-03Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 2% / Tretinoin 0.05%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.05 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-01Not applicableUs
Benzoyl Peroxide 5% / Clindamycin 1% / Niacinamide 2% / Tretinoin 0.1%Clindamycin phosphate (1 g/100g) + Benzoyl peroxide (5 g/100g) + Nicotinamide (2 g/100g) + Tretinoin (0.1 g/100g)GelTopicalSincerus Florida, LLC2019-05-04Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Clinimycin (Hayat) / Dalacin C (Pfizer) / Dalacin T Topical Solution (Pfizer) / Zindaclin (Crawford)
Categories
UNII
3U02EL437C
CAS number
18323-44-9
Weight
Average: 424.983
Monoisotopic: 424.179870573
Chemical Formula
C18H33ClN2O5S
InChI Key
KDLRVYVGXIQJDK-NOWPCOIGSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H33ClN2O5S/c1-5-6-10-7-11(21(3)8-10)17(25)20-12(9(2)19)16-14(23)13(22)15(24)18(26-16)27-4/h9-16,18,22-24H,5-8H2,1-4H3,(H,20,25)/t9?,10-,11+,12?,13+,14-,15-,16-,18-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S,4R)-N-{2-chloro-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(methylsulfanyl)oxan-2-yl]propyl}-1-methyl-4-propylpyrrolidine-2-carboxamide
SMILES
CCC[C@@H]1C[C@H](N(C)C1)C(=O)NC(C(C)Cl)[C@H]1O[C@H](SC)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O

Pharmacology

Indication

In oral and parenteral formulations, clindamycin is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria, as well as susceptible staphylococci, streptococci, and pneumococci.14,15 Used topically, it is indicated for the treatment of acne vulgaris12,18,16 and is available in combination with benzoyl peroxide10 or tretinoin11 for this purpose. Clindamycin is also indicated as a vaginal cream13 or suppository17 for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant females.

Clindamycin is used for antimicrobial prophylaxis against Viridans group streptococcal infections in susceptible patients undergoing oral, dental, or upper respiratory surgery, and may be used for prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis in penicillin-allergic patients at high risk of these infections.20

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Clindamycin exerts its bacteriostatic effect via inhibition of microbial protein synthesis.8 Clindamycin has a relatively short Tmax and half-life necessitating administration every six hours to ensure adequate antibiotic concentrations.20

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been observed in patients using clindamycin, ranging in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis and occasionally occurring over two months following cessation of antibiotic therapy.15 Overgrowth of C. difficile resulting from antibiotic use, along with its production of A and B toxins, contributes to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Because of the associated risks, clindamycin should be reserved for serious infections for which the use of less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate.15

Clindamycin is active against a number of gram-positive aerobic bacteria, as well as both gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobes.14 Resistance to clindamycin may develop, and is generally the result of base modification within the 23S ribosomal RNA. Cross-resistance between clindamycin and lincomycin is complete, and may also occur between clindamycin and macrolide antibiotics (e.g. erythromycin) due to similarities in their binding sites.14

As antimicrobial susceptibility patterns are geographically distinct, local antibiograms should be consulted to ensure adequate coverage of relevant pathogens prior to use.

Mechanism of action

Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome.14 It impedes both the assembly of the ribosome and the translation process.20 The molecular mechanism through which this occurs is thought to be due to clindamycin's three-dimensional structure, which closely resembles the 3'-ends of L-Pro-Met-tRNA and deacylated-tRNA during the peptide elongation cycle - in acting as a structural analog of these tRNA molecules, clindamycin impairs peptide chain initiation and may stimulate dissociation of peptidyl-tRNA from bacterial ribosomes.8

The mechanism through which topical clindamycin treats acne vulgaris is unclear, but may be related to its activity against Propionibacterium acnes, a bacteria that has been associated with acne.12

TargetActionsOrganism
A50S ribosomal protein L1
inhibitor
Staphylococcus aureus (strain NCTC 8325)
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

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Absorption

Oral bioavailability is nearly complete, at approximately 90%, and peak serum concentrations (Cmax) of, on average, 2.50 µg/mL are reached at 0.75 hours (Tmax).15 The AUC following an orally administered dose of 300mg was found to be approximately 11 µg•hr/mL.20 Systemic exposure from the administration of vaginal suppository formulations is 40-fold to 50-fold lower than that observed following parenteral administration17 and the Cmax observed following administration of vaginal cream formulations was 0.1% of that observed following parenteral administration.13

