Identification
NameRibavirin
Accession NumberDB00811  (APRD00081, EXPT02825, DB01693)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Producing a broad-spectrum activity against several RNA and DNA viruses, Ribavirin is a synthetic guanosine nucleoside and antiviral agent that interferes with the synthesis of viral mRNA. It is primarily indicated for use in treating hepatitis C and viral hemorrhagic fevers. HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [10]. It is reported that ribavirin might be only effective in early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers including Lasser fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever, and Hantavirus infection. Ribavirin is a prodrug that is metabolized into nucleoside analogs that blocks viral RNA synthesis and viral mRNA capping. Before the development of newer drugs, ribavirin and Peginterferon alfa-2a/Peginterferon alfa-2b dual therapy was considered the first-generation and standard antiviral treatment [5]. The dual therapy was administered for 48 weeks in patients with genotype 1, 4, 5, and 6, and 24 weeks in patients with genotype 2 and 3 [5]. Newer drugs developed as Hepatitis C viral infection treatments can be used to reduce or eliminate the use of ribavirin, which are associated with serious adverse effects. They also improve therapeutic efficacy in patients with failed Peginterferon alfa-2a/Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin-based therapy. The potential use of ribavirin as a treatment for acute myeloid leukemia is currently under investigation.

According to 2017 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and 2015 consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver (CASL), ribavirin is typically used as an adjunct therapy to various first-line and second-line combination therapies recommended for each genotypes. Ribavirin is added to decrease relapse rates by accelerating viral clearance early in the treatment course [7]. When used to treat Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, it is always used as a part of combination therapies as ribavirin monotherapy is not efficacious in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection [6]. Additionally, including ribavirin in the regimen can increase the risk of anemia.

