Identification

Name
Guanfacine
Accession Number
DB01018  (APRD00075)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

A centrally acting antihypertensive agent. The drug lowers both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by activating the central nervous system alpha-2 adrenoreceptors, which results in reduced sympathetic outflow leading to reduced vascular tone. Its adverse reactions include dry mouth, sedation, and constipation. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Estulic
  • Guanfacina
  • Guanfacinum
External IDs
SPD 503
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Guanfacine HydrochloridePML56A160O29110-48-3DGFYECXYGUIODH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IntunivTablet, extended release1 mg/1OralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-09-02Not applicableUs64725 051320180907 15195 1bnd7x7
IntunivTablet, extended release4 mgOralShire2015-09-17Not applicableEu
IntunivTablet, extended release2 mgOralShire2015-09-17Not applicableEu
IntunivTablet, extended release1 mgOralShire2015-09-17Not applicableEu
IntunivTablet, extended release2 mg/1OralShire2009-09-02Not applicableUs54092 0515 02 nlmimage10 071603e0
IntunivTablet, extended release2 mg/1OralTYA Pharmaceuticals2009-09-02Not applicableUs64725 051520180907 15195 1kpsb6y
IntunivTablet, extended release3 mgOralShire2015-09-17Not applicableEu
IntunivTablet, extended release2 mgOralShire2015-09-17Not applicableEu
IntunivTablet, extended release4 mg/1OralShire2009-09-02Not applicableUs54092 0519 02 nlmimage10 fd15feaf
IntunivTablet, extended release1 mgOralShire2015-09-17Not applicableEu
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
GuanfacineTablet, extended release4 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.2015-06-02Not applicableUs00093 5964 01 nlmimage10 d743ebaf
GuanfacineTablet1 mg/1OralCarilion Materials Management1995-10-17Not applicableUs68151 062320180913 8702 5z3k8u
GuanfacineTablet, extended release3 mg/1OralActavis Pharma, Inc.2014-12-01Not applicableUs0228 285320180913 8702 ok8ifh
GuanfacineTablet1 mg/1OralPuraCap Laboratories LLC dba Blu Pharmaceuticals2016-11-14Not applicableUs
GuanfacineTablet2 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2018-08-14Not applicableUs
GuanfacineTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2017-05-17Not applicableUs
GuanfacineTablet, extended release1 mg/1OralTeva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.2015-06-02Not applicableUs00093 5960 01 nlmimage10 c243e15f
GuanfacineTablet, extended release4 mg/1OralAvKARE, Inc.2015-07-09Not applicableUs
GuanfacineTablet1 mg/1OralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.1997-01-27Not applicableUs
GuanfacineTablet1 mg/1OralRemedy Repack2016-01-25Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
IntunivGuanfacine Hydrochloride (1 mg/1) + Guanfacine Hydrochloride (2 mg/1)KitShire US Manufacturing Inc.2009-09-022011-06-15Us
IntunivGuanfacine Hydrochloride (1 mg/1) + Guanfacine Hydrochloride (2 mg/1)KitShire2009-09-02Not applicableUs
IntunivGuanfacine Hydrochloride (1 mg/1) + Guanfacine Hydrochloride (2 mg/1)KitShire US Manufacturing Inc.2009-09-022011-06-15Us
IntunivGuanfacine Hydrochloride (1 mg/1) + Guanfacine Hydrochloride (2 mg/1)KitShire2009-09-02Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Estulic (Egis)
Categories
UNII
30OMY4G3MK
CAS number
29110-47-2
Weight
Average: 246.093
Monoisotopic: 245.012267339
Chemical Formula
C9H9Cl2N3O
InChI Key
INJOMKTZOLKMBF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H9Cl2N3O/c10-6-2-1-3-7(11)5(6)4-8(15)14-9(12)13/h1-3H,4H2,(H4,12,13,14,15)
IUPAC Name
N-carbamimidoyl-2-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)acetamide
SMILES
NC(=N)NC(=O)CC1=C(Cl)C=CC=C1Cl

Pharmacology

Indication

For use alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents in the management of hypertension. Has also been used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in pediatric patients.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Guanfacine is a phenylacetyl-guanidine derivative hypotensive and a centrally-acting, alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist used alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of hypertension.

Mechanism of action

Guanfacine selectively stimulates central alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors, resulting in inhibition of sympathetic vasomotor centers, which contributes predominantly to the hypotensive effects of the drug. Central effects of guanfacine lead to reduced peripheral sympathetic nerve impulses from the vasomotor center to the heart and blood vessels. This results in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a reduction in heart rate. The stimulation of peripheral alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors may also contribute to hypotensive effects.

TargetActionsOrganism
AAlpha-2A adrenergic receptor
agonist
Human
UAlpha-2B adrenergic receptor
binder
Human
Absorption

Rapid and complete, with an oral bioavailability of approximately 80%.