Volume of distribution

Clindamycin is widely distributed in the body, including into bone, but does not distribute into cerebrospinal fluid. The volume of distribution has been variably estimated between 43-74 L.7,6

Protein binding

Clindamycin protein binding is concentration-dependent and ranges from 60-94%. It is bound primarily to alpha-1-acid glycoprotein in the serum.20

Metabolism

Clindamycin undergoes hepatic metabolism mediated primarily by CYP3A4 and, to a lesser extent, CYP3A5.15 Two inactive metabolites have been identified - an oxidative metabolite, clindamycin sulfoxide, and an N-demethylated metabolite, N-desmethylclindamycin.15

Route of elimination

Approximately 10% of clindamycin bioactivity is excreted in the urine and 3.6% in the feces, with the remainder excreted as inactive metabolites.15

Half life

The elimination half-life of clindamycin is about 3 hours in adults and 2.5 hours in children.15,14 Half-life is increased to approximately 4 hours in the elderly.15,14

Clearance

The plasma clearance of clindamycin is estimated to be 12.3-17.4 L/h, and is reduced in patients with cirrhosis and altered in those with anemia.6,7

Toxicity

The oral LD50 in mice and rats is 2540 mg/kg and 2190 mg/kg, respectively.19

While no cases of overdose have been reported, symptoms are expected to be consistent with the adverse effect profile of clindamycin and may therefore include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. During clinical trials, one 3-year-old child was given a dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 5 days and showed only mild abdominal pain and diarrhea.20 Activated charcoal may be of value to remove unabsorbed drug, but hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are ineffective.20 General supportive measures are recommended in cases of clindamycin overdose.20

Affected organisms
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis
  • Streptococcus mitis
  • Streptococcus oralis
  • Streptococcus anginosus
  • Propionibacterium acnes
  • Finegoldia magna
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum
  • Peptostreptococcus anaerobius
  • Prevotella melaninogenica
  • Actinomyces israelii
  • Clostridium clostridioforme
  • Eggerthella lenta
  • Parvimonas micra
  • Prevotella bivia
  • Prevotella intermedia
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Clindamycin is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Clindamycin is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Clindamycin is combined with 4-hydroxycoumarin.
AbataceptThe metabolism of Clindamycin can be increased when combined with Abatacept.
AcalabrutinibThe metabolism of Clindamycin can be decreased when combined with Acalabrutinib.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Clindamycin is combined with Acenocoumarol.
AcepromazineClindamycin may increase the neurotoxic activities of Acepromazine.
AceprometazineClindamycin may increase the neurotoxic activities of Aceprometazine.
AcetaminophenThe metabolism of Clindamycin can be increased when combined with Acetaminophen.
AcetophenazineAcetophenazine may increase the neurotoxic activities of Clindamycin.
Additional Data Available
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    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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Food Interactions
  • Take with a full glass of water. Clindamycin may cause esophageal irritation if the dosage form becomes lodged.
  • Take with or without food. Food does not appreciably alter the absorption of clindamycin.

References

Synthesis Reference

Donald E. Ayer, Carl A. Schlagel, Gordon L. Flynn, "Topical clindamycin preparations." U.S. Patent US4018918, issued January, 1971.