In HCV genotye 1/2/3/4/5/6 patients, ribavirin can be used in combination therapy involving Daclatasvir and Sofosbuvir, Eplusa (Sofosbuvir, Velpatasvir), Harvoni (Sofosbuvir, Ledipasvir), Simeprevir and Sofosbuvir, Viekira Pak (Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir, Ritonavir, Dasabuvir), Technivie (Ritonavir, Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir) and Zepatier (Elbasvir, Grazoprevir). Addition of weight-based ribavirin to Technivie therapy increased sustained virologic response after 12 weeks of daily therapy (SVR12) from 90% to 97% in patients with HCV genotype 1a and 90.9% to 100% in HCV genotype 4 patients [10]. Zepatier therapy along with ribavirin improved SVR in HCV genotype 5 patients. Combination therapy of ribavirin and Peginterferon alfa-2a results in the SVR of 44% in patients with genotype 1 infection and 70% in patients with genotype 2-6. The inclusion of ribavirin in the combination therapies depend on individual patient's profile, for example if HCV genotype 3 patient has a Y93H genetic variant and compensated cirrhosis.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
1-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide
1-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide
RBV
Ribavirin
Ribavirina
Ribavirine
Ribavirinum
Tribavirin
External IDs ICN 1229 / SCH 18908 / SCH-18908
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
Ribavirin monophosphateO9FVV27P11 40925-28-8SDWIOXKHTFOULX-AFCXAGJDSA-NDetails
Product Images
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
CopegusTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralGenentech, Inc.2002-12-03Not applicableUs
IbavyrTablet600 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc2014-07-14Not applicableCanada
IbavyrTablet200 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc2015-05-01Not applicableCanada
IbavyrTablet400 mgOralPendopharm Division Of De Pharmascience Inc2014-07-14Not applicableCanada
ModeribaTablet600 mgOralAbbvie2015-02-19Not applicableCanada
ModeribaTablet200 mgOralAbbvie2015-02-17Not applicableCanada
ModeribaTablet400 mgOralAbbvie2015-02-19Not applicableCanada
RebetolCapsule200 mgOralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1999-05-07Not applicableEu
RebetolLiquid40 mg/mLOralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited2003-07-29Not applicableUs
RebetolCapsule200 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1998-06-03Not applicableUs
RebetolCapsule200 mgOralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1999-05-07Not applicableEu
RebetolCapsule200 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1998-06-03Not applicableUs
RebetolSolution40 mg/mlOralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1999-05-07Not applicableEu
RebetolCapsule200 mgOralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1999-05-07Not applicableEu
RebetolCapsule200 mgOralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1999-05-07Not applicableEu
RebetolCapsule200 mg/1OralMerck Sharp & Dohme Limited1998-06-03Not applicableUs
RibavirinPowder, for solution6 g/1Respiratory (inhalation)Oceanside Pharmaceuticals2017-04-14Not applicableUs
VirazolePowder, for solution6 g/1Respiratory (inhalation)Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America1986-01-01Not applicableUs
VirazoleAerosol; Powder, for solution6 gRespiratory (inhalation)Valeant Canada Lp Valeant Canada S.E.C.1996-12-05Not applicableCanada
Virazole Pws 6gm/vialAerosol; Powder, for solution6 gRespiratory (inhalation)Viratek Inc.1986-12-311997-08-08Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ModeribaTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralAbbvie2014-01-20Not applicableUs
ModeribaKitAbbvie2014-01-20Not applicableUs
ModeribaKitAbbvie2014-01-20Not applicableUs
ModeribaTablet, film coated600 mg/1OralAbbvie2014-01-20Not applicableUs
ModeribaTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralAbbvie2014-01-20Not applicableUs
RibasphereCapsule200 mg/1OralKadmon Pharmaceuticals2004-04-07Not applicableUs
RibasphereTablet, film coated600 mg/1OralKadmon Pharmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibasphereTablet400 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-08-182016-11-08Us
RibasphereTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralKadmon Pharmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibasphereTablet200 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2011-11-302016-10-13Us
RibasphereTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralKadmon Pharmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
Ribasphere RibapakTablet400 mg/1OralKadmon Pharmaceuticals2010-01-01Not applicableUs
Ribasphere RibapakKitKadmon Pharmaceuticals2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Ribasphere RibapakKitKadmon Pharmaceuticals2010-01-01Not applicableUs
Ribasphere RibapakTablet600 mg/1OralKadmon Pharmaceuticals2010-01-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralSandoz2006-10-03Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralSandoz2004-04-06Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2006-01-25Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated600 mg/1OralRichmond Pharmaceuticals2008-06-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralAvera Mc Kennan Hospital2015-10-26Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralRichmond Pharmaceuticals2008-06-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated600 mg/1OralCadila Pharnmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralAv Kare, Inc.2014-01-172015-12-29Us
RibavirinTablet, film coated500 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated500 mg/1OralCadila Pharnmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralRichmond Pharmaceuticals2007-11-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralAurobindo Pharma2009-09-17Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralState of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy2009-07-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralCadila Pharnmaceuticals2006-01-25Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2006-11-30Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralAurobindo Pharma2009-09-17Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralAmerincan Health Packaging2006-11-302015-12-29Us
RibavirinTablet, film coated600 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralRichmond Pharmaceuticals2008-06-01Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated200 mg/1OralCadila Pharnmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinPowder, for solution6 g/1Respiratory (inhalation)Zydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2016-12-15Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, coated200 mg/1OralTeva2005-12-052016-02-06Us
RibavirinTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralZydus Pharmaceuticals Usa, Inc.2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinTablet, film coated400 mg/1OralCadila Pharnmaceuticals2005-12-05Not applicableUs
RibavirinCapsule200 mg/1OralTeva2004-10-042015-11-30Us00093 7227 72 nlmimage10 cc306663
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin MylanCapsule200 mgOralInternational Pharmaceutical Generics Ltd2010-06-10Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated200 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Ribavirin Teva Pharma B.V.Tablet, film coated400 mgOralTeva B.V.2009-07-01Not applicableEu
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Ribavirin BiopartnersTablet, film coated200 mgOralBio Partners Gmb H2010-04-06Not applicableEu
Ribavirin BiopartnersTablet, film coated200 mgOralBio Partners Gmb H2010-04-06Not applicableEu
Ribavirin BiopartnersTablet, film coated200 mgOralBio Partners Gmb H2010-04-06Not applicableEu
Ribavirin BiopartnersTablet, film coated200 mgOralBio Partners Gmb H2010-04-06Not applicableEu
International Brands
NameCompany
RebretronNot Available
RibamideNot Available
VilonaValeant
ViramidIl Sung
VirazideGrossman
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Pegasys RbvHoffmann La Roche
PegetronMerck Ltd.
Rebetron Ready To Use Solution (albumin(human)free) (6000000 Iu/ml and 200mg Capsules)Schering Plough
Rebetron Solution (albumin (human) Free) (18 Miu Multi-dose Pen / 200mg Capsules)Schering Plough
Victrelis TripleMerck Ltd.
Categories
UNII49717AWG6K
CAS number36791-04-5
WeightAverage: 244.2047
Monoisotopic: 244.080769514
Chemical FormulaC8H12N4O5
InChI KeyIWUCXVSUMQZMFG-AFCXAGJDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C8H12N4O5/c9-6(16)7-10-2-12(11-7)8-5(15)4(14)3(1-13)17-8/h2-5,8,13-15H,1H2,(H2,9,16)/t3-,4-,5-,8-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=NN(C=N1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
Pharmacology
Indication

Indicated for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in combination with other antiviral agents with the intent to cure or achieve a sustained virologic response (SVR). Typically added to improve SVR and reduce relapse rates [6].

