Acetylsalicylic acid
Commonly known or available as Aspirin
Accession Number
DB00945  (APRD00264, EXPT00475)
Small Molecule
Approved, Vet approved

The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)

  • 2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid
  • 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid
  • Acetylsalicylate
  • Acetylsalicylsäure
  • acide 2-(acétyloxy)benzoïque
  • acide acétylsalicylique
  • ácido acetilsalicílico
  • Acidum acetylsalicylicum
  • ASA
  • Aspirin
  • Aspirina
  • Azetylsalizylsäure
  • o-acetoxybenzoic acid
  • O-acetylsalicylic acid
  • o-carboxyphenyl acetate
  • Polopiryna
  • salicylic acid acetate
External IDs
BAY1019036 / NSC-27223 / NSC-406186
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DurlazaCapsule, extended release162.5 mg/1OralNew Haven Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-09-25Not applicableUs
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
365 Everyday Value AspirinTablet, film coated325 mg/1OralWhole Foods Market, Inc.2018-08-23Not applicableUs
7 Select Adult Chewable AspirinTablet, chewable81 mg/1Oral7 Eleven2014-08-052017-08-09Us
7 Select AspirinTablet, film coated325 mg/1Oral7-Eleven2014-08-05Not applicableUs
81 mg Low Dose AspirinTablet81 mg/1OralBig Lots Stores, Inc.2008-02-122013-06-25Us
A.S.A.Tablet325 mgOralD.C. Labs Limited2001-05-282005-07-19Canada
A.S.A.Tablet500 mgOralD.C. Labs Limited2001-12-222005-07-19Canada
A.S.A. (acetylsalicylic Acid) Tab 325mg USPTablet325 mgOralAccurex Health Care Manufacturing Inc.1996-12-312003-01-28Canada
A.S.A. 325 Mg TabletTablet325 mgOralJamp Pharma Corporation2003-10-16Not applicableCanada
A.S.A. 80mg Acetylsalicylic Acid TabletsTablet80 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1995-12-312002-07-31Canada
A.S.A. Enteric Coated Tab 325mgTablet, delayed release325 mgOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1987-12-312004-07-26Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
10 Person ANSIAcetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Lidocaine (0.5 1/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-24Not applicableUs
217Acetylsalicylic acid (325 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1910-12-311998-04-21Canada
217 Strong TabAcetylsalicylic acid (500 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1973-12-311998-04-21Canada
222 TabletsAcetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Codeine phosphate (8 mg)TabletOralMcneil Consumer Healthcare Division Of Johnson & Johnson Inc1951-12-312015-08-17Canada
25 Person ANSIAcetylsalicylic acid (325 mg/1) + Acetaminophen (325 mg/1) + Bacitracin zinc (400 [iU]/1g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.13 g/100g) + Benzalkonium chloride (0.40 mL/100mL) + Benzocaine (6 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (60 mL/100mL) + Ethanol (62 g/100g) + Ibuprofen (200 mg/1) + Isopropyl alcohol (70 mL/100mL) + Lidocaine (0.5 g/100g) + Neomycin sulfate (5 mg/1g) + Polymyxin B sulfate (5000 [iU]/1g) + Water (98.6 mL/100mL)KitGenuine First Aid2010-04-25Not applicableUs
282 Mep TabAcetylsalicylic acid (350 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Codeine phosphate (15 mg) + Meprobamate (200 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1959-12-311998-08-14Canada
282 TabAcetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Codeine phosphate (15 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1951-12-311998-04-21Canada
282 TabletsAcetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Codeine phosphate (15 mg)TabletOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1998-11-01Not applicableCanada
292 TabAcetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Codeine phosphate (30 mg)TabletOralMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1951-12-311998-08-14Canada
292 TabletsAcetylsalicylic acid (375 mg) + Caffeine citrate (30 mg) + Codeine phosphate (30 mg)TabletOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc1998-10-01Not applicableCanada
International/Other Brands
Acenterine / Acetophen (Merck) / Adiro / Aspergum / Aspro / Bayer Aspirin (Bayer HealthCare LLC.) / Easprin / Empirin / Nu-seals / Rhodine / Rhonal / Solprin / Solprin acid / St. Joseph Aspirin for Adults / Tasprin
CAS number
Average: 180.1574
Monoisotopic: 180.042258744
Chemical Formula
InChI Key
2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid



For use in the temporary relief of various forms of pain, inflammation associated with various conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), and is also used to reduce the risk of death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with a previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris.

Associated Conditions

Acetylsalicylic acid is an analgesic, antipyretic, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid's mode of action as an antiinflammatory and antirheumatic agent may be due to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid appears to produce analgesia by virtue of both a peripheral and CNS effect. Peripherally, acetylsalicylic acid acts by inhibiting the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acting centrally, it would appear to produce analgesia at a hypothalamic site in the brain, although the mode of action is not known. Acetylsalicylic acid also acts on the hypothalamus to produce antipyresis; heat dissipation is increased as a result of vasodilation and increased peripheral blood flow. Acetylsalicylic acid's antipyretic activity may also be related to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins.

Mechanism of action

The analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of acetylsalicylic acid are due to actions by both the acetyl and the salicylate portions of the intact molecule as well as by the active salicylate metabolite. Acetylsalicylic acid directly and irreversibly inhibits the activity of both types of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) to decrease the formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. This makes acetylsalicylic acid different from other NSAIDS (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen) which are reversible inhibitors. Salicylate may competitively inhibit prostaglandin formation. Acetylsalicylic acid's antirheumatic (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) actions are a result of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms; the therapeutic effects are not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. The platelet aggregation-inhibiting effect of acetylsalicylic acid specifically involves the compound's ability to act as an acetyl donor to cyclooxygenase; the nonacetylated salicylates have no clinically significant effect on platelet aggregation. Irreversible acetylation renders cyclooxygenase inactive, thereby preventing the formation of the aggregating agent thromboxane A2 in platelets. Since platelets lack the ability to synthesize new proteins, the effects persist for the life of the exposed platelets (7-10 days). Acetylsalicylic acid may also inhibit production of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2), by blood vessel endothelial cells; however, inhibition prostacyclin production is not permanent as endothelial cells can produce more cyclooxygenase to replace the non-functional enzyme.

AProstaglandin G/H synthase 1
AProstaglandin G/H synthase 2
UAldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1
U5'-AMP-activated protein kinase
UEndothelin-1 receptor
UInhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta
UCellular tumor antigen p53
U78 kDa glucose-regulated protein
URibosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3
UNF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
UNuclear factor NF-kappa-B

Absorption is generally rapid and complete following oral administration but may vary according to specific salicylate used, dosage form, and other factors such as tablet dissolution rate and gastric or intraluminal pH.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

High (99.5%) to albumin. Decreases as plasma salicylate concentration increases, with reduced plasma albumin concentration or renal dysfunction, and during pregnancy.


