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Accession Number
DB00445  (APRD00361)
Small Molecule

An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.

  • 4'-Epiadriamycin
  • Epiadriamycin
  • Epirubicin
  • Epirubicina
  • Epirubicine
  • Epirubicinum
  • Pidorubicina
  • Pidorubicine
  • Pidorubicinum
External IDs
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Epirubicin hydrochloride22966TX7J556390-09-1MWWSFMDVAYGXBV-FGBSZODSSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
EllenceInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1999-09-15Not applicableUs
EllenceInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousPharmacia and Upjohn Company LLC1999-09-15Not applicableUs
Epirubicin for InjectionSolutionIntravenousTEVA Canada Limited2009-09-14Not applicableCanada
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousGeneraMedix, Inc.2007-11-28Not applicableUs
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution200 mg/100mLIntravenousHospira Worldwide, Inc.2006-09-152008-03-25Us
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, powder, lyophilized, for solution50 mg/25mLIntravenousHospira Worldwide, Inc.2006-09-152014-08-31Us
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousOTN Generics Inc.2008-06-11Not applicableUs
Epirubicin Hydrochloride for InjectionPowder, for solutionIntravenousHospira Healthcare Ulc2008-04-072019-01-18Canada
Epirubicin Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousMylan PharmaceuticalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Epirubicin Hydrochloride InjectionSolutionIntravenousOmega Laboratories LtdNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection2 mg/1mLIntravenousCipla Limited2007-10-222014-05-19Us
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousGreenstone, Llc1999-09-15Not applicableUs
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2017-07-31Not applicableUs
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection50 mg/25mLIntravenousMylan Institutional2013-07-312015-04-30Us
Epirubicin hydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2007-08-072010-04-30Us
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection2 mg/1mLIntravenousActavis Pharma, Inc.2011-11-28Not applicableUs
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection2 mg/1mLIntravenousAreva Pharmaceuticals,Inc.2014-05-19Not applicableUs
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection, solution200 mg/100mLIntravenousTeva Parenteral Medicines, Inc.2007-08-092017-03-31Us
Epirubicin hydrochlorideInjection, solution2 mg/1mLIntravenousBedford Pharmaceuticals2007-08-072010-04-30Us
Epirubicin HydrochlorideInjection2 mg/1mLIntravenousHikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.2007-08-07Not applicableUs
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

    Learn more
  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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International/Other Brands
Epirubicin Ebewe / Pharmorubicin
CAS number
Average: 543.5193
Monoisotopic: 543.174060775
Chemical Formula
InChI Key



For use as a component of adjuvant therapy in patients with evidence of axillary node tumor involvement following resection of primary breast cancer.

Associated Conditions

Epirubicin is an antineoplastic in the anthracycline class. General properties of drugs in this class include: interaction with DNA in a variety of different ways including intercalation (squeezing between the base pairs), DNA strand breakage and inhibition with the enzyme topoisomerase II. Most of these compounds have been isolated from natural sources and antibiotics. However, they lack the specificity of the antimicrobial antibiotics and thus produce significant toxicity. The anthracyclines are among the most important antitumor drugs available. Doxorubicin is widely used for the treatment of several solid tumors while daunorubicin and idarubicin are used exclusively for the treatment of leukemia. Epirubicin may also inhibit polymerase activity, affect regulation of gene expression, and produce free radical damage to DNA. Epirubicin possesses an antitumor effect against a wide spectrum of tumors, either grafted or spontaneous. The anthracyclines are cell cycle-nonspecific.

Mechanism of action

Epirubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity. It inhibits nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) and protein synthesis through a number of proposed mechanisms of action: Epirubicin forms complexes with DNA by intercalation between base pairs, and it inhibits topoisomerase II activity by stabilizing the DNA-topoisomerase II complex, preventing the religation portion of the ligation-religation reaction that topoisomerase II catalyzes. It also interferes with DNA replication and transcription by inhibiting DNA helicase activity.

AChromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1
UDNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

Comprehensive structured data on known drug adverse effects with statistical prevalence. MedDRA and ICD10 ids are provided for adverse effect conditions and symptoms.

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Additional Data Available

Structured data covering drug contraindications. Each contraindication describes a scenario in which the drug is not to be used. Includes restrictions on co-administration, contraindicated populations, and more.

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Additional Data Available
Blackbox Warnings

Structured data representing warnings from the black box section of drug labels. These warnings cover important and dangerous risks, contraindications, or adverse effects.

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Volume of distribution
  • 21 ± 2 L/kg [60 mg/m2 Dose]
  • 27 ± 11 L/kg [75 mg/m2 Dose]
  • 23 ± 7 L/kg [120 mg/m2 Dose]
  • 21 ± 7 L/kg [150 mg/m2 Dose]
Protein binding



Extensively and rapidly metabolized in the liver. Epirubicin is also metabolized by other organs and cells, including red blood cells. The four main metabolic routes are: (1) reduction of the C-13 keto-group with the formation of the 13(S)-dihydro derivative, epirubicinol; (2) conjugation of both the unchanged drug and epirubicinol with glucuronic acid; (3) loss of the amino sugar moiety through a hydrolytic process with the formation of the doxorubicin and doxorubicinol aglycones; and (4) loss of the amino sugar moiety through a redox process with the formation of the 7-deoxy-doxorubicin aglycone and 7-deoxy-doxorubicinol aglycone. Epirubicinol exhibits in vitro cytoxic activity (~10% that of epirubicin), but it is unlikely to reach sufficient concentrations in vivo to produce cytotoxic effects.

Route of elimination

Epirubicin and its major metabolites are eliminated through biliary excretion and, to a lesser extent, by urinary excretion.

Half life

Half-lives for the alpha, beta, and gamma phases of about 3 minutes, 2.5 hours and 33 hours, respectively

  • 65 +/- 8 L/hour [Patients1 with Solid Tumors Receiving Intravenous Epirubicin 60 mg/m2]
  • 83 +/- 14 L/hour [Patients1 with Solid Tumors Receiving Intravenous Epirubicin 75 mg/m2]
  • 65 +/- 13 L/hour [Patients1 with Solid Tumors Receiving Intravenous Epirubicin 120 mg/m2]
  • 69 +/- 13 L/hour [Patients1 with Solid Tumors Receiving Intravenous Epirubicin 150 mg/m2]

bone marrow aplasia, grade 4 mucositis, and gastrointestinal bleeding

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when (R)-warfarin is combined with Epirubicin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when (S)-Warfarin is combined with Epirubicin.
2-MethoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirubicin is combined with 2-Methoxyethanol.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when 4-hydroxycoumarin is combined with Epirubicin.
9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirubicin is combined with 9-(N-methyl-L-isoleucine)-cyclosporin A.
AbataceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirubicin is combined with Abatacept.
AbciximabThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Abciximab is combined with Epirubicin.
AbetimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirubicin is combined with Abetimus.
AcenocoumarolThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acenocoumarol is combined with Epirubicin.
AcetyldigitoxinAcetyldigitoxin may decrease the cardiotoxic activities of Epirubicin.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action

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Food Interactions
  • Drink plenty of fluids. Increased fluid intake increases urine output and the excretion of uric acid.