The addition of ribavirin in Technivie therapy indicated for treating HCV genotype 1a and 4 infections is recommended in patients with or without cirrhosis.

Resistance: viral genetic determinants resulting in variable response to ribavirin therapy has not been yet determined.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Ribavirin mediates direct antiviral activity against a number of DNA and RNA viruses by increasing the mutation frequency in the genomes of several RNA viruses. It is a member of the nucleoside antimetabolite drugs that interfere with duplication of the viral genetic material. The drug inhibits the activity of the enzyme RNA dependent RNA polymerase, due to its resemblence to building blocks of the RNA molecules.

Mechanism of action

Ribavirin is reported to have several mechanism of actions that lead to inhibition of viral RNA and protein synthesis. Ribavirin is phosphorylated intracellularly by adenosine kinase to ribavirin mono-, di-, and triphosphate metabolites. Ribavirin triphosphate (RTP) is the predominant metabolite which directly inhibits viral mRNA polymerase by binding to the nucleotide binding site of the enzyme. This prevents the binding of the correct nucleotides, leading to a reduction in viral replication or to the production of defective virions [7]. RTP also demonstrates an inhibitory action on viral mRNA guanylyltransferase and mRNA 2′-O-methyltransferase of dengue virus. Inhibition of these enzymes disrupts the posttranslational capping of the 5′ end of viral mRNA through ribavirin being incorporated at the 5′ end in place of guanosine and preventing the cap methylation step.

Inhibition of host inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and subsequent depletion of GTP pool is proposed to be another mechanism of action of ribavirin. IMPDH catalyzes the rate-limiting step where inosine 5′-monophosphate is converted to xanthine monophosphate during guanosine monophosphate (GMP) synthesis. GMP is later converted to guanosine triphoshpate (GTP). Ribavirin monophosphate mimics inosine 5′-monophosphate and acts as a competitive inhibitor of IMPDH. Inhibited de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides and decreased intracellular GTP pools leads to a decline in viral protein synthesis and limit replication of viral genomes [7].

Ribavirin acts as a mutagen in the target virus to cause an 'error catastrophe' due to increased viral mutations. RTP pairs with cytidine triphosphate or uridine triphosphate with equal efficiency and to block HCV RNA elongation. It causes premature termination of nascent HCV RNA and increases mutagenesis by producing defective virions [7].

Ribavirin also exerts an immunomodulatory action of the host to the virus by shifting a Th2 response in favor of a Th1 phenotype. Th2 response and production of type 2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 stimulates the humoral response which enhances immunity toward the virus [7]. Ribavirin enhanced induction of interferon-related genes, including the interferon-α receptor, and down-regulation of genes involved in interferon inhibition, apoptosis, and hepatic stellate cell activation in vitro [6].

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1Proteinyes
inhibitor
HumanP20839 details
Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP12268 details
Adenosine kinaseProteinyes
activator
HumanP55263 details
RNA-directed RNA polymerase LProteinyes
antagonist
HPIV-2P26676 details
RNA-directed RNA polymerase catalytic subunitProteinunknown
inhibitor
Influenza A virus (strain A/Beijing/11/1956 H1N1)P16502 details
Cytosolic purine 5'-nucleotidaseProteinunknown
inducer
HumanP49902 details
Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1Proteinunknown
inhibitor
HumanP22413 details
Genome polyproteinProteinunknownNot AvailableDENV-2P12823 details
Related Articles
Absorption

Ribavirin is reported to be rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration. The average time to reach Cmax was 2 hours after oral administration of 1200 mg ribavirin [FDA Label]. The oral bioavailability is 64% following a single oral dose administration of 600mg ribavirin [9].

Volume of distribution

Ribavirin displays a large volume of distribution [FDA Label].

Protein binding

No protein binding reported [9].

Metabolism

Ribavirin undergoes two metabolic pathways where it is reversibly phosphorlyated or degraded via deribosylation and amide hydrolysis to yield a triazole carboxylic acid metabolite. In vitro studies indicate that ribavirin is not a substrate of CYP450 enzymes [9].

Route of elimination

The metabolites of ribavirin are renally excreted. After the oral administration of 600mg radiolabeled ribavirin, approximately 61% of the drug was detected in the urine and 12% was detected in the feces. 17% of administered dose was in unchanged form [9].

Half life

The terminal half-life of ribavirin following administration of a single oral dose of 1200 mg is about 120 to 170 hours [FDA Label].

Clearance

The total apparent clearance rate after a single oral dose administration of 1200 mg ribavirin is 26L/h [FDA Label].