US4018918
General References
  1. Daum RS: Clinical practice. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jul 26;357(4):380-90. [PubMed:17652653]
  2. Klempner MS, Styrt B: Clindamycin uptake by human neutrophils. J Infect Dis. 1981 Nov;144(5):472-9. [PubMed:6171600]
  3. Lamont RF: Can antibiotics prevent preterm birth--the pro and con debate. BJOG. 2005 Mar;112 Suppl 1:67-73. [PubMed:15715599]
  4. Plaisance KI, Drusano GL, Forrest A, Townsend RJ, Standiford HC: Pharmacokinetic evaluation of two dosage regimens of clindamycin phosphate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989 May;33(5):618-20. [PubMed:2751277]
  5. Wynalda MA, Hutzler JM, Koets MD, Podoll T, Wienkers LC: In vitro metabolism of clindamycin in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jul;31(7):878-87. doi: 10.1124/dmd.31.7.878. [PubMed:12814964]
  6. Leigh DA: Antibacterial activity and pharmacokinetics of clindamycin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1981 Jun;7 Suppl A:3-9. doi: 10.1093/jac/7.suppl_a.3. [PubMed:7019193]
  7. Bouazza N, Pestre V, Jullien V, Curis E, Urien S, Salmon D, Treluyer JM: Population pharmacokinetics of clindamycin orally and intravenously administered in patients with osteomyelitis. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 Dec;74(6):971-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04292.x. [PubMed:22486719]
  8. Spizek J, Rezanka T: Lincosamides: Chemical structure, biosynthesis, mechanism of action, resistance, and applications. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 1;133:20-28. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2016.12.001. Epub 2016 Dec 7. [PubMed:27940264]
  9. Spizek J, Rezanka T: Lincomycin, clindamycin and their applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004 May;64(4):455-64. doi: 10.1007/s00253-003-1545-7. Epub 2004 Feb 5. [PubMed:14762701]
  10. FDA Approved Drug Products: Onexton (clindamycin phosphate/benzoyl peroxide) topical gel [Link]
  11. FDA Approved Drug Products: Ziana (clindamycin phosphate/tretinoin) topical gel [Link]
  12. FDA Approved Drug Products: Evoclin (clindamycin phosphate) topical foam [Link]
  13. FDA Approved Drug Products: Clindesse (clindamycin phosphate) vaginal cream [Link]
  14. FDA Approved Drug Products: Clindamycin in 0.9% NaCl for intravenous injection [Link]
  15. FDA Approved Drug Products: Cleocin (clindamycin hydrochloride) oral capsules [Link]
  16. FDA Approved Drug Products: Cleocin T (clindamycin phosphate) topical gel/solution/lotion [Link]
  17. FDA Approved Drug Products: Cleocin (clindamycin phosphate) vaginal suppositories [Link]
  18. Health Canada Product Monograph: Clindets (clindamycin phosphate) topical swabs [Link]
  19. CaymanChem: Clindamycin MSDS [Link]
  20. Health Canada Product Monograph: Clindamycin oral capsules [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015321
KEGG Drug
D00277
KEGG Compound
C06914
PubChem Compound
446598
PubChem Substance
46506073
ChemSpider
27005
RxNav
2582
ChEBI
3745
ChEMBL
CHEMBL376185
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000409
PharmGKB
PA449035
PDBe Ligand
CLY
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
Wikipedia
Clindamycin
ATC Codes
D10AF01 — ClindamycinJ01FF01 — ClindamycinD10AF51 — Clindamycin, combinationsG01AA10 — Clindamycin
AHFS Codes
  • 84:04.04 — Antibiotics
  • 08:12.28.20 — Lincomycins
PDB Entries
1jzx / 1yjn / 3jz0 / 4v7v
FDA label
Download (151 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentVaginal Inflammation1
0RecruitingTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
1Active Not RecruitingOtherBacterial Infections1
1CompletedNot AvailableAcne Vulgaris1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceBacterial Infections / BMI >30 kg/m21
1CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris7
1CompletedTreatmentSystemic Infections1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInfection / Jaw Fractures1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcne1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
2CompletedPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
2CompletedTreatmentInfection caused by staphylococci1
2CompletedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections2
2CompletedTreatmentPre-Diabetic1
2CompletedTreatmentRash1
2RecruitingTreatmentAbdominal Abscess1
2RecruitingTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis Treatment1
2RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers / Head and Neck Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentPerforated Appendicitis1
2TerminatedTreatmentOsteomyelitis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHip Prosthetic Joint Infection1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPlasmodium Infections1
2, 3CompletedPreventionHemopneumothorax / Pneumothorax1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAcne Rosacea1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentComplicated Intra Abdominal Infections / Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInfection caused by staphylococci1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentInfections, Pediatrics1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentCoVid 19 Positive / Novel Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-19)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSymptomatic Periapical Periodontitis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
