**Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with a history of erosive esophagitis**
Pantoprazole for injection is indicated for short-term treatment (7-10 days) of patients having gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) with a history of erosive esophagitis, as an alternative to oral medication in patients who are unable to continue taking pantoprazole delayed-release tablets. _Safety and efficacy of pantoprazole injection as the initial treatment of patients having GERD with a history of erosive esophagitis have not been demonstrated at this time_ [FDA label].
**Pathological Hypersecretion Associated with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome**
Pantoprazole for injection is indicated for the treatment of pathological hypersecretory conditions associated with Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome or other neoplastic conditions [FDA label].
**Pantoprazole delayed-release oral suspension**:
**Short-Term Treatment of erosive esophagitis associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)**
Indicated in adults and pediatric patients five years of age and above for the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) in the healing and symptomatic relief of erosive esophagitis. For adult patients who have not healed after 8 weeks of treatment, an additional 8-week course of pantoprazole may be considered. Safety of treatment beyond 8 weeks in pediatric patients has not been determined [F3202].
**Maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis**
Indicated for maintenance of healing of erosive esophagitis and reduction in relapse rates of daytime and nighttime heartburn symptoms in adult patients with GERD [F3202].
**Pathological hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome**
Indicated for the long-term treatment of the above conditions [F3202].|
|DB00215||Citalopram||For the treatment of depression, as indicated by the FDA label [FDA label]. Off-label indications include but are not limited to: treatment of sexual dysfunction, post-stroke behavioural changes, ethanol abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children, and diabetic neuropathy [FDA label], [A321], [A322], [A323], [A324], [A174406], [A174409], [A174412].|
|DB00252||Phenytoin||For the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.|
|DB00338||Omeprazole||Omeprazole, according to the FDA label [FDA label] is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) used for the following purposes:
• Treatment of active duodenal ulcer in adults
• Eradication of Helicobacter pylori to reduce the risk of duodenal ulcer
recurrence in adults
• Treatment of active benign gastric ulcer in adults
• Treatment of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in
patients 1 year of age and older
• Treatment of erosive esophagitis (EE) due to acid-mediated GERD in
patients 1 month of age and older
• Maintenance of healing of EE due to acid-mediated GERD in patients 1
year of age and older
• Pathologic hypersecretory conditions in adults|
|DB00395||Carisoprodol||Carisoprodol is indicated for the relief of discomfort related to acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions [FDA label].
**Important limitations of use** [FDA label]:
• Should only be used for acute treatment periods up to two or three weeks
• Adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use has not been established
• Not recommended in pediatric patients less than 16 years of age|
|DB00448||Lansoprazole||Lansoprazole is used to reduce gastric acid secretion and is approved for short term treatment of active gastric ulcers, active duodenal ulcers, erosive reflux oesophagitis, symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastric and duodenal ulcers. [A4892][A177065][FDA Label] It may be used in the maintenance and healing of several gastric conditions including duodenal ulcers, NSAID related gastric ulcers, and erosive esophagitis.[FDA Label] Lansoprazole prevents recurrence of gastric ulcers in patients who have a documented history of gastric ulcers who also use NSAIDs chronically. [FDA Label] Predictably, it is also useful in the management of hypersecretory conditions including Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. [FDA Label] Lansoprazole is effective at eradicating H. pylori when used in conjunction with amoxicillin and clarithromycin (triple therapy) or with amoxicillin alone (dual therapy). [FDA Label]|
|DB00582||Voriconazole||For the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, and serious fungal infections caused by Scedosporium apiospermum and Fusarium spp.|
|DB00736||Esomeprazole||For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastroinetestinal bleeds with NSAID use.|
|DB00849||Methylphenobarbital||For the relief of anxiety, tension, and apprehension, also used as an anticonvulsant for the treatment of epilepsy.|
|DB01131||Proguanil||For the causal prevention and suppression of malaria caused by susceptible strains of P. falciparum and other species of Plasmodium found in some geographical areas of the world.|
|DB01174||Phenobarbital||For the treatment of all types of seizures except absence seizures.|
|DB01320||Fosphenytoin||For the control of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. It can also be substituted, short-term, for oral phenytoin.|
|DB00321||Amitriptyline||This drug in indicated for the following conditions [FDA label]:
Major depressive disorder in adults
Management of neuropathic pain in adults
Prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in adults
Prophylactic treatment of migraine in adults
Treatment of nocturnal enuresis in children aged 6 years and above when organic pathology, including spina bifida and related disorders, have been excluded and no response has been achieved to all other non-drug and drug treatments, including antispasmodics and vasopressin-related products. This product should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional with expertise in the management of persistent enuresis [FDA label]
Off-label uses: irritable bowel syndrome, sleep disorders, diabetic neuropathy, agitation, fibromyalgia, and insomnia |
|DB00458||Imipramine||For the relief of symptoms of depression and as temporary adjunctive therapy in reducing enuresis in children aged 6 years and older [FDA Label].