Toxicity

Rivabirin and PEG-Interferon Alfa-2A dual therapy is associated with flu-like symptoms, depression, suicide, insomnia, irritability, relapse of drug abuse/overdose, hepatic decompensation in 2% of HIV co-infected patients and bacterial infections each occurring at a frequency of less than 1%. Ribavirin-induced anemia is a dose-dependent adverse effect where reduced hemoglobin levels can be seen within the first 1-2 weeks in therapy. The mechanism of ribavirin-induced anemia has been shown to involve reductions in reticulocyte counts and erythrocyte Na-K pump activity, and increases in K-Cl cotransport, membrane bound IgG, and C3, and erythrocyte band 3 [6]. Oral LD50 in rats is 2700 mg/kg. Intraperitoneal LD50 in mouse is 1300 mg/kg. Potential carcinogenic effects of ribavirin to humans cannot be yet excluded as it demonstrates mutagenic activity in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay.

Affected organisms
  • Hepatitis B virus
  • Hepatitis C virus, RSV and other RNA/DNA viruses
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Interacting Gene/EnzymeAllele nameGenotype(s)Defining Change(s)Type(s)DescriptionDetails
Interferon lambda-3---(T;T) / (C;T) / (G;G) / (G;T)C > T / T > G Effect Directly StudiedLower odds of response Details
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbacavirRibavirin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Abacavir.Approved, Investigational
AzathioprineThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Azathioprine can be increased when Azathioprine is used in combination with Ribavirin.Approved
DidanosineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ribavirin is combined with Didanosine.Approved
EmtricitabineRibavirin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Emtricitabine.Approved, Investigational
EntecavirRibavirin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Entecavir.Approved, Investigational
Interferon Alfa-2a, RecombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon Alfa-2a, Recombinant is combined with Ribavirin.Approved
Interferon Alfa-2b, RecombinantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon Alfa-2b, Recombinant is combined with Ribavirin.Approved
Interferon alfa-n3The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Ribavirin.Approved, Investigational
Interferon alfacon-1The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfacon-1 is combined with Ribavirin.Approved
LamivudineRibavirin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Lamivudine.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2aThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Peginterferon alfa-2a is combined with Ribavirin.Approved, Investigational
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Peginterferon alfa-2b is combined with Ribavirin.Approved
StavudineRibavirin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Stavudine.Approved, Investigational
ZalcitabineRibavirin may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Zalcitabine.Approved
ZidovudineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zidovudine is combined with Ribavirin.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceUS3798209
General References
  1. Sidwell RW, Bailey KW, Wong MH, Barnard DL, Smee DF: In vitro and in vivo influenza virus-inhibitory effects of viramidine. Antiviral Res. 2005 Oct;68(1):10-7. [PubMed:16087250 ]
  2. Sidwell RW, Huffman JH, Khare GP, Allen LB, Witkowski JT, Robins RK: Broad-spectrum antiviral activity of Virazole: 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide. Science. 1972 Aug 25;177(4050):705-6. [PubMed:4340949 ]
  3. Alvarez D, Dieterich DT, Brau N, Moorehead L, Ball L, Sulkowski MS: Zidovudine use but not weight-based ribavirin dosing impacts anaemia during HCV treatment in HIV-infected persons. J Viral Hepat. 2006 Oct;13(10):683-9. [PubMed:16970600 ]
  4. Bani-Sadr F, Carrat F, Pol S, Hor R, Rosenthal E, Goujard C, Morand P, Lunel-Fabiani F, Salmon-Ceron D, Piroth L, Pialoux G, Bentata M, Cacoub P, Perronne C: Risk factors for symptomatic mitochondrial toxicity in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients during interferon plus ribavirin-based therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Sep 1;40(1):47-52. [PubMed:16123681 ]
  5. Myers RP, Shah H, Burak KW, Cooper C, Feld JJ: An update on the management of chronic hepatitis C: 2015 Consensus guidelines from the Canadian Association for the Study of the Liver. Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015 Jan-Feb;29(1):19-34. Epub 2015 Jan 13. [PubMed:25585348 ]
  6. Martin P, Jensen DM: Ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Jun;23(6):844-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1746.2008.05398.x. [PubMed:18565019 ]
  7. Te HS, Randall G, Jensen DM: Mechanism of action of ribavirin in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2007 Mar;3(3):218-25. [PubMed:21960835 ]
  8. Huggins JW: Prospects for treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers with ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Rev Infect Dis. 1989 May-Jun;11 Suppl 4:S750-61. [PubMed:2546248 ]
  9. REBETRON (ribavirin+interferon alfa-2b) Combination therapy product information [Link]
  10. American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases; Infectious Diseases Society of America. HCV guidance. http://hcvguidelines.org. Accessed June 12, 2017. [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesJ05AB04 — Ribavirin
AHFS Codes
  • 08:18.32
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (1.25 MB)
MSDSDownload (350 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Genotype 1 / Relapses1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Squamous Cell Cancer1
1CompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hemophilia1
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers4
1CompletedDiagnosticChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
1CompletedOtherChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection2
1CompletedTreatmentHCV (Genotype 1)1
1CompletedTreatmentHCV / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis / HIV-1 Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatic Insufficiency1
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic2
1CompletedTreatmentHepatitis, Chronic Active1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections6
1RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
1TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
1WithdrawnDiagnosticChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukaemias (AML)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection3
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer (MBC)1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Solid Tumours1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBone Marrow Transplant Infection / Cancers / Infection in Marrow Transplant Recipients / Infections, Respiratory Syncytial Virus / Leukaemia, Acute / Respiratory Syncytial Virus Pneumonia1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 11
