Identification

Name
Insulin Aspart
Accession Number
DB01306
Type
Biotech
Groups
Approved
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Hormones / Insulins
Description

Insulin aspart is a recombinant, biosynthetic, fast-acting insulin analogue. It has a single amino acid substitution at position B28 where proline is replaced with aspartic acid. This substitution decreases its propensity to form hexamers and gives it a higher rate of absorption following subcutaneous administration compared to native insulin. Insulin aspart is produced in a genetically modified strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and harvested from a bioreactor.

Protein structure
Db01306
Protein chemical formula
C256H381N65O79S6
Protein average weight
5825.8 Da
Sequences
>A chain
GIVEQCCTSICSLYQLENYCN
>B chain
FVNQHLCGSHLVEALYLVCGERGFFYTDKT
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
  • Aspart
  • Aspart Insulin
  • B28-Aspart-Insulin
  • Insulin aspart protamine
  • Insulin aspart protamine recombinant
  • Insulin aspart recombinant
  • Insulin X14
  • Insulin, aspart protamine, human
  • Insulin, aspart, human
  • Insulin,aspart protamine
  • Insulina asparta
External IDs
INA-X14 / NN-1218 / NN1218
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
FiaspSolution100 unitSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2017-03-03Not applicableCanada
FiaspInjection, solution100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2017-10-20Not applicableUs
FiaspSolution100 unitSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2017-03-03Not applicableCanada
FiaspInjection, solution100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2017-10-20Not applicableUs
FiaspSolution100 unitSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2017-03-03Not applicableCanada
FiaspInjection, solution100 [iU]/1mLSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2018-09-24Not applicableUs
NovologInjection100SubcutaneousNovo Nordisk Inc.2006-10-102006-10-10Us
NovologInjection, solution100 [iU]/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousA-S Medication Solutions2001-08-27Not applicableUs
NovoLogInjection, solution100 [iU]/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousTYA Pharmaceuticals2001-08-27Not applicableUs
NovologInjection, solution100 [iU]/1mLIntravenous; SubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2001-08-27Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Novomix 30Insulin Aspart (30 %) + Insulin Aspart (70 %)SuspensionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2005-09-12Not applicableCanada
Novomix 30Insulin Aspart (30 %) + Insulin Aspart (70 %)SuspensionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2005-09-12Not applicableCanada
Novomix 30 (flexpen)Insulin Aspart (30 %) + Insulin Aspart (70 %)SuspensionSubcutaneousNovo NordiskNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Novomix 30 (flexpen)Insulin Aspart (30 %) + Insulin Aspart (70 %)SuspensionSubcutaneousNovo NordiskNot applicableNot applicableCanada
RyzodegInsulin Aspart (1.05 mg/ml) + Insulin Degludec (2.56 mg/ml)Injection, solutionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-01-21Not applicableEu
RyzodegInsulin Aspart (1.05 mg/ml) + Insulin Degludec (2.56 mg/ml)Injection, solutionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-01-21Not applicableEu
RyzodegInsulin Aspart (1.05 mg/ml) + Insulin Degludec (2.56 mg/ml)Injection, solutionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-01-21Not applicableEu
RyzodegInsulin Aspart (1.05 mg/ml) + Insulin Degludec (2.56 mg/ml)Injection, solutionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-01-21Not applicableEu
RyzodegInsulin Aspart (1.05 mg/ml) + Insulin Degludec (2.56 mg/ml)Injection, solutionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-01-21Not applicableEu
RyzodegInsulin Aspart (1.05 mg/ml) + Insulin Degludec (2.56 mg/ml)Injection, solutionSubcutaneousNovo Nordisk2013-01-21Not applicableEu
International/Other Brands
Novolog FlexPen (Novo Nordisk) / Novolog Penfill (Novo Nordisk) / NovoRapid Penfill (Novo Nordisk)
Categories
UNII
D933668QVX
CAS number
116094-23-6

Pharmacology

Indication

For the treatment of Type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. Should normally be used in conjunction with an intermediate or long-acting insulin.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Insulin is a natural hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas. In non-diabetic individuals, a basal level of insulin is supplemented with insulin spikes following meals. Postprandial insulin spikes are responsible for the metabolic changes that occur as the body transitions from a postabsorptive to absorptive state. Insulin promotes cellular uptake of glucose, particularly in muscle and adipose tissues, promotes energy storage via glycogenesis, opposes catabolism of energy stores, increases DNA replication and protein synthesis by stimulating amino acid uptake by liver, muscle and adipose tissue, and modifies the activity of numerous enzymes involved in glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Insulin also promotes growth and is required for the actions of growth hormone (e.g. protein synthesis, cell division, DNA synthesis). Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting insulin analogue used to mimic postprandial insulin spikes in diabetic individuals. The onset of action of insulin aspart is 10-15 minutes. Its activity peaks 60-90 minutes following subcutaneous injection and its duration of action is 4-5 hours.