Acetylsalicylic acid is rapidly hydrolyzed primarily in the liver to salicylic acid, which is conjugated with glycine (forming salicyluric acid) and glucuronic acid and excreted largely in the urine.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

The plasma half-life is approximately 15 minutes; that for salicylate lengthens as the dose increases: doses of 300 to 650 mg have a half-life of 3.1 to 3.2 hours; with doses of 1 gram, the half-life is increased to 5 hours and with 2 grams it is increased to about 9 hours.

Not Available

Oral, mouse: LD50 = 250 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 1010 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 200 mg/kg. Effects of overdose include: tinnitus, abdominal pain, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, pyrexia, hyperventilation, dysrhythmia, hypotension, hallucination, renal failure, confusion, seizure, coma, and death.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Acetylsalicylic Acid Action PathwayDrug action
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*3(A;C) / (C;C)C AlleleEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have reduced metabolism of acetylsalicylic acid.Details
Leukotriene C4 synthase---(A;C) / (C;C)C alleleADR Directly StudiedThe presence of this genotype in LTC4S may indicate an increased risk of chronic urticaria when treated with acetylsalicylic acid.Details
Integrin beta-3GPIIIa PlA2(C;C) / (C;T)T > CEffect Directly StudiedPatients with this genotype have increased resistance to the anti-thrombotic effects of aspirin.Details
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*6Not Available818delAEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*15Not Available485C>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*25Not Available353_362delAGAAATGGAAEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*35Not Available374G>T / 430C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*2Not Available430C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*4Not Available1076T>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*5Not Available1080C>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*8Not Available449G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*11Not Available1003C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*12Not Available1465C>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*13Not Available269T>CEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*14Not Available374G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*16Not Available895A>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*18Not Available1075A>C / 1190A>C  … show all Effect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*26Not Available389C>GEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*28Not Available641A>TEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*30Not Available1429G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails
Cytochrome P450 2C9CYP2C9*33Not Available395G>AEffect InferredPoor drug metabolizer, lower dose requirementsDetails


Drug Interactions
(1,2,6,7-3H)TestosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when used in combination with (1,2,6,7-3H)Testosterone.
(R)-warfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinThe risk or severity of bleeding can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with (S)-Warfarin.
1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic AcidThe risk or severity of renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with 1-(3-Mercapto-2-Methyl-Propionyl)-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid.
1-benzylimidazoleThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with 1-benzylimidazole.
1-TestosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when used in combination with 1-Testosterone.
18-methyl-19-nortestosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when used in combination with 18-methyl-19-nortestosterone.
2,4-thiazolidinedioneAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of hypertension can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
Food Interactions
  • Avoid alcohol, alcohol appears to cause a 50 to 100% increases in ASA serum levels.
  • Take with a full glass of water.
  • Take with food to reduce gastric irritation.


Synthesis Reference

Marino Gobetti, Guido Vandoni, "Acetylsalicylic acid thioesters, a process for their preparation and pharmaceutical compositions containing them." U.S. Patent US4563443, issued March, 1981.