Synthesis Reference

Marcel van der Rijst, Johan Wilhelm Scheeren, Dick de Vos, "Process for preparing epirubicin or acid addition salts thereof from daunorubicin." U.S. Patent US5874550, issued September, 1996.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
ATC Codes
L01DB03 — Epirubicin
AHFS Codes
  • 10:00.00 — Antineoplastic Agents
FDA label
Download (92.7 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0CompletedPreventionGastro-esophageal Junction Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentEstrogen Receptor Negative / HER2/Neu Negative / Male Breast Carcinoma / Progesterone Receptor Negative / Recurrent Breast Carcinoma / Stage IV Breast Cancer / Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer3
1CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Neutropenia1
1CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Cardio-esophageal Junction of Stomach1
1CompletedTreatmentExtrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Gallbladder Cancer / Liver Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer2
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplams, Advanced / Neoplasms, Advanced1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
1CompletedTreatmentPatients With Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentUnspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific2
1RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
1RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory carcinoma of the breast1
1TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer3
1, 2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Neutropenia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer / Head and Neck Carcinoma / Liver Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentLiver Cancer1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentTriple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma / Recurrence Hepatocellular Carcinoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Luminal B / Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentT Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Gastric Adenocarcinoma1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Tumors1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms1
2Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceBreast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinomas of the Esophagogastric Junction1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer9
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHER2 Positive Breast Cancers / Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast / Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast / Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II / Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II / Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHer2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Breast1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeoadjuvant Operable Breast Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast2
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Esophageal / Stomach Neoplasms1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPleomorphic Rhabdomyosarcoma / Stage IIB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma / Stage IIB Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma / Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma / Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v71
2CompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Bladder / Ureter Neoplasms1
2CompletedPreventionNeutropenia (Grade 3 or 4) / Neutropenia, Febrile1
2CompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus1
2CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Gastric Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer18
2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Locally Advanced / Stage IIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIIB Breast Cancer / Stage IV Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentCLDN18.2-positive Adenocarcinoma of Esophagus / CLDN18.2-positive Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction / CLDN18.2-positive Gastric Adenocarcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach3
2CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentGastro Oesophageal Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentGastroesophageal Junction Neoplasms / Stomach Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentHer2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentIndividualized Chemotherapy1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
2CompletedTreatmentLiver Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL) / Poor prognosis1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas2
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach2
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentMesothelioma, Malignant1
2CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast3
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2CompletedTreatmentOvarian Cancer / Sarcomas / Small Intestine Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentPathological Response Rate1
2CompletedTreatmentPrimary Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentStomach Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentTesticular Neoplasms1
2CompletedTreatmentUnilateral HER2 Positive Breast Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentWomen With Primary Breast Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionBladder Recurrence / Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEarly Breast Cancer / Her2-Positive Breast Cancer1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Stomach Neoplasms1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentSmall Cell Lung Cancer Extensive Stage1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStage II Breast Cancer / Stage III Breast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL) / Childhood Cancers / Down Syndrome (DS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Adenocarcinomas of the Gastroesophageal Junction / Gastric Adenocarcinoma / Metastatic Esophagogastric Adenocarcinoma / Neoplasm, Gastric / Neoplasms, Esophageal / Unresectable, Locally Advanced or Metastatic, Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach, or of the Gastro Esophageal Junction1
2RecruitingTreatmentBCT Rate / PCR Rate / Safety1
2RecruitingTreatmentBRCA 1 /2 and / or HRD / Breast Cancer / HRpos Breast Neoplasms / Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms1
2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer3
2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer Stage II / Breast Cancer Stage III1
2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Nab-paclitaxel / Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy2
2RecruitingTreatmentClassical Hodgkin's Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentEstrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer / HER2-Negative Breast Cancer / Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer / Stage IIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer / Stage IIIB Breast Cancer / Stage IIIC Breast Cancer / Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory carcinoma of the breast1
2RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast3
2RecruitingTreatmentOvarian Cancer, Epithelial1
2RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral T Cell Lymphoma (PTCL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentSoft Tissue Sarcoma (STS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentTriple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
