Acne Vulgaris

Also known as: Acne vulgaris / Comedo / Acne NOS / Acnes / Acne

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00210AdapaleneAdapalene is a topical retinoid primarily used in the treatment of acne and is also used (off-label) to treat keratosis pilaris as well as other skin conditions. It is currently marketed by Galderma under the trade names Differin in some countries, and Adaferin in India.
DB00548Azelaic AcidAzelaic acid is a saturated dicarboxylic acid found naturally in wheat, rye, and barley. It is a natural substance that is produced by Malassezia furfur (also known as Pityrosporum ovale), a yeast that lives on normal skin. It is effective against a number of skin conditions, such as mild to moderate acne, when applied topically in a cream formulation of 20%. It works in part by stopping the growth of skin bacteria that cause acne, and by keeping skin pores clear. Azelaic acid's antimicrobial action may be attributable to inhibition of microbial cellular protein synthesis.
DB09096Benzoyl peroxideBenzoyl peroxide (BPO) is an organic compound in the peroxide family. It consists of two benzoyl groups bridged by a peroxide link. It is one of the most important organic peroxides in terms of applications. In medicine, benzoyl peroxide is used as a topical treatment for acne, either in combination with antibiotics or as a single agent. These products are available over-the-counter or by prescription in gels, creams or liquids at concentrations of 2.5%, 5% or 10%. Benzoyl peroxide is also used for bleaching flour or hair, teeth whitening, for cross-linking polyester resins, and many other chemical uses. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most important medications needed in a basic health system.
DB01190ClindamycinClindamycin is a semisynthetic lincosamide antibiotic that has largely replaced lincomycin due to an improved side effect profile. Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunits. It may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on the organism and drug concentration.
DB00250DapsoneA sulfone active against a wide range of bacteria but mainly employed for its actions against mycobacterium leprae. Its mechanism of action is probably similar to that of the sulfonamides which involves inhibition of folic acid synthesis in susceptible organisms. It is also used with pyrimethamine in the treatment of malaria. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p157-8)
DB01395DrospirenoneDrospirenone is a synthetic progestin that is an analog to spironolactone. It is found in a number of birth control formulations. Drospirenone differs from other synthetic progestins in that its pharmacological profile in preclinical studies shows it to be closer to the natural progesterone. As such it has anti-mineralocorticoid properties, counteracts the estrogen-stimulated activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and is not androgenic. It was shown in animal studies that drospirenone exhibits antiandrogenic activity judging from accessory sex gland growth in castrated, androgen-treated, juvenile rats.
DB00199ErythromycinErythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic produced by Saccharopolyspora erythraea (formerly Streptomyces erythraeus). It inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to bacterial 50S ribosomal subunits; binding inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins. Erythromycin may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal depending on the organism and drug concentration.
DB00499FlutamideAn antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
DB00635PrednisoneA synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the liver. [PubChem]
DB00634SulfacetamideAn anti-infective agent that is used topically to treat skin infections and orally for urinary tract infections. [PubChem]
DB00755TretinoinTretinoin, also known as all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), is a naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A (retinol). Retinoids such as tretinoin are important regulators of cell reproduction, proliferation, and differentiation and are used to treat acne and photodamaged skin and to manage keratinization disorders such as ichthyosis and keratosis follicularis. Tretinoin also represents the class of anticancer drugs called differentiating agents and is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
DB00620TriamcinoloneA glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
DB05294VandetanibVandetanib is an oral once-daily kinase inhibitor of tumour angiogenesis and tumour cell proliferation with the potential for use in a broad range of tumour types. On April 6 2011, vandetanib was approved by the FDA to treat nonresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in adult patients.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00210AdapaleneRetinoic acid receptor alphatarget
DB00210AdapaleneRetinoic acid receptor RXR-betatarget
DB00210AdapaleneRetinoic acid receptor gammatarget
DB00210AdapaleneRetinoic acid receptor betatarget
DB00210AdapaleneRetinoic acid receptor RXR-gammatarget
DB00210AdapaleneRetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphatarget
DB00210AdapaleneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2target
DB00548Azelaic Acid3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase 2target
DB00548Azelaic AcidDNA polymerase Itarget
DB00548Azelaic AcidThioredoxin reductasetarget
DB00548Azelaic AcidTyrosinasetarget
DB00548Azelaic Acid3-oxo-5-beta-steroid 4-dehydrogenasetarget
DB01190Clindamycin50S ribosomal protein L10target
DB01190ClindamycinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01190Clindamycin23S rRNAtarget
DB00250DapsoneInactive dihydropteroate synthase 2target
DB00250DapsoneDihydropteroate synthase 1target
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00250DapsoneDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3enzyme
DB00250DapsoneProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00250DapsoneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00250DapsoneArylamine N-acetyltransferase 2enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00250DapsoneCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB01395DrospirenoneProgesterone receptortarget
DB01395DrospirenoneMineralocorticoid receptortarget
DB01395DrospirenoneAndrogen receptortarget
DB01395DrospirenoneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB01395DrospirenoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00199Erythromycin23S rRNAtarget