General References
  1. Macdonald S: Aspirin use to be banned in under 16 year olds. BMJ. 2002 Nov 2;325(7371):988. [PubMed:12411346]
  2. Sneader W: The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal. BMJ. 2000 Dec 23-30;321(7276):1591-4. [PubMed:11124191]
  3. Aukerman G, Knutson D, Miser WF: Management of the acute migraine headache. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Dec 1;66(11):2123-30. [PubMed:12484694]
  4. Authors unspecified: Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1988 Aug 13;2(8607):349-60. [PubMed:2899772]
  5. Dorsch MP, Lee JS, Lynch DR, Dunn SP, Rodgers JE, Schwartz T, Colby E, Montague D, Smyth SS: Aspirin resistance in patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without a history of myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 May;41(5):737-41. Epub 2007 Apr 24. [PubMed:17456544]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
KEGG Compound
PubChem Compound
PubChem Substance
Therapeutic Targets Database
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList Drug Page Drug Page
PDRhealth Drug Page
ATC Codes
N02BA01 — Acetylsalicylic acidB01AC06 — Acetylsalicylic acidC10BX05 — Rosuvastatin and acetylsalicylic acidN02BA51 — Acetylsalicylic acid, combinations excl. psycholepticsC10BX04 — Simvastatin, acetylsalicylic acid and ramiprilC10BX01 — Simvastatin and acetylsalicylic acidM01BA03 — Acetylsalicylic acid and corticosteroidsN02BA71 — Acetylsalicylic acid, combinations with psycholepticsC10BX02 — Pravastatin and acetylsalicylic acidB01AC56 — Acetylsalicylic acid, combinations with proton pump inhibitorsC10BX08 — Atorvastatin and acetylsalicylic acidC10BX06 — Atorvastatin, acetylsalicylic acid and ramiprilA01AD05 — Acetylsalicylic acid
AHFS Codes
  • 28:08.04.24 — Salicylates
PDB Entries
1oxr / 1tgm / 2qqt / 3gcl / 3iaz / 4nsb
FDA label
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceAdenocarcinoma of the Lung / Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Recurrent / Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / Stage IIIb Non-small Cell Lung Cancer1
0CompletedBasic ScienceBMI >30 kg/m2 / Infertility, Female1
0CompletedBasic ScienceBreast Cancer Survivors1
0CompletedBasic ScienceCoronary Artery Disease1
0CompletedBasic ScienceSleeplessness1
0CompletedSupportive CareMalignancies / Tumors, Solid1
0CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
0CompletedTreatmentOverheating / Tiredness1
0CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
0Enrolling by InvitationBasic ScienceDietary Modifications / Nutrition1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionFracture, Ankle1
0Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
0Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentFallopian Tube Cancer / Fallopian Tube Infection1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceCancer of the Ovary1
0RecruitingBasic ScienceInflammatory Reaction / Inflammatory Responses / Sleep / Sleep Restriction1
0RecruitingHealth Services ResearchClinical High Risk for Psychosis1
0RecruitingTreatmentAntiphospholipid Syndrome in Pregnancy / Pregnancy Loss1
0RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
0Unknown StatusNot AvailableCoronary Angiography1
0Unknown StatusTreatmentAngiogenesis / Cancer, Breast1
1Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
1Active Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacodynamic Interaction1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers / Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Interaction1
1CompletedNot AvailablePeptic Ulcer Disease1
1CompletedNot AvailablePlatelet Inhibition1
1CompletedNot AvailableUlcers / Upper GI Symptoms1
1CompletedNot AvailableThrombotic events1
1CompletedBasic ScienceAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)2
1CompletedBasic ScienceDrug Drug Interaction (DDI)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceInhibition on Platelet Aggregation1
1CompletedBasic ScienceThe Focus of the Study is to Monitor MRI Signal Changes and Inflammatory Biomarkers With Use of Aspirin in Patients With Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm1
1CompletedBasic ScienceThrombotic events1
1CompletedOtherInflammatory Reaction1
1CompletedOtherJapanese Healthy Adult Male1
1CompletedOtherModerate Pain1
1CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
1CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedScreeningAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)2
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
1CompletedTreatmentAdverse Effect of Antithrombotic Drugs1
1CompletedTreatmentAntiplatelet Effect1
1CompletedTreatmentAspirin Resistance / Pharmacological Aspirin Non-responsiveness1
1CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
1CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemia (Fredrickson Type Ⅱa) / Mixed hypercholesterolemia1
1CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers14
1CompletedTreatmentHematology / Pain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm1
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS1
1CompletedTreatmentPain NOS / Pharmacology, Clinical1
1CompletedTreatmentPlasma Cell Myeloma1
1CompletedTreatmentPrecancerous Conditions1
1CompletedTreatmentSickle Cell Disorders1
1CompletedTreatmentUlcers, Duodenal and Gastric2
1CompletedTreatmentThrombotic events1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdenocarcinoma Of Esophagus / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) / Tumors, Solid1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Infarctions1
1RecruitingPreventionBreast Cancer Prevention / Mammographic Density1
1RecruitingTreatmentBladder Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma / Castration-Resistant Prostate Carcinoma / Metastatic Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma / Metastatic Urethral Urothelial Carcinoma / Prostate Carcinoma Metastatic in the Bone / Prostate Neuroendocrine Neoplasm / Prostate Small Cell Carcinoma / Stage III Bladder Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage III Urethral Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Bladder Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Prostate Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IV Urethral Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVA Bladder Cancer AJCC v8 / Stage IVB Bladder Cancer AJCC v8 / Transitional Cell Carcinoma / Ureter Small Cell Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
1RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentSolid Tumor, Adult1
1TerminatedNot AvailablePeptic Ulcer Disease1
1TerminatedScreeningAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
1Unknown StatusTreatmentStrokes1
1WithdrawnTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
1WithdrawnTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
1, 2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease Risk in HIV Patients / Endothelial Function1
1, 2CompletedPreventionUpper Gastrointestinal Mucosal Damage1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentIncreased Drug Resistance1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)2
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentBleeding / Hemorrhage1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Triple Negative Breast Cancer1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM) / Plasma Cell Neoplasms1
2Active Not RecruitingOtherAlpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency / Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Emphysema1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionAdenomatous Polyps1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionBarrett Esophagus-Negative for Dysplasia / Dysplasia in Barrett Esophagus / Esophagus, Barrett1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionColorectal Cancers1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionCurrent Every Day Smoker / Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / Pulmonary Nodules / Tobacco Smoking Behavior / Tobacco Use Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingPreventionCurrent Smokers / Former Smoker / Multiple Pulmonary Nodules / Pulmonary Nodules / Solitary Pulmonary Nodules / Tobacco Use Disorders1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage I Prostate Cancer / Stage IIA Prostate Cancer / Stage IIB Prostate Cancer / Stage III Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedBasic ScienceSkeletal Muscle Mass Regulation1
2CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers / Platelet Function1
2CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
2CompletedPreventionAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
2CompletedPreventionAneurysm, Coronary / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Diseases / Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Stenosis / Cerebral Arteriosclerosis / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Stenosis / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Inflammatory Reaction1
2CompletedPreventionEsophageal Cancers / Esophagus, Barrett1
2CompletedPreventionHIV-infected Patients1
2CompletedPreventionIntrauterine Growth Retardation / Preeclampsia / Premature Births / Small for Gestational Age / Very Low Birth Weight Infant1
2CompletedPreventionLung, Carcinoma / Tobacco Use Disorders1
2CompletedPreventionPersistent or Permanent Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation1
2CompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)2
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD)1
2CompletedTreatmentBleeding Complication1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Coronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentGastroduodenal Ulcerations1
2CompletedTreatmentGingival Inflammation / Inflammatory Reaction / Periodontitis1
2CompletedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Thromboembolism1
2CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
2CompletedTreatmentHigh Risk Essential Thrombocythemia / High Risk Polycythemia Vera1
2CompletedTreatmentInfection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I3
2CompletedTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Restriction1
2CompletedTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Restriction Asymmetrical1
2CompletedTreatmentLupus / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
2CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer / Metastatic Differentiated Thyroid Cancer / Metastatic Medullary Thyroid Cancer / Metastatic Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentMinor Ischemic Stroke / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
2CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
2CompletedTreatmentPlacental Insufficiency1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative Dysfunction Following Cardiac Surgery1
2CompletedTreatmentPostoperative; Dysfunction Following Cardiac Surgery1
2CompletedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2CompletedTreatmentStable Angina (SA)1
2CompletedTreatmentStable Coronary Artery Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
2CompletedTreatmentTuberculous Meningitis1
2CompletedTreatmentThrombotic events1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionCessation, Smoking / Diet Modification / Inflammatory Reaction / Lung Cancers / Physical Activity1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer / EGFR T790M / Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Stage IIIB2
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEstrogen Receptor Negative / HER2/Neu Negative / Metastatic Breast Cancer (MBC) / Progesterone Receptor Negative / Recurrent Breast Carcinoma / Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC)1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentInflammatory Reaction / Intracranial Aneurysms1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Restriction1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNasopharyngeal Carcinoma1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceAsthma Bronchial / Electrophilic Fatty Acids1
2RecruitingBasic ScienceCirculating Tumor Cells / Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition1
2RecruitingPreventionAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS) / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2RecruitingPreventionAcute Lung Injury (ALI)1
2RecruitingPreventionColorectal Adenomas1
2RecruitingPreventionColorectal Cancer Liver Metastases / Colorectal Cancers / Hepatic Metastases1
2RecruitingPreventionHigh Risk Pregnancies1
2RecruitingPreventionOvarian Cancer Prevention1
2RecruitingPreventionPreeclampsia Postpartum1
2RecruitingPreventionTertiary Prevention in Colon Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcoustic Schwannoma / Neurofibromatosis 2 / Vestibular Schwannomas1
2RecruitingTreatmentAspirin / Cognitive Decline / Cutaneous lesions / Epilepsies / Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentCarotid Artery Stenosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentCervical Cancers / Endometrial Cancers / Uterine Malignancies1
2RecruitingTreatmentChemoradiation / Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm / Rectal Cancer, Adenocarcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentCritical Illness1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepression / Depressive Disorders / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) / Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD)1
2RecruitingTreatmentIntracerebral Hemorrhage / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation2
2RecruitingTreatmentNasal Cavity Adenocarcinoma / Nasal Cavity Tumor / Paranasal Sinus Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentNeoplasms, Ovarian1
2RecruitingTreatmentPolycythemia Vera (PV)1
2RecruitingTreatmentStage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v71
2RecruitingTreatmentVenous Thromboembolism (VTE) / Wounds and Injuries1
2TerminatedPreventionColorectal Cancers1
2TerminatedPreventionElevated LDL Cholesterol2
2TerminatedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
2TerminatedTreatmentPulmonary Hypertension (PH)1
2TerminatedTreatmentVenous Leg Ulcer (VLU)1
2Unknown StatusNot AvailableCoronary Arteriosclerosis1
2Unknown StatusPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Colon / Precancerous Conditions / Rectal Carcinoma1
2Unknown StatusPreventionNeoplasms, Breast1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentPolycythemia Vera (PV)1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionAdenoma benign / Colorectal Cancers / Polyps1