Volume of distribution
  • 6.3 L/kg
Protein binding

Approximately 70% bound to plasma proteins, independent of drug concentration.

Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of elimination

In individuals with normal renal function, guanfacine and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine.

Half life

17 hours (range 10-30 hours)

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Symptoms of overdose include drowsiness, lethargy, bradycardia and hypotension. LD50=165mg/kg (orally in mice)

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinThe metabolism of (R)-warfarin can be decreased when combined with Guanfacine.
(S)-WarfarinThe metabolism of (S)-Warfarin can be decreased when combined with Guanfacine.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine.
3,5-diiodothyropropionic acidThe metabolism of 3,5-diiodothyropropionic acid can be decreased when combined with Guanfacine.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine.
4-hydroxycoumarinThe metabolism of 4-hydroxycoumarin can be decreased when combined with Guanfacine.
4-MethoxyamphetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with 4-Methoxyamphetamine.
5-androstenedioneThe metabolism of 5-androstenedione can be decreased when combined with Guanfacine.
5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Guanfacine is combined with 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

U.S. Patent 3,632,645.

General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015153
KEGG Compound
C07037
PubChem Compound
3519
PubChem Substance
46506169
ChemSpider
3399
BindingDB
81984
ChEBI
5558
ChEMBL
CHEMBL862
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000900
PharmGKB
PA449825
IUPHAR
522
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Guanfacine
ATC Codes
C02AC02 — Guanfacine
AHFS Codes
  • 24:08.16 — Central Alpha-agonists