May also be used off-label to manage panic disorders with or without agoraphobia, as a second line agent for ADHD in children and adolescents, to manage bulimia nervosa, for short-term management of acute depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, for the treatment of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and for symptomatic treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy [L1349,L1348,A31900,L1351,L1352,L1353,A31904]. |
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB01242||Clomipramine||May be used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder and disorders with an obsessive-compulsive component (e.g. depression, schizophrenia, Tourette’s disorder).
Unlabeled indications include: depression, panic disorder, chronic pain (e.g. central pain, idiopathic pain disorder, tension headache, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, neuropathic pain), cataplexy and associated narcolepsy (limited evidence), autistic disorder (limited evidence), trichotillomania (limited evidence), onchophagia (limited evidence), stuttering (limited evidence), premature ejaculation, and premenstrual syndrome. |
|DB00758||Clopidogrel||For the reduction of atherosclerotic events (myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death) in patients with atherosclerosis documented by recent stroke, recent myocardial infarction, or established peripheral arterial disease.|
|DB00531||Cyclophosphamide||Cyclophosphamide is indicated for the treatment of malignant lymphomas, multiple myeloma, leukemias, mycosis fungoides (advanced disease), neuroblastoma (disseminated disease), adenocarcinoma of the ovary, retinoblastoma, and carcinoma of the breast. It is also indicated for the treatment of biopsy-proven minimal change nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. |
|DB01175||Escitalopram||Labeled indications include major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Unlabeled indications include treatment of mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients. |
|DB00679||Thioridazine||For the treatment of schizophrenia and generalized anxiety disorder.|
|DB01129||Rabeprazole||For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastroinetestinal bleeds with NSAID use.|
|DB06414||Etravirine||Indicated as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of adult HIV-1 infections resistant to therapy with other NNRTIs and antiretroviral agents. |
The gelatinized capsules are indicated for use in the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in non-hysterectomized postmenopausal women who are receiving conjugated estrogens tablets. They are also indicated for use in secondary amenorrhea [FDA label].
Progesterone gel (8%) is indicated as progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (“ART”) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency. The lower concentration progesterone gel (4%) is used in the treatment of secondary amenorrhea, with the use of the 8% concentration if there is no therapeutic response to the 4% gel [F3898].
This form is indicated to support embryo implantation and early pregnancy by supplementation of corpus luteal function as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment program for infertile women [F3901].
This drug is indicated in amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology, such as submucous fibroids or uterine cancer [F3907].
The tablet form of progesterone in contraceptive formulations is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy [F3904]. |
|DB00468||Quinine||For the treatment of malaria and leg cramps|
|DB00980||Ramelteon||For the treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulty with sleep onset.|
|DB00675||Tamoxifen||Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women and men and ductal carcinoma in Situ. |
|DB00425||Zolpidem||This drug is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia in adults characterized by difficulties with sleep initiation [FDA label]. |
|DB00333||Methadone||For the treatment of dry cough, drug withdrawal syndrome, opioid type drug dependence, and pain.|
|DB00250||Dapsone||For the treatment and management of leprosy and dermatitis herpetiformis.|
|DB01418||Acenocoumarol||For the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic diseases. More specifically, it is indicated for the for the prevention of cerebral embolism, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, thromboembolism in infarction and transient ischemic attacks. It is used for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and myocardial infarction.|
|DB00682||Warfarin||For the treatment of retinal vascular occlusion, pulmonary embolism, cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation and flutter, cerebral embolism, transient cerebral ischaemia, arterial embolism and thrombosis.|
|DB01355||Hexobarbital||For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.|
|DB00474||Methohexital||Methohexital is indicated for use as an intravenous anaesthetic. It has also been commonly used to induce deep sedation.|
|DB00312||Pentobarbital||For the short-term treatment of insomnia.|
|DB00794||Primidone||Primidone is commonly indicated for the management of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures [L4645, FDA Label]. In addition, it has also been studied and utilized as an effective management of essential tremor [A39414, A39415, L4645].|
|DB00599||Thiopental||For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.|
|DB05246||Methsuximide||For the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to other drugs.|
|DB09068||Vortioxetine||Vortioxetine is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD).|
|DB06626||Axitinib||Used in kidney cell cancer and investigated for use/treatment in pancreatic and thyroid cancer.|