3CompletedPreventionBreast Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionPain1
3CompletedTreatmentAcne2
3CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris12
3CompletedTreatmentAcne / Acne Vulgaris1
3CompletedTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV)1
3CompletedTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV) / Signs and Symptoms to be Evaluated and Recorded Include / Vaginal Discharge Color, Odor, and Consistency / Vaginal Discharge: Color, Odor, and Consistency / Vulvovaginal Inflammation (Objective) Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe / Vulvovaginal Inflammation (Objective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe / Vulvovaginal Itching and Irritation (Subjective) Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe / Vulvovaginal Itching and Irritation (Subjective): Absent, Mild, Moderate, or Severe1
3CompletedTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV) / Vulvovaginal Candidiasis1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus / Periodontal Pocket / Periodontitis1
3CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia1
3CompletedTreatmentPlasmodium Infections2
3CompletedTreatmentSkin Diseases, Bacterial / Skin Diseases, Infectious1
3CompletedTreatmentVaginal Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentVaginal Inflammation / Vulvovaginitis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMRSA / MRSA Colonization1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNasal Obstruction / Nasal Surgical Procedures1
3RecruitingOtherKidney Stones1
3RecruitingPreventionChronic Systolic Heart Failure / Complete Heart Block / Sick Sinus Syndrome / Syncope1
3RecruitingTreatmentBacterial Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentStaphylococcus Aureus Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentVentral Hernia Repair1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV) / Candidiasis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChorioretinitis1
3WithdrawnTreatmentInfection / Skin Diseases1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCellulitis1
4CompletedNot AvailableBacterial Endophthalmitis / Endophthalmitis / Prophylaxy of Post Traumatic Endophthalmitis1
4CompletedNot AvailablePerforated Appendicitis1
4CompletedPreventionArrhythmia1
4CompletedPreventionBacterial Vaginosis (BV) / Infants, Premature / Pregnancy / Premature Births1
4CompletedPreventionEmpyema / Pleural Effusions / Pleuritis1
4CompletedPreventionPregnancy1
4CompletedTreatmentAbscesses / Folliculitis / Infection caused by staphylococci / Staphylococcal Skin Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentAcne3
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris18
4CompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris / Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation1
4CompletedTreatmentAmputation Wound / Wound Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentAnti-Infective Agents / Bacterial Infections / Breast Implantation1
4CompletedTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV) / Candidiasis1
4CompletedTreatmentFocal Infection, Dental1
4CompletedTreatmentVaginal Infections1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNecrotic Pulp1
4RecruitingPreventionFractures, Open / Post-Op Wound Infection1
4RecruitingPreventionObstetric Complication / Postpartum Endometritis / Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH)1
4RecruitingPreventionPost Operative Wound Infection / Post-operative wound infection / Supracondylar Humerus Fractures1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcne Vulgaris1
4RecruitingTreatmentBacterial Vaginosis (BV)1
4RecruitingTreatmentSalivary Duct1
4RecruitingTreatmentSeptic Abortion1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcne1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcne Vulgaris2
4WithdrawnPreventionComplications; Breast Prosthesis, Infection or Inflammation1
4WithdrawnTreatmentPneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAnal Fistulas1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentOrthodontic Anchorage Procedures1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentProsthetic Joint Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableBacterial Vaginosis (BV)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcne Vulgaris3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCervical Insufficiency1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentInfection caused by staphylococci1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMild to severe acne vulgaris1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentOsteoarticular Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentSnoring / Strep Throat1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThroatcarriers of MRSA1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentPartially Edentulous Jaw1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCutaneous lesions1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentPeritonsillar Abscess1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAdrenal Insufficiency / Arrhythmia / Asthma in Children / Chronic Lung Disease of Prematurity / Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) / Edema / Fibrinolysis; Hemorrhage / Heart Failure / Hemophilia Prior to Tooth Extraction / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hypermenorrhea / Hyperphosphataemia / Hypertension, Resistant to Conventional Therapy / Hypokalemia / Insomnia / Pain / Pneumonia / Primary Hyperaldosteronism / Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) / Skin-structure infections / Urinary Tract Infections in Children1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableFemale Infertility1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableGeneral Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceInflammation; Skin1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionForeskin HIV Susceptibility1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionMotility Disorders / Staphylococcus Aureus1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Breast1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAbnormal Vaginal Flora / Clindamycin Vs Metronidazole / High Risk Pregnancies for Preterm Labor1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPerioral Dermatitis1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAbscess Soft Tissue / Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infection / Skin Abscess1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAbscesses / Skin Diseases, Bacterial1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSimple Hand Lacerations1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionBisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionDentofacial Deformity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChorioamnionitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentEndometritis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHidradenitis Suppurativa (HS)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentPeriapical Diseases1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentPeritonsillar Abscess1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Accra Pac Inc.
  • Aidarex Pharmacuticals LLC
  • Ameri-Pac Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Apotheca Inc.
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • Aurobindo Pharma Ltd.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Bryant Ranch Prepack
  • Cardinal Health
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Contract Pharm
  • Corepharma LLC
  • Coria Laboratories
  • Coupler Enterprises Inc.
  • Dermik Labs
  • Direct Dispensing Inc.
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Diversified Healthcare Services Inc.
  • Dow Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • DPT Laboratories Ltd.
  • E. Fougera and Co.
  • Galderma Laboratories
  • Gallipot
  • Greenstone LLC
  • H.J. Harkins Co. Inc.
  • Heartland Repack Services LLC
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Innoviant Pharmacy Inc.
  • Inyx Usa Ltd.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Keltman Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kleen Test Products Corp.
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Lake Erie Medical and Surgical Supply
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Liberty Pharmaceuticals
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Medisca Inc.
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Novopharm Ltd.
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Nycomed Inc.
  • Ohm Laboratories Inc.
  • Paddock Labs
  • Palmetto Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Patheon Inc.
  • PCA LLC
  • PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Perrigo Co.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Pharmaderm
  • Pharmedix
  • Physician Partners Ltd.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Prepackage Specialists
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Quality Care
  • Ranbaxy Laboratories
  • Rebel Distributors Corp.
  • Redpharm Drug
  • Remedy Repack
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Sandoz
  • Sanofi-Aventis Inc.
  • Sirius Labs
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • St Mary's Medical Park Pharmacy
  • Stat Rx Usa
  • Stiefel Labs
  • Taro Pharmaceuticals USA
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
  • Ther-Rx Corp.
  • Tya Pharmaceuticals
  • UDL Laboratories
  • Unimed Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
KitTopical
GelTopical
Granule, for solutionOral75 mg/5mL
SuppositoryVaginal100 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous12 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous18 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous6 mg/1mL
KitIntravenous
KitIntramuscular; Intravenous150 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical