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers2
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedTreatmentAlcohol Dependent / Cocaine Dependent1
1CompletedTreatmentCannabis Dependence1
1CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
1CompletedTreatmentPost Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Abstinence1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCessation, Smoking1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentSmoking1
2CompletedOtherCocaine Related Disorders1
2CompletedOtherSmoking1
2CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity2
2CompletedTreatmentGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) / Separation Anxiety / Social Phobia1
2CompletedTreatmentHemispatial Neglect / Strokes1
2CompletedTreatmentSchizotypal Personality Disorder / SPD1
2RecruitingTreatmentAlcohol Drinking1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity1
3CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)4
3CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder2
3CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome1
3CompletedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHigh Blood Pressure (Hypertension)1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentObstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Childhood Aggression / Intermittent Explosive Disorder / Oppositional Defiant Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity2
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation (DESR)1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD) / Reading Disability1
4CompletedTreatmentAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentGilles de la Tourette's Syndrome / Tourette's Disorder1
4CompletedTreatmentPervasive Development Disorders1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentStress Disorders1
4RecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
4TerminatedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder (ADD) / Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder / Sleep disorders and disturbances / Sleeplessness1
4TerminatedTreatmentPersonality Disorders / Schizotypal Personality Disorder1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentCognitive Impairments / Schizoaffective Disorders / Schizophrenic Disorders1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceNMDA Receptor Function1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity / Autistic Disorder / Pervasive Development Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCognitive Aging1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingBasic ScienceAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAttention Deficit Disorder With Hyperactivity (ADHD)1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPain, Chronic1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentPost-Operative Nausea and Vomiting (PONV) / Postoperative pain1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentBorderline Personality Disorder (BPD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Shire development inc
  • Amneal pharmaceutical
  • Mikah pharma llc
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Promius pharma llc
Packagers
  • Actavis Group
  • Advanced Pharmaceutical Services Inc.
  • Amerisource Health Services Corp.
  • Amneal Pharmaceuticals
  • Atlantic Biologicals Corporation
  • Cardinal Health
  • Industriale Chimica S.R.L.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Murfreesboro Pharmaceutical Nursing Supply
  • Mylan
  • Par Pharmaceuticals
  • Patheon Inc.
  • Pharmaceutical Utilization Management Program VA Inc.
  • Pharmedix
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Promius Pharma
  • Qualitest
  • Resource Optimization and Innovation LLC
  • Shire Inc.
  • Southwood Pharmaceuticals
  • Watson Pharmaceuticals
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, extended releaseOral3 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
TabletOral1 mg/1
TabletOral2 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral1 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral2 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral3 mg/1
Tablet, film coated, extended releaseOral4 mg/1
Kit
Tablet, extended releaseOral1 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral2 mg/1
Tablet, extended releaseOral1 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral2 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral3 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral4 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Intuniv 1 mg 24 Hour tablet5.72USD tablet
Intuniv 2 mg 24 Hour tablet5.72USD tablet
Intuniv 3 mg 24 Hour tablet5.72USD tablet
Intuniv 4 mg 24 Hour tablet5.72USD tablet
Intuniv er 1 mg tablet5.5USD tablet
Intuniv er 2 mg tablet5.5USD tablet
Intuniv er 3 mg tablet5.5USD tablet
Intuniv er 4 mg tablet5.5USD tablet
Tenex 2 mg tablet4.3USD tablet
Tenex 1 mg tablet2.9USD tablet
Guanfacine HCl 2 mg tablet1.22USD tablet
Guanfacine 2 mg tablet1.18USD tablet
Guanfacine HCl 1 mg tablet0.91USD tablet
Guanfacine 1 mg tablet0.87USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5854290Yes1998-12-292016-03-21Us
US6811794Yes2004-11-022023-01-04Us
US6287599Yes2001-09-112021-06-20Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)213-216U.S. Patent 3,632,645.
water solubility1892 mg/LNot Available
logP1.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.139 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.28ALOGPS
logP1.74ChemAxon
logS-3.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.65ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.97 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity69.63 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.75 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9313
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9567
Caco-2 permeable-0.5101
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6778
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8782
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9833
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6443
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7572
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7948
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6475
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8893
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.8931
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7376
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.831
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6619
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7223
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8107
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9843
Rat acute toxicity2.7408 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9677
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9285
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dichlorobenzenes. These are compounds containing a benzene with exactly two chlorine atoms attached to it.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Benzenoids
Class
Benzene and substituted derivatives
Sub Class
Halobenzenes
Direct Parent
Dichlorobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Aryl chlorides / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compounds / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organooxygen compounds / Organochlorides / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
1,3-dichlorobenzene / Aryl chloride / Aryl halide / Carboximidamide / Organic 1,3-dipolar compound / Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound / Organic nitrogen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Organonitrogen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
acetamides (CHEBI:5558)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Thioesterase binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazo...
Gene Name
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID
P08913
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2A adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
48956.275 Da
References
  1. Avery RA, Franowicz JS, Studholme C, van Dyck CH, Arnsten AF: The alpha-2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, increases regional cerebral blood flow in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a spatial working memory task. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2000 Sep;23(3):240-9. [PubMed:10942848]
  2. Sagvolden T: The alpha-2A adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine improves sustained attention and reduces overactivity and impulsiveness in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Behav Brain Funct. 2006 Dec 15;2:41. [PubMed:17173664]
  3. Yuan R, Wu Z, Kostenyuk IA, Burns JK: G-protein-coupled alpha2A-adrenoreceptor agonists differentially alter citrus leaf and fruit abscission by affecting expression of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase. J Exp Bot. 2005 Jul;56(417):1867-75. Epub 2005 May 31. [PubMed:15928018]
  4. Birnbaum SG, Podell DM, Arnsten AF: Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor agonists reverse working memory deficits induced by the anxiogenic drug, FG7142, in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2000 Nov;67(3):397-403. [PubMed:11164065]
  5. Millan MJ: Evidence that an alpha 2A-adrenoceptor subtype mediates antinociception in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 1992 May 14;215(2-3):355-6. [PubMed:1356794]
  6. Stahl SM: Mechanism of action of alpha 2A-adrenergic agonists in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with or without oppositional symptoms. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Mar;71(3):223-4. doi: 10.4088/JCP.09bs05899pur. [PubMed:20331927]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Binder
General Function
Epinephrine binding
Specific Function
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine-induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine...
Gene Name
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID
P18089
Uniprot Name
Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor
Molecular Weight
49565.8 Da
References
  1. Uhlen S, Wikberg JE: Delineation of rat kidney alpha 2A- and alpha 2B-adrenoceptors with [3H]RX821002 radioligand binding: computer modelling reveals that guanfacine is an alpha 2A-selective compound. Eur J Pharmacol. 1991 Sep 17;202(2):235-43. [PubMed:1666366]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Clement B, Demesmaeker M: Microsomal catalyzed N-hydroxylation of guanfacine and reduction of N-hydroxyguanfacine. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 1997 Oct;330(9-10):303-6. [PubMed:9396389]
  2. Guillouzo A, Le Bigot JF, Guguen-Guillouzo C, Kiechel JR: Presence of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes in cultured human foetal hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Jul 15;31(14):2427-30. [PubMed:6751332]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and im...
Gene Name
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID
P33261
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C19
Molecular Weight
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Clement B, Demesmaeker M: Microsomal catalyzed N-hydroxylation of guanfacine and reduction of N-hydroxyguanfacine. Arch Pharm (Weinheim). 1997 Oct;330(9-10):303-6. [PubMed:9396389]
  2. Guillouzo A, Le Bigot JF, Guguen-Guillouzo C, Kiechel JR: Presence of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes in cultured human foetal hepatocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982 Jul 15;31(14):2427-30. [PubMed:6751332]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 17, 2018 04:48