2TerminatedDiagnosticBreast Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentAdenocarcinomas of the Gastroesophageal Junction / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2TerminatedTreatmentBreast Cancer8
2TerminatedTreatmentChildhood Germ Cell Tumor / Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor / Ovarian Cancer / Testicular germ cell tumour1
2TerminatedTreatmentGerm Cell Tumors1
2TerminatedTreatmentKRAS Wild Type / Resectable Type II Gastric Adenocarcinoma1
2TerminatedTreatmentLower Oesophagus Cancer / Oesophageal Junction Cancer / Stomach Neoplasms1
2TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer2
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHER-2 Positive Breast Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentInfiltrating Duct and Lobular Carcinoma In Situ / Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma / Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas / Small Intestine Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentStage IV Gastric Cancer With Metastasis1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentTriple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentStage III Breast Cancer1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Cancer treatment / Endocrine Breast Diseases1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy / Pathological Complete Response1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Adenocarcinomas of the Gastroesophageal Junction / Esophageal Cancers1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentOesophagogastric Cancer1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAdjuvant / Cancer treatment / Neoplasms, Breast1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
3Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableBreast Cancer1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer10
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / HER2 Positive1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHER2 Positive Breast Cancers1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentTriple Negative Breast Neoplasms1
3CompletedSupportive CareBreast Cancer1
3CompletedSupportive CareGastroesophageal Cancer (GC) / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Lymphoblastic Leukaemias (ALL)1
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer38
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Chemotherapy, Adjuvant1
3CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Cancer treatment1
3CompletedTreatmentChildhood Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Bone / Sarcomas1
3CompletedTreatmentEarly Breast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentElderly Patients (>65 Years) / Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
3CompletedTreatmentEndometrial Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3CompletedTreatmentFallopian Tube Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentGallbladder Neoplasms1
3CompletedTreatmentHER2 Positive Breast Cancers / Inflammatory carcinoma of the breast / Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast / Mucinous Breast Cancer Stage II / Tubular Breast Cancer Stage II / Tubular Breast Cancer Stage III1
3CompletedTreatmentHER2/Neu Positive / Stage IA Breast Cancer / Stage IB Breast Cancer / Stage II Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentHer2 Non-overexpressing / Primary Breast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentInflammatory carcinoma of the breast1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach2
3CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentNasopharyngeal Carcinoma1
3CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast2
3CompletedTreatmentPrimary Breast Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentSmall Cell Lung Carcinoma, Extensive Disease1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentNasopharyngeal Carcinoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Oesophago-gastric Junction / Adenocarcinoma of the Oesophagus / Junctional Tumours / Malignant Neoplasm of Esophagus / Oesophageal Tumours1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer4
3RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Breast Cancer Model / Effects of Chemotherapy1
3RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Her2-Positive Breast Cancer / Neoplasms, Breast / Stage II Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma / Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus1
3RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory carcinoma of the breast / Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma / Mucinous Breast Cancer / Tubular Breast Carcinoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentInvasive Duct Carcinoma of Breast / Mucinous Breast Cancer / Tubular Breast Carcinoma1
3RecruitingTreatmentLocalized High-risk Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities and Trunk Wall in Adults1
3RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)2
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach / Stomach Neoplasms1
3RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
3RecruitingTreatmentTriple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)2
3TerminatedTreatmentBreast Cancer4
3TerminatedTreatmentLocally Advanced Unresectable Gastric Cancer / Metastatic Gastric Cancers1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
3TerminatedTreatmentMalignant Soft Tissue / Rhabdomyosarcomas1
3TerminatedTreatmentOesophago-gastric Cancer1
3Unknown StatusDiagnosticBreast Cancer1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer9
3Unknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer / Cardiac Toxicity / Perioperative/Postoperative Complications1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCancer, Bladder1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCarcinoma of Unknown Primary1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentEsophageal Cancers1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentLung Cancers2
4CompletedPreventionCarcinoma of Urinary Bladder, Superficial1
4CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatment0.5-14 Year Old Children With Nephroblastoma1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer2
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma / Neoplastic Cells, Circulating1
4RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer2
4RecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
4RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer1
4RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableMalignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableNeoplasms, Breast1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAdenocarcinoma of the Breast / Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Early Breast Cancer / Stage II Breast Cancer / Stage IIIA Breast Cancer1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer / Breast Diseases / Neoplasms, Breast1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentUrinary Bladder Neoplasms1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableBiliary Tract Cancer / Colo-rectal Cancer / Esophageal Cancers / Gall Bladder Cancer / Liver Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer Nos Premenopausal1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentTriple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentEsophageal Cancers / Malignant Neoplasm of Stomach1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBreast Cancer2
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentBreast Cancer1