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1 / Hepatitis C Viral Infection1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHCV Infections1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection2
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
2CompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2CompletedDiagnosticHCV-HIV Co-Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentAcute Myelocytic Leukemia1
2CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Genotype 1a or 1b HCV Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic HCV Infection4
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection39
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HCV Infections / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HCV / Hepatitis C Genotype 12
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV-1 Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hemophilia / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Liver Disease / Liver Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections4
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Liver Diseases1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Liver Cirrhosis / Portal Hypertension / With or Without Liver Decompensation1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Pain, Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Pharmacokinetics1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Thalassaemic disorders1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus4
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection31
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / HCV / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 11
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1a1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 4 / Hepatitis C Viral Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)2
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated liver disease / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentFlu caused by Influenza2
2CompletedTreatmentGenotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C1
2CompletedTreatmentHCV Coinfection / HIV-1 Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHCV Infections5
2CompletedTreatmentHCV Infections / Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental1
2CompletedTreatmentHIV-1 and Hepatitis C Co-Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection4
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)10
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Hepatitis C Virus Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Genotype 4 Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection5
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic45
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Treatment Failure1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis D, Chronic1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitits C1
2CompletedTreatmentPost Liver Transplant / Recurrent Chronic Hepatitis C Virus1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentCrimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever / Lassa Fever1
2Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Myeloid Leukaemias (AML)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute on Chronic Hepatic Failure / Hepatic Failure / Hepatitis E Infection1
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Digestive System Diseases / Flaviviridae Infections / Hepatitis / Hepatitis, Viral, Human / Liver Diseases / RNA Virus Infections / Virus Diseases1
2RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Indolent B-cell Lymphoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection2
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection3
2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection2
2TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection1
2TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection / Thrombocytopenias1
2TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentDengue Fever / Viral Haemorrhagic Fever1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentEncephalitis, Japanese B1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentFibrosis / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic2
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Genotype 1 Hepatitis C Virus Infection1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Viral Hepatitis B1
2WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 11
2WithdrawnTreatmentHemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
2, 3CompletedNot AvailableLiver Cirrhosis, Experimental1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection2
2, 3CompletedTreatmentFibrosis, Liver / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Liver Cirrhosis1
2, 3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentPharmacological Action (PA)1
2, 3TerminatedNot AvailableHepacivirus / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
2, 3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Insulin Resistance1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
2, 3WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
3Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Liver Cirrhosis1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection Genotype 12
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection2
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C, Acute1
3CompletedNot AvailableViral Hepatitis B1
3CompletedDiagnosticChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Transplantation, Liver1
3CompletedHealth Services ResearchHIV Disease1
3CompletedPreventionChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Fibrosis, Liver / Hepatic Cirrhosis / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedPreventionDepressive State1
3CompletedSupportive CareCancers1
3CompletedSupportive CareInfection NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic HCV Infection3
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection42
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Coinfection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C Relapse1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Compensated liver disease1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus4
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Infection Genotype 1)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection23
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Cirrhosis, Decompensated / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated Cirrhosis and Non-cirrhotics / Hepatitis C Virus Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Compensated liver disease / End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Severe Renal Impairment1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Fibrosis / Hemolytic Anemia1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C (HCV) / Hepatitis C Genotype 1a1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentFibrosis / Hepatitis / Hepatitis C, Chronic / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentGenotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C1
3CompletedTreatmentGenotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C / Treatment Naive1