KitTopical10 mg/1
SwabTopical10 mg/1
GelTopical10 mg/1mL
SuspensionTopical10 mg/1mL
CapsuleOral150 mg
CapsuleOral300 mg
InjectionIntravenous150 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous300 mg/50mL
InjectionIntravenous600 mg/50mL
InjectionIntravenous900 mg/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous150 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntramuscular; Intravenous150 mg/1mL
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous150 mg/1mL
CreamTopical
LotionTopical
SolutionTopical
CapsuleOral150 mg/1
CapsuleOral300 mg/1
CapsuleOral75 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral150 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral300 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral75 mg/1
Injection, solutionIntravenous12 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous18 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous6 mg/1mL
SolutionIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionIntravenous
SolutionOral75 mg/5mL
Powder, for solutionOral75 mg/5mL
CreamVaginal20 mg/1g
GelTopical1 g/10mL
GelTopical10 mg/1g
Injection, solutionIntramuscular; Intravenous150 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous300 mg/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous600 mg/50mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous900 mg/50mL
LotionTopical10 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical10 mg/1mL
SolutionTopical11.9 mg/1mL
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous
SolutionTopical10 mg/01mL
CreamVaginal100 mg/5g
SwabTopical
Granule, for solutionOral
CreamVaginal
Aerosol, foamTopical10 mg/1g
CapsuleOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Clindagel 1% Gel 75ml Bottle324.48USD bottle
Evoclin 1% Foam 100 gm Can306.79USD can
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Foam 100 gm Can286.04USD can
Evoclin 1% Foam 50 gm Can207.67USD can
Clindagel 1% Gel 40ml Bottle203.42USD bottle
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Foam 50 gm Can186.9USD can
Clindamycin Phos-Benzoyl Perox 1-5% Gel 50 gm Jar176.42USD jar
Cleocin-T 1% Gel 60 gm Tube112.84USD tube
Cleocin-T 1% Lotion 60ml Bottle86.09USD bottle
Cleocin-T 60 1% Swab Box82.6USD box
Cleocin 2% Cream 40 gm Tube81.56USD tube
Cleocin 3 100 mg Suppository Box80.05USD box
Cleocin 75 mg/5ml Solution 100ml Bottle78.7USD bottle
Clindamycin hcl crystals74.9USD g
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Gel 60 gm Tube71.42USD tube
Cleocin-T 1% Solution 60ml Bottle69.29USD bottle
Cleocin-T 1% Gel 30 gm Tube62.98USD tube
Clindamycin Phosphate 2% Cream 40 gm Tube54.99USD tube
Clindamycin Phosphate 60 1% Swab Box47.74USD box
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Lotion 60ml Bottle46.92USD bottle
Clindesse 2% vaginal cream39.08USD g
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Gel 30 gm Tube33.41USD tube
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Solution 60ml Bottle24.07USD bottle
Clindamycin phosphate powdr21.42USD g
Clindamycin Phosphate 1% Solution 30ml Bottle14.99USD bottle
Cleocin hcl 300 mg capsule9.11USD capsule
Clindamycin phos crystals7.73USD g
Evoclin 1% foam4.9USD g
Clindagel 1% gel4.89USD ml
Cleocin 150 mg capsule4.66USD capsule
Dalacin C Phosphate 150 mg/ml4.53USD ml
Clindamycin hcl 300 mg capsule3.98USD capsule
Clindamycin phosphate 1% foam3.59USD g
Clindamycin 150 mg/ml3.48USD ml
Clindamycin (60 & 120 Ml) 150 mg/ml3.41USD ml
Cleocin hcl 150 mg capsule2.79USD capsule
Cleocin hcl 75 mg capsule2.28USD capsule
Dalacin C 300 mg Capsule2.12USD capsule
Cleocin 2% vaginal cream1.97USD g
Clindamycin 150 mg/ml addvan1.97USD ml
Cleocin phos 150 mg/ml vial1.91USD ml
Cleocin t 1% gel1.81USD g
Clindamycin ph 300 mg/2 ml vial1.74USD ml
Clindamax 2% vaginal cream1.37USD g
Clindamycin 2% vaginal cream1.27USD g
Clindamycin hcl 150 mg capsule1.21USD capsule
Clindets 1% pledgets1.1USD each
Dalacin C 150 mg Capsule1.06USD capsule
Apo-Clindamycin 300 mg Capsule1.02USD capsule
Mylan-Clindamycin 300 mg Capsule1.02USD capsule
Novo-Clindamycin 300 mg Capsule1.02USD capsule
Clindamycin ph 9 g/60 ml vial0.93USD ml
Apo-Clindamycin 150 mg Capsule0.51USD capsule
Mylan-Clindamycin 150 mg Capsule0.51USD capsule
Novo-Clindamycin 150 mg Capsule0.51USD capsule
Clinda-derm 1% solution0.4USD ml
Cleocin 900 mg-d5w-galaxy0.37USD ml
Cleocin 600 mg-d5w-galaxy0.3USD ml
Dalacin C Palmitate 15 mg/ml Solution0.14USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5266329No1993-11-302010-11-30Us
US5993856No1999-11-302017-11-17Us
US6387383No2002-05-142020-08-03Us
US7374747No2008-05-202026-08-09Us
US7141237No2006-11-282024-01-23Us
US8288434No2012-10-162029-08-05Us
US8663699No2014-03-042029-06-03Us
US8895070No2014-11-252029-06-03Us
US9078870No2015-07-142029-06-03Us
US6495157No2002-12-172020-07-20Us
US6899890No2005-05-312023-04-27Us
US9504704No2016-11-292029-06-03Us
US9561208No2017-02-072029-06-03Us
US9789057No2017-10-172026-12-02Us
US10137142No2018-11-272029-06-03Us
US10220049No2019-03-052029-06-03Us
US10624918No2009-06-032029-06-03Us
Additional Data Available
  • Filed On
    Filed On