  • Pfizer inc
  • Actavis totowa llc
  • Akorn inc
  • App pharmaceuticals llc
  • Bedford laboratories div ben venue laboratories inc
  • Bioniche pharma usa llc
  • Ebewe pharma ges mbh nfg kg
  • Fresenius kabi oncology plc
  • Hospira inc
  • Teva parenteral medicines inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • X gen pharmaceuticals inc
  • APP Pharmaceuticals
  • Bedford Labs
  • Ben Venue Laboratories Inc.
  • Cipla Ltd.
  • Ebewe Pharma
  • Ethex Corp.
  • Fresenius Kabi AB
  • Generamedix Inc.
  • Greenstone LLC
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Intas Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
  • Otn Generics Inc.
  • Pfizer Inc.
  • Pharmacia Inc.
  • Sagent Pharmaceuticals
  • Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
Dosage forms
InjectionIntravenous2 mg/1mL
InjectionIntravenous200 mg/100mL
InjectionIntravenous50 mg/25mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous200 mg/100mL
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous50 mg/25mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous2 mg/1mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous200 mg/100mL
Injection, solutionIntravenous50 mg/25mL
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Epirubicin hcl 200 mg vial2845.85USD vial
Epirubicin hcl 50 mg vial69.54USD vial
Ellence 2 mg/ml vial5.38USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Not Available


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)344.53 °CNot Available
water solubility0.093 mg/mlNot Available
logP-0.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.18 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.53ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count12ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area206.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity134.59 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability53.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8092
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9951
Caco-2 permeable-0.799
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7861
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8382
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9053
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8042
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5888
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9209
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8911
Ames testAMES toxic0.9198
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9672
Rat acute toxicity2.6644 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9752
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7195
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , PositiveLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0002-0309010000-24e2012ac5fb139c1f97