|DB06605||Apixaban||Apixaban is to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. It has also been used to lower the risk of developing venous thrombosis post-orthopedic surgical procedures. |
|DB01259||Lapatinib||Indicated in combination with capecitabine for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer whose tumors overexpress the human epidermal receptor type 2 (HER2) protein and who have received prior therapy including an anthracycline, a taxane, and trastuzuma.|
|DB00472||Fluoxetine||Labeled indication include: major depressive disorder (MDD), moderate to severe bulimia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, and combination treatment with olanzapine for treatment-resistant or bipolar I depression. Unlabeled indications include: selective mutism, mild dementia-associated agitation in nonpsychotic patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, and Raynaud's phenomenon. |
|DB06218||Lacosamide||Lacosamide is indicated for adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures in patients with epilepsy over 17 years old. Injection is indicated for short term use when oral therapy is not feasible. |
|DB01118||Amiodarone||Intravenously, for initiation of treatment and prophylaxis of frequently recurring ventricular fibrillation and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia in patients refractory to other therapy. Orally, for the treatment of life-threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmias such as recurrent ventricular fibrillation and recurrent hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia.|
|DB00347||Trimethadione||Used in the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.|
|DB00909||Zonisamide||For use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.|
|DB06697||Artemether||Artemether and lumefantrine combination therapy is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, including malaria acquired in chloroquine-resistant areas. May also be used to treat uncomplicated malaria when the Plasmodium species has not been identified. Indicated for use in adults and children greater than 5 kg. |
|DB00518||Albendazole||For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus.|
|DB01323||St. John's Wort||Not Available|
|DB12130||Lorlatinib||Lorlatinib is a third-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) [L4848] indicated for the treatment of patients with ALK-positive metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) whose disease has progressed on a) the prior use of crizotinib and at least one other ALK inhibitor for metastatic disease, or b) the prior use of alectinib as the first ALK inhibitor therapy for metastatic disease, or c) the prior use of certinib as the first ALK inhibitor therapy for metastatic disease [L848, FDA Label]. |
|DB09166||Etizolam||Indicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with depression, panic disorder and insomnia.|
|DB01058||Praziquantel||For the treatment of infections due to all species of schistosoma.|
|DB00349||Clobazam||For treatment and management of epilepsy and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a difficult-to-treat form of childhood epilepsy. |
|DB05351||Dexlansoprazole||Indicated for healing all grades of erosive esophagitis (EE), maintaining and healing of EE and relief of heartburn, and treating heartburn associated with symptomatic non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). |
|DB12245||Triclabendazole||This drug is indicated for the treatment of fascioliasis in patients 6 years of age and older [FDA label], [L5452].|
|DB11823||Esketamine||This drug is indicated in conjunction with an oral antidepressant for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adults [FDA label].
Note: Esketamine is not approved as an anesthetic agent. The safety and effectiveness of esketamine as an anesthetic agent have not been established to this date [FDA label]. |
|DB01142||Doxepin||Oral doxepin is approved for the following indications:
- Treatment of depression and/or anxiety.[A177163]
- Treatment of depression and/or anxiety associated with different conditions, including alcoholism, organic disease and manic-depressive disorders.[T249]
- Treatment of psychotic depressive disorders with associated anxiety.[T249]
- Treatment of involutional depression.[T249]
- Treatment of manic-depressive disorder.[T249]
- Treatment of insomnia characterized by difficulties with sleep maintenance.[A177163]
Topical doxepin is also approved for short-term (up to 8 days) management of moderate pruritus in adult patients with atopic dermatitis, pruritus or lichen simplex chronicus.[T249]
Off-label, doxepin is used topically for the management of neuropathic pain.[A177172]
Depression is a common medical illness that causes feelings of sadness and or loss of interest in prior enjoyable activities. This condition can lead to emotional and physical disturbances that can decrease the ability of a person to function in a regular environment.[L5980]
Anxiety is a normal reaction of the body towards a normal danger. When the anxious state is exacerbated or appears on situations without danger, it is defined as an anxiety disorder. This disorders can appear in different forms such as phobias, panic, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.[L5983]
Insomnia is a sleep disorder that directly affects the quality of life of the individual. It is characterized by the complication either to fall asleep or to stay asleep. This condition can be occasional or chronic.[L5986]
Pruritus is defined as an unpleasant skin reaction that provokes the urge to scratch. It can be localized or generalized and it can appear in an acute or chronic manner.[L5989]
Neuropathic pain occurs due to the damage or dysfunction of the peripheral or central nervous system rather than stimulation of the pain receptors.[L5992]|