3CompletedTreatmentGenotype 4 / HCV / Hepatitis C Infection1
3CompletedTreatmentHCV Infections / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV) / HIV Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection2
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)9
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Genotype-11
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection7
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic30
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Infection NOS1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Liver Cirrhosis1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Liver Cirrhosis / Transplantation, Liver1
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Genotype 11
3CompletedTreatmentHepatitis / Opiate Dependence1
3CompletedTreatmentGenotype 1 chronic hepatitis C infection1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Transplantation, Liver1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCompensated liver disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HCV1
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease1
3RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection1
3RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Liver Diseases1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection3
3TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic5
3TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Liver Cirrhosis1
3TerminatedTreatmentInfection NOS1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection2
3Unknown StatusTreatmentGenotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis C Infection1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
3WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection4
3WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic3
4Active Not RecruitingNot AvailableHepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Liver Cirrhosis1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLiver Diseases1
4CompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic1
4CompletedNot AvailableHepatitis, Viral, Non-A, Non-B, Parenterally-Transmitted1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHepatitis C, Chronic / Liver Diseases / Virus Diseases1
4CompletedPreventionChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Transplantation, Liver1
4CompletedPreventionHepatitis C, Chronic1
4CompletedSupportive CareChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentAcute Hepatitis C1
4CompletedTreatmentAlcoholism / Chronic Hepatitis C Infection / Drug Abuse / Liver Diseases1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
4CompletedTreatmentAntiviral Agents / Chronic Liver Diseases (CLD) / Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Therapeutic Uses / Virus Hepatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentAsian Americans / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Novel Genotypes / Treatments1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection16
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Fatty Liver1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection9
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Genotyping1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hemodialysis-dependent patients1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C, Genotype 11
4CompletedTreatmentEarly Chronic Hepatitis C / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / HIV Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHaematological Malignancies1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV)2
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic30
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4CompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Not Yet RecruitingPreventionHepatocellular,Carcinoma1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis, C Virus1
4RecruitingTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
4RecruitingTreatmentHandfoot-mouth Disease1
4RecruitingTreatmentHepatitis E1
4SuspendedTreatmentHCV1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection4
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Fatty Liver1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
4TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis / HIV/AIDS1
4TerminatedTreatmentHepacivirus / Hepatitis C, Chronic / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic4
4TerminatedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic / Insulin Resistance1
4Unknown StatusHealth Services ResearchHaemoglobinopathies congenital1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection2
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma1
4WithdrawnTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection3
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingNot AvailableHepatitis C Virus Infection1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHEAD & NECK Cancer1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentHuman Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Malignancies / Recurrent/Metastatic (R/M) Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Malignancies1
Not AvailableApproved for MarketingNot AvailablePost-transplant Hepatitis C1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection3
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / HIV Disease / Infection NOS1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Chronic11
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableCognition Disorders / Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic / Hepatitis C, Chronic / Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableGenotype 1 / HCV-1 / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepacivirus / Hepatitis C, Chronic4
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C Virus (HCV) / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic13
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic / Substance Abuse, Intravenous1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Chronic / Liver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Liver Disease / Liver Diseases1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection / Insulin Resistance1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHantavirus pulmonary infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatitis C Virus Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPneumonia1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationTreatmentViral Hemorrhagic Fevers1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
Not AvailableRecruitingBasic ScienceInsulin Resistance1
Not AvailableRecruitingScreeningHepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Chronic3
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableHepacivirus / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic3