Mechanism of action

Insulin aspart binds to the insulin receptor (IR), a heterotetrameric protein consisting of two extracellular alpha units and two transmembrane beta units. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunit of IR stimulates the tyrosine kinase activity intrinsic to the beta subunit of the receptor. The bound receptor autophosphorylates and phosphorylates numerous intracellular substrates such as insulin receptor substrates (IRS) proteins, Cbl, APS, Shc and Gab 1. Activation of these proteins leads to the activation of downstream signaling molecules including PI3 kinase and Akt. Akt regulates the activity of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and protein kinase C (PKC), both of which play critical roles in metabolism and catabolism. In humans, insulin is stored in the form of hexamers; however, only insulin monomers are able to interact with IR. Substitution of the proline residue at B28 with aspartic acid reduces the tendency to form hexamers and results in a faster rate of absorption and onset of action and shorter duration of action.

TargetActionsOrganism
AInsulin receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Rapidly absorbed following subcutaneous administration (more so than regular human insulin). Furthermore, insulin aspart has a faster absorption, a faster onset of action, and a shorter duration of action than regular human insulin after subcutaneous injection. It takes 40 - 50 minutes to reach maximum concentration. When a dose of 0.15 U/kg body weight was injected in type 1 diabetes patients, the mean maximum concentration (Cmax) was 82 mU/L. The site of injection has no impact on extent or speed of absorption.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

<10% bound to plasma proteins.

Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

81 minutes (following subcutaneous administration in healthy subjects).

Clearance
  • 1.2 L/h/kg [healthy Caucasian male], excreted in the urine
Toxicity

Inappropriately high dosages relative to food intake and/or energy expenditure may result in severe and sometimes prolonged and life-threatening hypoglycemia. Neurogenic (autonomic) signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include trembling, palpitations, sweating, anxiety, hunger, nausea and tingling. Neuroglycopenic signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia include difficulty concentrating, lethargy/weakness, confusion, drowsiness, vision changes, difficulty speaking, headache, and dizziness. Mild hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic symptoms. Moderate hypoglycemia is characterized by the presence of autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms. Individuals may become unconscious in severe cases of hypoglycemia.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
2,4-thiazolidinedioneThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin Aspart is combined with 2,4-thiazolidinedione.
5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinolineThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be increased when used in combination with 5-(2-methylpiperazine-1-sulfonyl)isoquinoline.
AcarboseThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acarbose is combined with Insulin Aspart.
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
AcetazolamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be increased when used in combination with Acetazolamide.
AcetohexamideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Acetohexamide is combined with Insulin Aspart.
Acetyl sulfisoxazoleThe therapeutic efficacy of Insulin Aspart can be increased when used in combination with Acetyl sulfisoxazole.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the hypoglycemic activities of Insulin Aspart.
AgmatineThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Agmatine is combined with Insulin Aspart.
AICA ribonucleotideThe risk or severity of hypoglycemia can be increased when Insulin Aspart is combined with AICA ribonucleotide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ronald E. Zimmerman, David John Stokell, Michael Patrick Akers, "ASPART PROINSULIN COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS OF PRODUCING ASPART INSULIN ANALOGS THEREFROM." U.S. Patent US20120214963, issued August 23, 2012.