2, 3CompletedPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Stable Angina (SA) / Stable Coronary Artery Disease With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIdiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentImmunoregulation / Inflammatory Reaction / Strokes / Vinpocetine1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Strokes1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCancer, Breast1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2, 3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma in Relapse / Multiple Myeloma Progression / Multiple Myeloma Stage I / Multiple Myeloma Stage II / Multiple Myeloma Stage III / Multiple Myeloma With Failed Remission1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Exacerbation of Psychosis / Psychosis / Schizophrenic Disorders1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentChagas Disease1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPeriodontitis, Aggressive1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentPeriodontitis, Aggressive / Residual Disease1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Pregnancy Losses1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Deep Venous Thrombosis / Pulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCerebral Infarctions / Strokes / Transient ischemia attacks1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentCritical Limb Ischemia (CLI)1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentStroke, Ischemic / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)2
3Active Not RecruitingDiagnosticAortic Valve Stenosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Heart Valve Diseases / Thrombotic events / Ventricular Outflow Obstruction1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Fracture Bone / Malignancies1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionEsophageal Cancers / Precancerous Conditions1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionPrevention & Control1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetic Patients1
3CompletedPreventionAcute Ischaemic Stroke / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3CompletedPreventionAngina Pectoris / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedPreventionAtrial Septal Aneurysm / Migraine / Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) / Stroke, Ischemic1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia2
3CompletedPreventionCerebral Infarctions2
3CompletedPreventionCerebrovascular Accidents1
3CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers1
3CompletedPreventionHeart Diseases / Ischaemic Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
3CompletedPreventionModerate Risk of CVD1
3CompletedPreventionNoncardioembolic Cerebral Infarction1
3CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation2
3CompletedPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Vascular Risk1
3CompletedPreventionPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thromboembolism / Thrombosis, Venous / Thrombotic events / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3CompletedPreventionPulmonary Embolism (PE) / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3CompletedPreventionRecurrent Abortion1
3CompletedPreventionRenal Failure1
3CompletedPreventionSecondary Preventions / Strokes1
3CompletedPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3CompletedPreventionTranscatheter Aortic Valve Replacement1
3CompletedPreventionVenous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
3CompletedSupportive CareHealthy Volunteers1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Disease / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Migraine1
3CompletedTreatmentAntioxidant Enzyme System / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentAspirin-Associated Gastric Ulcers1
3CompletedTreatmentBack Pain Lower Back1
3CompletedTreatmentBipolar Disorder Depression1
3CompletedTreatmentBlindness / Retinopathy, Diabetic1
3CompletedTreatmentCarotid Artery Dissection / Cervical Artery Dissection / Strokes / Vertebral Artery Dissection1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Accidents / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentCerebrovascular Diseases / Cerebrovascular Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Coronary Artery Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease2
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Renal Insufficiency,Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentDrugs, Investigational2
3CompletedTreatmentGastric Ulcer (GU)2
3CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
3CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Risk Essential Thrombocythemia / High Risk Polycythemia Vera1
3CompletedTreatmentMigraine Disorders2
3CompletedTreatmentMucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentNeurological Impairments / Stroke, Acute1
3CompletedTreatmentNewly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma1
3CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention2
3CompletedTreatmentOsteoarthritis (OA) / Peptic Ulcers1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Pharyngitis / Tonsillitis1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Pharyngitis1
3CompletedTreatmentPlatelet Function Test1
3CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
3CompletedTreatmentVenous Leg Ulcer (VLU)1
3CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionAcute Chest Syndrome1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionBleeding / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHemorrhage / Thrombotic events1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionLynch Syndrome I (Site-specific Colonic Cancer)1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPre-Gestational Diabetes1
3Not Yet RecruitingPreventionRheumatic Heart Disease1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEndovascular Procedures / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEsophageal Cancers1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIntracranial Atherosclerosis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Acute / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentUncontrolled Asthma1
3RecruitingBasic ScienceHypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy1
3RecruitingOtherCancer, Breast / Colorectal Cancers / Gastro-oesophageal Cancer / Malignancies / Prostate Cancer1
3RecruitingPreventionAtrial High Rate Episodes1
3RecruitingPreventionBlood Clots / Traumas1
3RecruitingPreventionPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3RecruitingPreventionUnruptured Intracranial Aneurysms1
3RecruitingPreventionThrombotic events1
3RecruitingTreatmentAbortion in First Trimester1
3RecruitingTreatmentAcute Ischaemic Stroke1
3RecruitingTreatmentAdjuvant Therapy / Malignant Neoplasm of Colon1
3RecruitingTreatmentCarotid Artery Occlusion / Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion / Strokes1
3RecruitingTreatmentCentral Retinal Artery Occlusion1
3RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Aneurysms1
3RecruitingTreatmentCervical Cancers1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Heart Attacks / Stroke, Ischemic1
3RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers2
3RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentEmbolic Stroke / Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source1
3RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
3RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon2
3RecruitingTreatmentNode Positive HER2 Negative Breast Cancer1
3RecruitingTreatmentOsteonecrosis of Femoral Head / Osteonecrosis; Aseptic, Idiopathic1
3RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
3RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3RecruitingTreatmentStroke, Acute1
3SuspendedPreventionProphylaxis of preeclampsia1
3TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cerebral Infarctions / Constriction, Pathologic / Strokes1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
3TerminatedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Stable Angina (SA)1
3TerminatedTreatmentColon Adenomas1
3TerminatedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis / Tiredness1
3TerminatedTreatmentFibrinolysis / Hemodilution / Retinal Artery Occlusions / Strokes / Visual Acuity1
3TerminatedTreatmentIschemia, Brain / Strokes1
3TerminatedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction / Thrombocytopenias1
3TerminatedTreatmentRetinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)1
3Unknown StatusBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Polyvascular Disease1
3Unknown StatusPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusPreventionColorectal Cancers1
3Unknown StatusPreventionMacular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusPreventionPreeclampsia1
3Unknown StatusPreventionST Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction1
3Unknown StatusPreventionSquamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionStage 3 Chronic Kidney Disease / Stage 4 Chronic Kidney Disease1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAspirin / Coronary Artery Disease / Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAtherosclerosis1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients / Graft Patency / Hypercoagulability / Thrombotic events1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease4
3Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Stenosis / High Post-Treatment Platelet Reactivity / Late Platelet Aggregation / Maximal Platelet Aggregation1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma / Recurrences1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentSchizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentTo Investigate the Effects of Low Dose Aspirin and Low Molecular Weight Heparin in IVF Out Come1
3WithdrawnTreatmentAspirin / Lung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC) / Survival1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionAspirin / Coronary Artery Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain1
4Active Not RecruitingPreventionMalignancies1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Interventional Cardiology1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAntiplatelet Agents / Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarotid Atherosclerosis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCerebral Small Vessels Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIntracranial Hemorrhages / Ischemia, Brain1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPercutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedNot AvailableGastroduodenal Ulcers1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Novel P2Y12 Inhibitors / Platelet Function and Reactivity Tests1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAtherosclerosis1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAtherothrombosis1
4CompletedBasic ScienceDrug reactions1
4CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Atherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebral Infarctions / Strokes / Thrombotic events / Transient ischemia attacks / Vascular Diseases1
4CompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticIntermittent Claudication1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchAtherothrombosis1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchCoronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction / Peripheral Vascular Disease (PVD)1
4CompletedHealth Services ResearchPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4CompletedOtherAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedPreventionAdverse Effects / Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis / Insulin resistance syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionAortic Valve Disorder / Bleeding / Major Bleeding / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
4CompletedPreventionAortic Valve Disorder / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
4CompletedPreventionArteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionArteriosclerosis / Ischemia, Brain / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
4CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Metabolic Syndromes1
4CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) / Thromboembolism1
4CompletedPreventionC.Medical Procedure; Vascular, Functional or Late / Cardiovascular Risk Factors / Hemostatic Balance1
4CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4CompletedPreventionCerebral Infarctions1
4CompletedPreventionCerebral Infarctions / Strokes1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease / Platelet Aggregation / Platelet Transcriptome1
4CompletedPreventionEclampsia Preeclampsia / Intrauterine Growth Retardation / Placenta Diseases / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4CompletedPreventionHealthy Volunteers1
4CompletedPreventionHeart Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionIntra-uterine Growth Restriction / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4CompletedPreventionIntrauterine Growth Retardation / Placental Insufficiency / Premature Births / Prophylaxis of preeclampsia1
4CompletedPreventionOvarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome1
4CompletedPreventionPatent Foramen Ovale (PFO) / Stroke, Ischemic1
4CompletedPreventionPeptic Ulcers1
4CompletedPreventionThrombotic events1
4CompletedSupportive CareDyslipidemias / Facial Flushing / Hyperlipidemias1
4CompletedSupportive CareUnderweight1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Clopidogrel Low Responsiveness / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Ischemic Stroke (AIS)2
4CompletedTreatmentAngina Pectoris / Atherosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAntiplatelet Therapy of Coronary Artery Bypass1
4CompletedTreatmentArthritis / Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentAsthma, Aspirin-Induced1
4CompletedTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Myocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Hypertension,Essential1
4CompletedTreatmentBleeding / Thromboembolism1
4CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4CompletedTreatmentCerebral Infarctions2
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Total Occlusion of Coronary Artery / Coronary Artery Disease / Coronary Artery Restenosis / Coronary Artery Stenosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Myocardial Ischemia / Vascular Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Arteriosclerosis2
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease14
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Ischemia / Stent Thrombosis1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)2
4CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors1
4CompletedTreatmentDementia, Vascular / Strokes1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4CompletedTreatmentDrug Action Increased1
4CompletedTreatmentEsophagus, Barrett1
4CompletedTreatmentFevers / Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)1
4CompletedTreatmentHeadache, Tension-Type / Headaches / Tension-Type Headache (Episodic)1
4CompletedTreatmentHealthy Volunteers2
4CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified1
4CompletedTreatmentHemorrhage / Systemic Embolism / Thrombotic events1
4CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Liver Cirrhosis / Status;Splenectomy / Thrombosis, Venous1