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableMelanoma1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHepatitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic / Interferon Deficiency / Liver Diseases1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusNot AvailableHepatitis C, Chronic / Personality Disorders in Prison1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceChronic HCV Infection / Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentAutoimmune Diseases / Chronic Hepatitis C Infection / Lichen Planus (LP) / Vasculitis1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Infection1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentChronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableChronic Hepatitis C Infection / Hepatitis C, Chronic1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentEnd Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) / Hepatitis C Infection1
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Schering plough research institute
  • Three rivers pharmaceuticals llc
  • Aurobindo pharma ltd
  • Sandoz inc
  • Teva pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
  • Valeant pharmaceuticals international
  • Schering corp
  • Hoffmann la roche inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg/1
TabletOral200 mg
TabletOral400 mg
TabletOral600 mg
Kit
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral600 mg/1
Solution; tabletOral; Subcutaneous
Capsule; powder, for solutionOral; Subcutaneous
CapsuleOral200 mg
LiquidOral40 mg/mL
SolutionOral40 mg/ml
Capsule; kit; liquidOral; Subcutaneous
TabletOral200 mg/1
TabletOral400 mg/1
TabletOral600 mg/1
CapsuleOral200 mg/1
Tablet, coatedOral200 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral500 mg/1
Tablet, film coatedOral200 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral400 mg
Aerosol; powder, for solutionRespiratory (inhalation)6 g
Powder, for solutionRespiratory (inhalation)6 g/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Virazole 6 gm vial4512.21USD vial
Ribatab 600 mg tablet32.01USD tablet
Ribasphere 600 mg tablet24.88USD tablet
Ribavirin 600 mg tablet24.88USD tablet
Ribatab 400 mg tablet21.34USD tablet
Ribavirin 500 mg tablet20.74USD tablet
Ribasphere 400 mg tablet16.59USD tablet
Ribavirin 400 mg tablet16.59USD tablet
Copegus 200 mg tablet15.19USD tablet
Rebetol 200 mg capsule10.81USD capsule
Ribasphere 200 mg capsule10.33USD capsule
Ribavirin 200 mg capsule10.33USD capsule
Ribasphere 200 mg tablet8.29USD tablet
Ribavirin 200 mg tablet8.29USD tablet
Ribavirin powder3.21USD g
Rebetol 40 mg/ml Solution2.42USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2287056 No2000-08-152018-12-21Canada
CA2365412 No2002-09-172018-12-21Canada
US6150337 No1997-11-212017-11-21Us
US6172046 Yes1998-03-212018-03-21Us
US6177074 Yes1997-05-012017-05-01Us
US6461605 Yes1997-05-012017-05-01Us
US6472373 Yes1998-03-212018-03-21Us
US6524570 Yes1997-05-012017-05-01Us
US6790837 Yes2003-10-052023-10-05Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)174-176 °CMSDS
water solubilitySolubleMSDS
logP-1.85MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility33.2 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.9ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.87ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.88ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area143.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity64.57 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.18 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9852
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9381
Caco-2 permeable-0.7742
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.7715
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9507
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.964
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9574
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8329
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8426
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6011
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9462
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9442
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9095
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9535
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9845
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9025
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7406
Rat acute toxicity1.9876 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9948
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.919
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-92e2bd11ded2c95f3fbdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-109ebb69f722bb3a92d7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-03di-2900000000-c0d63d0633c304d466caView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-03xr-5900000000-c6f13aea6e263f2557f4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-02t9-9500000000-cefa4afc53cf92b724c3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-014i-9200000000-3a87882b304f3a9c9995View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-d5e98a470d0e674937d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-c659efd26af31b3b98dcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-1900000000-56c00c62af197ae8eecbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-2900000000-aa387f940aedc4b69874View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , positivesplash10-03di-3900000000-795b88d3d651082dccb4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as triazole ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides. These are nucleoside derivatives containing a ribose (or deoxyribose) moiety which is N-glycosylated to a triazole. Nucleotides have a phosphate group linked to the C5 carbon of the ribose (or deoxyribose) moiety.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
Sub ClassTriazole ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides
Direct ParentTriazole ribonucleosides and ribonucleotides
Alternative ParentsGlycosylamines / Pentoses / 2-heteroaryl carboxamides / Triazoles / Oxolanes / Heteroaromatic compounds / Secondary alcohols / Primary carboxylic acid amides / Oxacyclic compounds / Azacyclic compounds
SubstituentsN-ribosyl-1,2,4-triazole / Glycosyl compound / N-glycosyl compound / Pentose monosaccharide / 2-heteroaryl carboxamide / Monosaccharide / Azole / Oxolane / Triazole / 1,2,4-triazole
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptorsmonocarboxylic acid amide, aromatic amide, 1-ribosyltriazole (CHEBI:63580 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in t...
Gene Name:
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID:
P20839
Molecular Weight:
55405.365 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Gish RG: Treating HCV with ribavirin analogues and ribavirin-like molecules. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006 Jan;57(1):8-13. Epub 2005 Nov 17. [PubMed:16293677 ]
  3. McHutchison JG, Shiffman ML, Cheung RC, Gordon SC, Wright TL, Pottage JC Jr, McNair L, Ette E, Moseley S, Alam J: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-escalation trial of merimepodib (VX-497) and interferon-alpha in previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C. Antivir Ther. 2005;10(5):635-43. [PubMed:16152757 ]