    The date on which a patent was filed with the relevant government.

    Learn more

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)141-143CCanadian labeling
water solubilityWater solubleCanadian labeling
logP2.16HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa7.6Canadian labeling
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.76ALOGPS
logP1.04ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.55ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area102.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity105.72 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability44.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8143
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9697
Caco-2 permeable-0.8236
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7653
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7311
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7894
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8784
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8214
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6762
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8876
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9107
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6967
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9172
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.994
Rat acute toxicity2.3192 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9887
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.59
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0109100000-37670022935f2d8b670b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0000900000-93a1722f96f472875c4a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0901200000-390e3523bed2d5f929e0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-70466cfb7e0692d073a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-6bd03c57dadca1290f64
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-cd434c8b18380d1a324e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-2900000000-6c05f4179cb5bb39be52
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0000900000-94150d67f34bea64e6ad
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0901200000-8eaa211b21b0d6193e5e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-734d71b0a8760cca4fa1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-dcfb0de2ed3f9a132d0e
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-19e29af7279013b527bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-2900000000-b410c4ec9eb02ede33ba
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0109100000-41472a595b36c3659456

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as proline and derivatives. These are compounds containing proline or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of proline at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Proline and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Alpha amino acid amides / Thioglycosides / Pyrrolidinecarboxamides / Monosaccharides / N-alkylpyrrolidines / Oxanes / Monothioacetals / Trialkylamines / Secondary carboxylic acid amides / Secondary alcohols
show 10 more
Substituents
Proline or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid amide / Glycosyl compound / S-glycosyl compound / Pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or derivatives / Pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide / Monosaccharide / Oxane / N-alkylpyrrolidine / Monothioacetal
show 27 more
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
organochlorine compound, pyrrolidinecarboxamide, carbohydrate-containing antibiotic, S-glycosyl compound (CHEBI:3745)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus (strain NCTC 8325)
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
Curator comments
Note: The above was chosen as a representative target protein in a representative bacterium, and does not encompass all proteins/bacteria affected by this agent.
General Function
Binds directly to 23S rRNA. The L1 stalk is quite mobile in the ribosome, and is involved in E site tRNA release.
Specific Function
Rna binding
Gene Name
rplA
Uniprot ID
Q2G0P0
Uniprot Name
50S ribosomal protein L1
Molecular Weight
24708.165 Da
References
  1. FDA Approved Drug Products: Cleocin (clindamycin hydrochloride) oral capsules [Link]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inhibitor
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Wynalda MA, Hutzler JM, Koets MD, Podoll T, Wienkers LC: In vitro metabolism of clindamycin in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jul;31(7):878-87. doi: 10.1124/dmd.31.7.878. [PubMed:12814964]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxygen binding
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID
P20815
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A5
Molecular Weight
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Wynalda MA, Hutzler JM, Koets MD, Podoll T, Wienkers LC: In vitro metabolism of clindamycin in human liver and intestinal microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Jul;31(7):878-87. doi: 10.1124/dmd.31.7.878. [PubMed:12814964]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Functions as transport protein in the blood stream. Binds various ligands in the interior of its beta-barrel domain. Also binds synthetic drugs and influences their distribution and availability in...
Gene Name
ORM1
Uniprot ID
P02763
Uniprot Name
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1
Molecular Weight
23511.38 Da
References
  1. Health Canada Product Monograph: Clindamycin oral capsules [Link]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Curator comments
Clindamycin's has been demonstrated to be a substrate of chicken P-glycoprotein, but in vivo human data is lacking. It is unclear whether this relationship extends to human P-glycoprotein.
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Zhang Y, Huang J, Liu Y, Guo T, Wang L: Using the lentiviral vector system to stably express chicken P-gp and BCRP in MDCK cells for screening the substrates and studying the interplay of both transporters. Arch Toxicol. 2018 Jun;92(6):2027-2042. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2209-9. Epub 2018 May 3. [PubMed:29725709]
  2. Zhang Y, Guo L, Huang J, Sun Y, He F, Zloh M, Wang L: Inhibitory Effect of Berberine on Broiler P-glycoprotein Expression and Function: In Situ and In Vitro Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 22;20(8). pii: ijms20081966. doi: 10.3390/ijms20081966. [PubMed:31013627]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 03, 2020 22:11

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