4CompletedTreatmentInfluence of Aspirin on the Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Clopidogrel / Influence of Genotype of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme or Transporter on the Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Clopidogrel1
4CompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4CompletedTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4CompletedTreatmentPain, Migraine1
4CompletedTreatmentPeptic Ulcers1
4CompletedTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis / Pharyngitis / Tonsillitis1
4CompletedTreatmentPrimary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty1
4CompletedTreatmentRelapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS)1
4CompletedTreatmentVasospastic Syndrome1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Rhinitis1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentChronic Total Occlusion of Coronary Artery / Coronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Viable Myocardium1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentComplete Occlusion of Coronary Artery / Hibernation, Myocardial1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHematuria / Urinary Bladder Neoplasms1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentSclerosis, Progressive Systemic1
4Not Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceArtery Occlusion / Aspirin Sensitivity / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Clopidogrel, Poor Metabolism of / Coronary Artery Disease / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / Platelet Thrombus / Platelets Dysfunction1
4Not Yet RecruitingDiagnosticComplications1
4Not Yet RecruitingHealth Services ResearchCoronary Artery Disease1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnginal Pain1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Myocardial Infarction1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentEmbolic Stroke1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLeft Atrial Appendage Closure / Non-valvular Atrial Fibrillation (NVAF)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentLeukemias1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentOsteoporosis / Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (PMO)1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Rheumatoid Arthritis1
4RecruitingDiagnosticCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
4RecruitingDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease1
4RecruitingPreventionAortic Valve Disorder / Bleeding / Myocardial Infarction / Strokes1
4RecruitingPreventionAortic Valve Insufficiency / Aortic Valve Stenosis / Thrombotic events1
4RecruitingPreventionAspirin / GnRH Antagonist / Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome / Pigment Epithelium Derived Factor / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor1
4RecruitingPreventionHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Liver Cirrhosis / Status;Splenectomy / Thrombosis, Venous1
4RecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingPreventionNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Strokes2
4RecruitingPreventionProstate Cancer1
4RecruitingPreventionSaphenous Vein Graft Disease1
4RecruitingPreventionThromboprophylaxis / Traumas / Venous Thromboembolism (VTE)1
4RecruitingPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingSupportive CarePulmonary Embolism (PE) / Thrombosis, Venous1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentAneurysm, Cerebral / Endovascular Procedures1
4RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Disorder / Aortic Valve Insufficiency / Aortic Valve Stenosis / Regurgitation, Aortic Valve1
4RecruitingTreatmentAortic Valve Stenosis / Strokes1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Coronary Artery Disease / Stents1
4RecruitingTreatmentCervical Artery Dissection1
4RecruitingTreatmentChagas Disease With Heart Failure1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty1
4RecruitingTreatmentCoronary Stent Implantation / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Myocardial Infarction / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetic Nephropathies1
4RecruitingTreatmentGastrointestinal Injury / Ischaemic Heart Diseases1
4RecruitingTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4RecruitingTreatmentIschemic Cerebrovascular Accident1
4RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
4RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4RecruitingTreatmentNonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation / Valve Heart Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentProlonged DAPT in ACS Patients With Hisk of Both Ischemic and Hemorrhage1
4RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Pregnancy Losses1
4RecruitingTreatmentThrombophilia With Recurrent Pregnancy Loss1
4RecruitingTreatmentTranscatheter Aortic Valve Replacement1
4TerminatedBasic SciencePlatelet Aggregation1
4TerminatedDiagnosticAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Thrombotic events1
4TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Carotid Artery Stenosis / Strokes1
4TerminatedPreventionMyocardial Injury1
4TerminatedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedPreventionVentricular Tachycardia (VT)1
4TerminatedTreatmentAntiplatelet Therapy / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Stable Coronary Syndrome / Ticagrelor1
4TerminatedTreatmentCoronary Graft Patency1
4TerminatedTreatmentFontan Procedure1
4TerminatedTreatmentHigh-Normal Blood Pressure / Mild Essential Hypertension1
4TerminatedTreatmentPeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4Unknown StatusBasic SciencePeripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionComplications Due to Heart Valve Prosthesis1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Hyperlipidemias1
4Unknown StatusPreventionDiabetic Nephropathies1
4Unknown StatusPreventionHemorrhage, Gastrointestinal1
4Unknown StatusPreventionStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
4Unknown StatusPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Unknown StatusPreventionThrombotic events1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAbortions spontaneous / Pregnancy1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease3
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Microalbuminuria1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4WithdrawnPreventionChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation1
4WithdrawnPreventionDeep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / PE - Pulmonary Thromboembolism1
4WithdrawnTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease1
4WithdrawnTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableBleeding / Dementias / Depression / Functional Disability / Heart Diseases / Malignancies / Strokes1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableNeoplasms, Colorectal1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailablePrevention of Oesophagus Cancer and Stomach Cancer1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingPreventionIschemia, Brain / Strokes1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCancer Patients First-ever Acute Ischemic Stroke1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentPremature Births1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAspirin Blood Level / Proton Pump Inhiditor Treatment1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAspirin Hypersensitivity1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAspirin / Drug Safety / Longterm Effects1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Stenosis / Strokes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Ischaemic Heart Diseases / Secondary Preventions / Strokes1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableFacial Flushing1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableMammographic Breast Density1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRenal haematoma / Urolithiasis1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableUnsuspected Pulmonary Embolism1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceBlood Platelets / Clopidogrel1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceEndotoxaemia2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers2
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceHeart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePhysiology of Microvascular Skin1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic SciencePlatelet Dysfunction Due to Aspirin1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticDrug Resistance2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebral Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)2
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHeat Stress Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHemodialysis Treatment1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Prediabetic State1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionOsteoarthritis (OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareBone Metastases / Musculoskeletal Cancer / Soft Tissue Sarcoma (STS) / Thromboembolism1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareExtrauterine Pregnancy / Intrauterine Fetal Growth Restriction / Miscarriage Less Than 12 Gestational Weeks / Preeclampsia / Pregnancy1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareFacial Flushing / High Cholesterol1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAcute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAngioplasty / Atherosclerosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAspirin Resistance / High Cholesterol1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBirth / Spontaneous Abortions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCarotid Artery Stenosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentClopidogrel Non-Responsiveness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDesmopressin / Hemodilution / Mild Hypothermia / NSAIDs / Platelets Dysfunction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIntrauterine Adhesions1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentIschaemic Heart Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyeloproliferative Disorders / Thrombocythemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Ischemia1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentRecurrent Abortion1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionAtherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationPreventionColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentInguinal Hernias / Postoperative Complications / Postoperative Hemorrhages1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentMucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentPeripheral Artery Disease (PAD)1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableAcute Ischemic Stroke AIS / Intracranial Atherosclerosis ICAS1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableCardiovascular Disease, Colorectal Cancer1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease / Hyperuricemia1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableRecurrent Implantation Failure (RIF)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableStroke, Ischemic1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Platelet Dysfunction Due to Aspirin1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingDiagnosticAspirin1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionBrain Infarction1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionCaudal epidural block therapy / Postoperative pain / Surgery, Cardiac1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionStroke, Acute / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentForamen Ovale, Patent1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Pregnancy Losses / Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentStable Angina (SA)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentStrokes1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAsthma, Aspirin-Induced1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableAtherosclerosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableCoronary Artery Disease1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableMyocardium; Injury1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableStroke, Ischemic1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableStrokes / Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA)1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionAspirin / Microbiota1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionComplication of Cardiac Defibrillator / Disorder of Cardiac Pacemaker System / Venous Occlusion1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionPreeclampsia2
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAspirin / Platelet Dysfunction Due to Drugs / Ticagrelor / Transfusions1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentBiliary Stasis, Extrahepatic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentChronic Subdural Hematomas1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCoronary Artery Disease / High Bleeding Risk / Percutaneous Coronary Intervention1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Periodontitis, Chronic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentIntrauterine Growth Restriction Asymmetrical1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentSystemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Disease / Stable Angina (SA)1
Not AvailableTerminatedDiagnosticAortic Valve Disorder1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionPreeclampsia1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionThoracic Pain1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentAntiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome / Recurrent Pregnancy Losses1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentPreeclampsia1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentSoft Tissue Neoplasms1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentStable Angina (SA)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableBleeding Complication During Colon Polypectomy1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableCancer, Breast1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusDiagnosticASA Intolerant Asthma / Asthma Aspirin-sensitive / Asthma, Aspirin-Induced / Asthma, Nasal Polyps, And Aspirin Intolerance1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionColorectal Cancers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionHearing loss or impairment / Ototoxicity1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentMild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentStroke, Ischemic1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Non ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
Not AvailableWithdrawnBasic SciencePlatelet Aggregation1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionCarotid Artery Injury / Vertebral Artery Injury1
Not AvailableWithdrawnScreeningChronic Migraine / Episodic Migraine1