  4. Leyssen P, De Clercq E, Neyts J: The anti-yellow fever virus activity of ribavirin is independent of error-prone replication. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Apr;69(4):1461-7. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16421290 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Rna binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in t...
Gene Name:
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID:
P12268
Molecular Weight:
55804.495 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
activator
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
ADK
Uniprot ID:
P55263
Molecular Weight:
40545.075 Da
References
  1. Wu JZ, Larson G, Walker H, Shim JH, Hong Z: Phosphorylation of ribavirin and viramidine by adenosine kinase and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II: Implications for ribavirin metabolism in erythrocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Jun;49(6):2164-71. [PubMed:15917509 ]
  2. Kumarapperuma SC, Sun Y, Jeselnik M, Chung K, Parker WB, Jonsson CB, Arterburn JB: Structural effects on the phosphorylation of 3-substituted 1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazoles by human adenosine kinase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007 Jun 1;17(11):3203-7. Epub 2007 Mar 12. [PubMed:17379518 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
HPIV-2
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Rna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
Displays RNA-directed RNA polymerase, mRNA guanylyl transferase, mRNA (guanine-N(7)-)-methyltransferase and poly(A) synthetase activities. The viral mRNA guanylyl transferase displays a different biochemical reaction than the cellular enzyme. The template is composed of the viral RNA tightly encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N). Functions either as transcriptase or as replicase. The transcript...
Gene Name:
L
Uniprot ID:
P26676
Molecular Weight:
256380.115 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Influenza A virus (strain A/Beijing/11/1956 H1N1)
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Rna-directed rna polymerase activity
Specific Function:
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase which is responsible for replication and transcription of virus RNA segments. The transcription of viral mRNAs occurs by a unique mechanism called cap-snatching. 5' methylated caps of cellular mRNAs are cleaved after 10-13 nucleotides by PA. In turn, these short capped RNAs are used as primers by PB1 for transcription of viral mRNAs. During virus replication, PB1 in...
Gene Name:
PB1
Uniprot ID:
P16502
Molecular Weight:
86534.5 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Bougie I, Bisaillon M: Initial binding of the broad spectrum antiviral nucleoside ribavirin to the hepatitis C virus RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2003 Dec 26;278(52):52471-8. Epub 2003 Oct 16. [PubMed:14563844 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Nucleotide binding
Specific Function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
P49902
Molecular Weight:
64969.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
By generating PPi, plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. PPi inhibits mineralization by binding to nascent hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals, thereby preventing further growth of these crystals. Preferentially hydrolyzes ATP, but can also hydrolyze other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their c...
Gene Name:
ENPP1
Uniprot ID:
P22413
Molecular Weight:
104923.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
DENV-2
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Structural molecule activity
Specific Function:
Capsid protein C self-assembles to form an icosahedral capsid about 30 nm in diameter. The capsid encapsulates the genomic RNA.prM acts as a chaperone for envelope protein E during intracellular virion assembly by masking and inactivating envelope protein E fusion peptide. prM is matured in the last step of virion assembly, presumably to avoid catastrophic activation of the viral fusion peptide...
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
P12823
Molecular Weight:
379216.195 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Poly(a) rna binding
Specific Function:
ATP dependent phosphorylation of adenosine and other related nucleoside analogs to monophosphate derivatives. Serves as a potential regulator of concentrations of extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
ADK
Uniprot ID:
P55263
Molecular Weight:
40545.075 Da
References
  1. Wu JZ, Larson G, Walker H, Shim JH, Hong Z: Phosphorylation of ribavirin and viramidine by adenosine kinase and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase II: Implications for ribavirin metabolism in erythrocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Jun;49(6):2164-71. [PubMed:15917509 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Nucleoside transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates both influx and efflux of nucleosides across the membrane (equilibrative transporter). It is sensitive (ES) to low concentrations of the inhibitor nitrobenzylmercaptopurine riboside (NBMPR) and is sodium-independent. It has a higher affinity for adenosine. Inhibited by dipyridamole and dilazep (anticancer chemotherapeutics drugs).
Gene Name:
SLC29A1
Uniprot ID:
Q99808
Molecular Weight:
50218.805 Da
References
  1. Yamamoto T, Sugawara M, Kikukawa T, Miyauchi S, Yamaguchi M, Tero A, Takagi S, Nakagaki T: Kinetic study of anti-viral ribavirin uptake mediated by hCNT3 and hENT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biophys Chem. 2010 Mar;147(1-2):59-65. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2009.12.012. Epub 2010 Jan 6. [PubMed:20096989 ]
  2. Fukuchi Y, Furihata T, Hashizume M, Iikura M, Chiba K: Characterization of ribavirin uptake systems in human hepatocytes. J Hepatol. 2010 Apr;52(4):486-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2010.01.011. Epub 2010 Feb 4. [PubMed:20185188 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Pyrimidine- and adenine-specific:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent, pyrimidine- and purine-selective. Involved in the homeostasis of endogenous nucleosides. Exhibits the transport characteristics of the nucleoside transport system cib or N3 subtype (N3/cib) (with marked transport of both thymidine and inosine). Employs a 2:1 sodium/nucleoside ratio. Also able to transport gemcitabine, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), ribavirin and 3-deazaurid...
Gene Name:
SLC28A3
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAS3
Molecular Weight:
76929.61 Da
References
  1. Yamamoto T, Sugawara M, Kikukawa T, Miyauchi S, Yamaguchi M, Tero A, Takagi S, Nakagaki T: Kinetic study of anti-viral ribavirin uptake mediated by hCNT3 and hENT1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biophys Chem. 2010 Mar;147(1-2):59-65. doi: 10.1016/j.bpc.2009.12.012. Epub 2010 Jan 6. [PubMed:20096989 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on July 22, 2017 14:30