DB00199ErythromycinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00199ErythromycinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00199ErythromycinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00199ErythromycinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1transporter
DB00199ErythromycinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00199ErythromycinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00199ErythromycinMotilin receptortarget
DB00199ErythromycinPotassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2target
DB00199ErythromycinSerum albumintarget
DB00199ErythromycinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00199ErythromycinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3transporter
DB00499FlutamideAndrogen receptortarget
DB00499FlutamideCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00499FlutamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00499FlutamideCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00499FlutamideCytochrome P450 1B1enzyme
DB00499FlutamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00499FlutamideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00499FlutamideAryl hydrocarbon receptortarget
DB00499FlutamideNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00635PrednisoneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00635PrednisoneMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00635PrednisoneSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2transporter
DB00635PrednisoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00635PrednisoneSerum albumincarrier
DB00635PrednisoneCorticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 1target
DB00634SulfacetamideDihydropteroate synthasetarget
DB00634SulfacetamideDihydropteroate synthase type-1target
DB00634SulfacetamideFolic acid synthesis protein FOL1target
DB00755TretinoinSerum albumincarrier
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 4A11enzyme
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor gammatarget
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor RXR-betatarget
DB00755TretinoinRetinal dehydrogenase 1target
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid-induced protein 3target
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor RXR-gammatarget
DB00755TretinoinNuclear receptor subfamily 0 group B member 1target
DB00755TretinoinRetinal dehydrogenase 2target
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor responder protein 1target
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor alphatarget
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor betatarget
DB00755TretinoinOdorant-binding protein 2atarget
DB00755TretinoinRetinol-binding protein 4target
DB00755Tretinoin[Pyruvate dehydrogenase [lipoamide]] kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrialtarget
DB00755TretinoinRetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphatarget
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 26A1target
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 26B1target
DB00755TretinoinCytochrome P450 26C1target
DB00755TretinoinHematopoietic prostaglandin D synthasetarget
DB00755TretinoinCellular retinoic acid-binding protein 1transporter
DB00755TretinoinCellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2transporter
DB00620TriamcinoloneCorticosteroid-binding globulincarrier
DB00620TriamcinoloneGlucocorticoid receptortarget
DB00620TriamcinoloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00620TriamcinoloneProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB05294VandetanibVascular endothelial growth factor Atarget
DB05294VandetanibEpidermal growth factor receptortarget
DB05294VandetanibMultidrug resistance-associated protein 1transporter
DB05294VandetanibATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB05294VandetanibProto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Rettarget
DB05294VandetanibDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 1enzyme
DB05294VandetanibDimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3enzyme
DB05294VandetanibProtein-tyrosine kinase 6target
DB05294VandetanibAngiopoietin-1 receptortarget
DB05294VandetanibAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1carrier
DB05294VandetanibSerum albumincarrier
DB05294VandetanibCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB00207Azithromycin0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00162Vitamin A0Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00855Aminolevulinic acid1Unknown Status1
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide1Completed7
DB00126Ascorbic acid1 / 2Completed1
DB01190Clindamycin1 / 2Completed1
DB00254Doxycycline1 / 2Active Not Recruiting1
DB00254Doxycycline1 / 2Unknown Status1
DB12642Olumacostat glasaretil1 / 2Completed1
DB00936Salicylic acid1 / 2Completed1
DB00855Aminolevulinic acid2Completed1
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide2Completed1
DB00083Botulinum Toxin Type A2Terminated1
DB12499Cortexolone 17α-propionate2Completed2
DB12499Cortexolone 17α-propionate2Recruiting1
DB11091Hydrogen peroxide2Recruiting1
DB12642Olumacostat glasaretil2Completed1
DB00799Tazarotene2Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00744Zileuton2Unknown Status1
DB02300Calcipotriol2 / 3Unknown Status1
DB00210Adapalene3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB00548Azelaic Acid3Completed1
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide3Completed11
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide3Not Yet Recruiting1
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide3Recruiting1
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide3Unknown Status2
DB11121Chloroxylenol3Unknown Status1
DB12499Cortexolone 17α-propionate3Enrolling by Invitation1
DB12499Cortexolone 17α-propionate3Recruiting2
DB00977Ethinyl Estradiol3Completed4
DB12642Olumacostat glasaretil3Active Not Recruiting1
DB12642Olumacostat glasaretil3Completed2
DB00548Azelaic Acid4Completed3
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide4Completed22
DB09096Benzoyl peroxide4Unknown Status1
DB01190Clindamycin4Unknown Status1
DB00755Tretinoin4Unknown Status1
DB00210AdapaleneNot AvailableCompleted4
DB09096Benzoyl peroxideNot AvailableCompleted9
DB01190ClindamycinNot AvailableCompleted1
DB04839Cyproterone acetateNot AvailableCompleted2
DB00254DoxycyclineNot AvailableCompleted1
DB00977Ethinyl EstradiolNot AvailableCompleted2