  • Bayer healthcare llc
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • BASF Corp.
  • Excellium Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Harvest Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Kaiser Foundation Hospital
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Mckesson Corp.
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Prepak Systems Inc.
  • Rosedale Therapeutics
  • Time-Cap Labs
  • United Research Laboratories Inc.
Dosage forms
TabletOral500 mg
TabletOral300 mg
Kit; tablet, delayed release; tablet, extended releaseOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral81 mg/1
TabletOral325 1/1
Capsule, extended releaseOral
Capsule; capsule, extended releaseOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Granule, effervescentOral
Tablet, delayed releaseOral600 mg
SuppositoryRectal150 mg
SuppositoryRectal650 mg
Tablet, chewableOral80 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral162 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Gum, chewingOral325 mg
SuppositoryRectal300 mg/1
SuppositoryRectal600 mg/1
TabletOral325 g/1
TabletOral325 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral325 ng/1
Tablet, coatedOral325 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral81 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral325 mg/1
Tablet, delayed release; tablet, extended releaseOral325 mg
Tablet, delayed release; tablet, extended releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral81 mg/811
Tablet, coatedOral81 mg/1
GranuleOral500 mg
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg/5001
Tablet, film coatedOral81 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral81 mg/1
PowderOral325 mg/1
TabletOral500 mg/1
PowderOral500 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral500 mg/1
TabletOral81 mg/1
Tablet, chewableOral81 1/1
Tablet, film coatedOral
Capsule, extended releaseOral162.5 mg/1
KitOral; Topical
Tablet, delayed releaseOral325 mg/3251
Tablet, delayed releaseOral325 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral650 mg
Tablet, chewableOral81 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral500 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral975 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral81 mg
Tablet, chewableOral325 mg
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, orally disintegratingOral81 mg/1
Capsule, coatedOral
Tablet, coatedOral162 mg/1621
Tablet, coatedOral81 mg/811
Tablet, coatedOral
Tablet, multilayerOral
Kit; tablet; tablet, delayed releaseOral
TabletOral325 mg
TabletOral81 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral80 mg
Tablet, delayed releaseOral325 mg/1
TabletOral80 mg
StripOral81 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseOral
TabletOral81 mg/81mg
TabletOral325 mg/325mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Entrophen 10 650 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.09USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)


Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)135 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)140 °CNot Available
water solubility4600 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP1.19HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Caco2 permeability-5.06ADME Research, USCD
pKa3.49 (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1983)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.46 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity44.45 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.1 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9645
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9376
Caco-2 permeable-0.6607
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.685
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9118
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9615
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7518
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7225
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9576
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9445
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9611
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9557
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9326
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9067
Rat acute toxicity2.6386 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9433
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9799
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)


Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.27 KB)
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-014l-2960000000-ffcb8d28ab7e460b0da8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-006w-2910000000-910e8ce2493a05870b33
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-00dl-9400000000-64327d3bef0063cf4fe1
GC-MS Spectrum - CI-BGC-MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-113943b65024522c1712
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-014i-1590000000-7890c99ca2b0e2c4ff19
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014l-2960000000-ffcb8d28ab7e460b0da8
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-006w-2910000000-910e8ce2493a05870b33
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-006w-2900000000-253eb678a85f77d4ba61
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-00dl-6900000000-74f8a29aa18d0c3afe98
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00kr-6900000000-324f46e8def1652ed4bf
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-cdf64eaf75083da6f355
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-ee75806b6fb8a38fd697
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00dl-9400000000-64327d3bef0063cf4fe1
MS/MS Spectrum - CI-B (Unknown) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-0900000000-113943b65024522c1712
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-1900000000-bc50013edb10656e0aa4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-2900000000-8c55c1f8d7cb7f247a5d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000l-9700000000-d475fd0478daf18a419a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-3daaf3c8697e17e67869
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-ee876bcdd1a5c7c229a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-cd4e1f8fe0a2bbc869f9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-4dca49851b5b9fd03d1a
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-00kf-9000000000-4611655c6aff89d706eb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-014l-9000000000-4d636e2d7318b857528d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ot-0900000000-1256ca04e4244fbc4a64
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ot-0900000000-2cae7e19320bfa1a03a0
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ot-0900000000-42f69c49b256900b7524
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ot-0900000000-4860d5cbeeb9c31311ec
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-006t-3900000000-cc185048e2a1bcc52124
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01ba-9700000000-ec436cb71e803899f611
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9100000000-75f611f9e761b63033d9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-02tc-9000000000-15b9abe0f191aedd9620
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0ik9-9000000000-644d508a79eb48c24ec3
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable


This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acylsalicylic acids. These are o-acylated derivatives of salicylic acid.
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Benzoic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Acylsalicylic acids
Alternative Parents
Phenol esters / Benzoic acids / Phenoxy compounds / Benzoyl derivatives / Dicarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acid esters / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Acylsalicylic acid / Phenol ester / Benzoic acid / Phenoxy compound / Benzoyl / Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid ester / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
salicylates, acetate ester, benzoic acids (CHEBI:15365)


Pharmacological action
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gas...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1
Molecular Weight
68685.82 Da
  1. Stevenson DD, Szczeklik A: Clinical and pathologic perspectives on aspirin sensitivity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct;118(4):773-86; quiz 787-8. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:17030227]
  2. Flipo RM: [Are the NSAIDs able to compromising the cardio-preventive efficacy of aspirin?]. Presse Med. 2006 Sep;35(9 Spec No 1):1S53-60. [PubMed:17078596]
  3. Schwartz KA: Aspirin resistance: a review of diagnostic methodology, mechanisms, and clinical utility. Adv Clin Chem. 2006;42:81-110. [PubMed:17131625]
  4. Birnbaum Y, Ye Y, Lin Y, Freeberg SY, Huang MH, Perez-Polo JR, Uretsky BF: Aspirin augments 15-epi-lipoxin A4 production by lipopolysaccharide, but blocks the pioglitazone and atorvastatin induction of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 in the rat heart. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Feb;83(1-2):89-98. Epub 2006 Nov 7. [PubMed:17259075]
  5. Guthikonda S, Lev EI, Patel R, DeLao T, Bergeron AL, Dong JF, Kleiman NS: Reticulated platelets and uninhibited COX-1 and COX-2 decrease the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Mar;5(3):490-6. [PubMed:17319904]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
  1. Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Sliwowski Z, Kwiecien S, Drozdowicz D, Pawlik M, Mach K, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW: Interaction of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of humans and experimental animals. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;57 Suppl 3:67-79. [PubMed:17033106]
  2. Wang HJ, Liu XJ, Yang KX, Luo FM, Lou JY, Peng ZL: [Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in ovarian carcinoma cell]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Sep;37(5):757-60. [PubMed:17037745]
  3. Shen J, Gammon MD, Terry MB, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Santella RM: Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8(6):R71. [PubMed:17181859]
  4. Nakano M, Denda N, Matsumoto M, Kawamura M, Kawakubo Y, Hatanaka K, Hiramoto Y, Sato Y, Noshiro M, Harada Y: Interaction between cyclooxygenase (COX)-1- and COX-2-products modulates COX-2 expression in the late phase of acute inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 22;559(2-3):210-8. Epub 2006 Dec 16. [PubMed:17258197]
  5. Hall MN, Campos H, Li H, Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ma J: Blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, aspirin, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Feb;16(2):314-21. [PubMed:17301265]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the in...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1
Molecular Weight
36788.02 Da
  1. Dhagat U, Carbone V, Chung RP, Matsunaga T, Endo S, Hara A, El-Kabbani O: A salicylic acid-based analogue discovered from virtual screening as a potent inhibitor of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):546-50. [PubMed:18045204]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
General Function
Tau-protein kinase activity
Specific Function
Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular A...

  1. Din FV, Valanciute A, Houde VP, Zibrova D, Green KA, Sakamoto K, Alessi DR, Dunlop MG: Aspirin inhibits mTOR signaling, activates AMP-activated protein kinase, and induces autophagy in colorectal cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2012 Jun;142(7):1504-15.e3. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.02.050. Epub 2012 Mar 6. [PubMed:22406476]
  2. Hawley SA, Fullerton MD, Ross FA, Schertzer JD, Chevtzoff C, Walker KJ, Peggie MW, Zibrova D, Green KA, Mustard KJ, Kemp BE, Sakamoto K, Steinberg GR, Hardie DG: The ancient drug salicylate directly activates AMP-activated protein kinase. Science. 2012 May 18;336(6083):918-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1215327. Epub 2012 Apr 19. [PubMed:22517326]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function
Receptor for endothelin-1. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The rank order of binding affinities for ET-A is:...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Endothelin-1 receptor
Molecular Weight
48721.76 Da
  1. Talbodec A, Berkane N, Blandin V, Breittmayer JP, Ferrari E, Frelin C, Vigne P: Aspirin and sodium salicylate inhibit endothelin ETA receptors by an allosteric type of mechanism. Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Apr;57(4):797-804. [PubMed:10727528]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or oth...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta
Molecular Weight
86563.245 Da
  1. Yin MJ, Yamamoto Y, Gaynor RB: The anti-inflammatory agents aspirin and salicylate inhibit the activity of I(kappa)B kinase-beta. Nature. 1998 Nov 5;396(6706):77-80. [PubMed:9817203]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cellular tumor antigen p53
Molecular Weight
43652.79 Da
  1. Alfonso LF, Srivenugopal KS, Bhat GJ: Does aspirin acetylate multiple cellular proteins? (Review). Mol Med Rep. 2009 Jul-Aug;2(4):533-7. doi: 10.3892/mmr_00000132. [PubMed:21475861]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Unfolded protein binding
Specific Function
Probably plays a role in facilitating the assembly of multimeric protein complexes inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Involved in the correct folding of proteins and degradation of misfolded protein...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
78 kDa glucose-regulated protein
Molecular Weight
72332.425 Da
  1. Deng WG, Ruan KH, Du M, Saunders MA, Wu KK: Aspirin and salicylate bind to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) and inhibit its ATPase activity in human fibroblasts. FASEB J. 2001 Nov;15(13):2463-70. [PubMed:11689471]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Ribosomal protein s6 kinase activity
Specific Function
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts downstream of ERK (MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1) signaling and mediates mitogenic and stress-induced activation of the transcription factors CREB1, ETV1/ER81 ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Ribosomal protein S6 kinase alpha-3
Molecular Weight
83735.325 Da
  1. Stevenson MA, Zhao MJ, Asea A, Coleman CN, Calderwood SK: Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- and NF-kappa B-responsive genes. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15;163(10):5608-16. [PubMed:10553090]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Inhibits the activity of dimeric NF-kappa-B/REL complexes by trapping REL dimers in the cytoplasm through masking of their nuclear localization signals. On cellular stimulation by immune and proinf...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
Molecular Weight
35608.65 Da
  1. Stevenson MA, Zhao MJ, Asea A, Coleman CN, Calderwood SK: Salicylic acid and aspirin inhibit the activity of RSK2 kinase and repress RSK2-dependent transcription of cyclic AMP response element binding protein- and NF-kappa B-responsive genes. J Immunol. 1999 Nov 15;163(10):5608-16. [PubMed:10553090]
Protein group
Pharmacological action
General Function
Transcriptional activator activity, rna polymerase ii core promoter proximal region sequence-specific binding
Specific Function
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related...

  1. Kopp E, Ghosh S: Inhibition of NF-kappa B by sodium salicylate and aspirin. Science. 1994 Aug 12;265(5174):956-9. [PubMed:8052854]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Chen XP, Tan ZR, Huang SL, Huang Z, Ou-Yang DS, Zhou HH: Isozyme-specific induction of low-dose aspirin on cytochrome P450 in healthy subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Mar;73(3):264-71. doi: 10.1067/mcp.2003.14. [PubMed:12621391]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C9
Molecular Weight
55627.365 Da
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]
  2. Rendic S: Summary of information on human CYP enzymes: human P450 metabolism data. Drug Metab Rev. 2002 Feb-May;34(1-2):83-448. [PubMed:11996015]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
  1. Sulkowska A, Bojko B, Rownicka J, Sulkowski WW: Competition of cytarabine and aspirin in binding to serum albumin in multidrug therapy. Biopolymers. 2006 Apr 15;81(6):464-72. [PubMed:16419075]
  2. Dundee JW, Halliday NJ, McMurray TJ: Aspirin and probenecid pretreatment influences the potency of thiopentone and the onset of action of midazolam. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1986 May;3(3):247-51. [PubMed:3780693]


Pharmacological action
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one ...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 6
Molecular Weight
61815.78 Da
  1. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. [PubMed:10220563]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
  1. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. [PubMed:12954186]
Pharmacological action
General Function
Sodium-independent organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulf...
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 7
Molecular Weight
60025.025 Da
  1. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. [PubMed:9650585]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 19, 2019 08:59