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as anthracyclines. These are polyketides containing a tetracenequinone ring structure with a sugar attached by glycosidic linkage.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Phenylpropanoids and polyketides
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Tetracenequinones / Aminoglycosides / Anthraquinones / Hexoses / O-glycosyl compounds / Tetralins / Anisoles / Aryl ketones / Alkyl aryl ethers / Oxanes
show 13 more
Anthracycline / Anthracyclinone-skeleton / Aminoglycoside core / Tetracenequinone / 9,10-anthraquinone / 1,4-anthraquinone / Anthracene / Hexose monosaccharide / Glycosyl compound / O-glycosyl compound
show 33 more
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
quinone, monosaccharide derivative, anthracycline antibiotic, aminoglycoside, deoxy hexoside, anthracycline (CHEBI:47898)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Methylated histone binding
Specific Function
ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor which functions as substrate recognition component of the transcription regulatory histone acetylation (HAT) complex SAGA. Regulates polymerase II transcri...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1
Molecular Weight
196685.865 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segr...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha
Molecular Weight
174383.88 Da
  1. Petit T, Wilt M, Velten M, Millon R, Rodier JF, Borel C, Mors R, Haegele P, Eber M, Ghnassia JP: Comparative value of tumour grade, hormonal receptors, Ki-67, HER-2 and topoisomerase II alpha status as predictive markers in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Eur J Cancer. 2004 Jan;40(2):205-11. [PubMed:14728934]
  2. Knoop AS, Knudsen H, Balslev E, Rasmussen BB, Overgaard J, Nielsen KV, Schonau A, Gunnarsdottir K, Olsen KE, Mouridsen H, Ejlertsen B: retrospective analysis of topoisomerase IIa amplifications and deletions as predictive markers in primary breast cancer patients randomly assigned to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, and fluorouracil: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct 20;23(30):7483-90. [PubMed:16234514]
  3. Liang CH, Shiu LY, Chang LC, Sheu HM, Kuo KW: Solamargine upregulation of Fas, downregulation of HER2, and enhancement of cytotoxicity using epirubicin in NSCLC cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Aug;51(8):999-1005. [PubMed:17639997]
Pharmacological action
DNA is the molecule of heredity, as it is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits. It is a polynucleic acid that carries genetic information on cell growth, division, and function. DNA consists of two long strands of nucleotides twisted into a double helix and held together by hydrogen bonds. The sequence of nucleotides determines hereditary characteristics. Each strand serves as the template for subsequent DNA replication and as a template for mRNA production, leading to protein synthesis via ribosomes.
  1. Ganzina F: 4'-epi-doxorubicin, a new analogue of doxorubicin: a preliminary overview of preclinical and clinical data. Cancer Treat Rev. 1983 Mar;10(1):1-22. [PubMed:6342772]
  2. Williams LD, Frederick CA, Ughetto G, Rich A: Ternary interactions of spermine with DNA: 4'-epiadriamycin and other DNA: anthracycline complexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Sep 25;18(18):5533-41. [PubMed:2216725]
  3. Podell ER, Harrington DJ, Taatjes DJ, Koch TH: Crystal structure of epidoxorubicin-formaldehyde virtual crosslink of DNA and evidence for its formation in human breast-cancer cells. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 1999 Sep;55(Pt 9):1516-23. [PubMed:10489446]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific Function
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol su...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7
Molecular Weight
60694.12 Da
  1. Innocenti F, Iyer L, Ramirez J, Green MD, Ratain MJ: Epirubicin glucuronidation is catalyzed by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7. Drug Metab Dispos. 2001 May;29(5):686-92. [PubMed:11302935]
  2. Zaya MJ, Hines RN, Stevens JC: Epirubicin glucuronidation and UGT2B7 developmental expression. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Dec;34(12):2097-101. Epub 2006 Sep 19. [PubMed:16985101]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Phospholipase a2 activity
Specific Function
Selectively hydrolyzes arachidonyl phospholipids in the sn-2 position releasing arachidonic acid. Together with its lysophospholipid activity, it is implicated in the initiation of the inflammatory...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytosolic phospholipase A2
Molecular Weight
85238.2 Da
  1. Grataroli R, Leonardi J, Chautan M, Lafont H, Nalbone G: Effect of anthracyclines on phospholipase A2 activity and prostaglandin E2 production in rat gastric mucosa. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 Aug 3;46(3):349-55. [PubMed:8347160]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates export of organic anions and drugs from the cytoplasm. Mediates ATP-dependent transport of glutathione and glutathione conjugates, leukotriene C4, estradiol-17-beta-o-glucuronide, methotre...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1
Molecular Weight
171589.5 Da
  1. Godinot N, Iversen PW, Tabas L, Xia X, Williams DC, Dantzig AH, Perry WL 3rd: Cloning and functional characterization of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1/ABCC1) from the cynomolgus monkey. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Mar;2(3):307-16. [PubMed:12657726]
  2. Nunoya K, Grant CE, Zhang D, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterization of rat multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1). Drug Metab Dispos. 2003 Aug;31(8):1016-26. [PubMed:12867490]
  3. Stride BD, Grant CE, Loe DW, Hipfner DR, Cole SP, Deeley RG: Pharmacological characterization of the murine and human orthologs of multidrug-resistance protein in transfected human embryonic kidney cells. Mol Pharmacol. 1997 Sep;52(3):344-53. [PubMed:9281595]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 20, 2020 17:09