US20120214963
General References
  1. Heller S, Kurtzhals P, Verge D, Lindholm A: Insulin aspart: promising early results borne out in clinical practice. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2002 Feb;3(2):183-95. [PubMed:11829732]
  2. Sciacca L, Cassarino MF, Genua M, Pandini G, Le Moli R, Squatrito S, Vigneri R: Insulin analogues differently activate insulin receptor isoforms and post-receptor signalling. Diabetologia. 2010 Aug;53(8):1743-53. doi: 10.1007/s00125-010-1760-6. Epub 2010 Apr 28. [PubMed:20424816]
External Links
KEGG Drug
D04475
PubChem Substance
46507309
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1201496
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001092
PharmGKB
PA164784029
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
ATC Codes
A10AD06 — Insulin degludec and insulin aspartA10AB05 — Insulin aspartA10AD05 — Insulin aspart
AHFS Codes
  • 68:20.08 — Insulins
FDA label
Download (909 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedNot AvailableHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 13
1CompletedOtherDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedTreatmentDelivery Systems / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 123
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Healthy Volunteers / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers5
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 14
1CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
1CompletedTreatmentType1 Diabetes Mellitus1
1RecruitingTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)1
1RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
1RecruitingTreatmentType1 Diabetes Mellitus1
1, 2CompletedBasic ScienceAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2CompletedPreventionPost-operative Cognitive Decline / Post-Operative Delirium1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 12
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 13
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2WithdrawnBasic ScienceDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
2, 3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType1diabetes1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentType2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentType 1 Diabetes Mellitus-Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / High Cholesterol / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedPreventionType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 128
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus15
3CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Type 11
3CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
3RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
3RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentAsthma Bronchial / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
3TerminatedTreatmentLeukemias / Malignant Lymphomas1
3TerminatedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Nocturnal Hypoglycemia / Recurrent Severe Hypoglycaemia1
4CompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Renal Failure (CRF)1
4CompletedBasic ScienceHyperglycemia, Postprandial / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedDiagnosticDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedPreventionCoronary Artery Disease1
4CompletedPreventionHyperglycemias1
4CompletedTreatmentAdmitting Hospital / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Non-critically Ill1
4CompletedTreatmentArteriosclerosis / Atherosclerosis / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)3
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 16
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus17
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 18
4CompletedTreatmentEvidence of Liver Transplantation / Hyperglycemias / Rejection1
4CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus10
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4RecruitingHealth Services ResearchType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4RecruitingPreventionHyperglycemias1
4RecruitingTreatmentAtherosclerosis / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Restenosis1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes type11
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 15
4RecruitingTreatmentGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) / Neonatal Hypoglycemia1
4RecruitingTreatmentHyperglycemia Steroid-induced / Insulin Resistance, Diabetes1
4RecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4TerminatedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
4TerminatedTreatmentPost-Transplant Glucocorticoid Induced Diabetes1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4Unknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus4
4WithdrawnTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
4WithdrawnTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDelivery Systems / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDelivery Systems / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus15
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus13
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceMemory Disorders1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1
Not AvailableCompletedSupportive CareDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM)2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHyperglycemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentImpaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) / Macrosomia, Fetal1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentKetoacidosis, Diabetic1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus3
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentType1 Diabetes1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 Diabetes1
Not AvailableEnrolling by InvitationNot AvailableGestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherType1diabetes1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableRecruitingOtherType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableSuspendedOtherDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableTerminatedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentLatent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults LADA1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnNot AvailableChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
Not AvailableWithdrawnSupportive CareDiabetes Mellitus (DM)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Novo Nordisk Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 [iU]/1mL
InjectionSubcutaneous100
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 [iU]/1mL
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 [iU]/1mL
SuspensionSubcutaneous
Injection, suspensionSubcutaneous100 U/ml
Injection, solutionIntravenous; Subcutaneous100 U/ml
SolutionSubcutaneous100 unit
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Novolog 100 unit/ml cartridge14.81USD ml
Novolog mix 70-30 cartridge10.45USD ml
Novorapid 100 unit/ml Cartridge3.89USD cartridge
Novorapid 100 unit/ml2.92USD cartridge
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US5618913No1997-04-082014-06-07Us
US8672898No2014-03-182022-01-02Us
US8684969No2014-04-012025-10-20Us
US9132239No2015-09-152032-02-01Us
US8920383No2014-12-302026-07-17Us
US7686786No2010-03-302026-08-03Us
US6899699No2005-05-312022-01-02Us
US5866538Yes1999-02-022017-12-20Us
US9108002No2015-08-182026-01-20Us
USRE41956Yes2010-11-232021-07-21Us
US9265893No2016-02-232032-09-23Us
US6004297Yes1999-12-212019-07-28Us
USRE43834No2012-11-272019-01-28Us
US7615532No2009-11-102025-05-25Us
US9486588No2016-11-082022-01-02Us
US9457154No2016-10-042027-09-27Us
USRE46363No2017-04-112026-08-03Us
US9687611No2017-06-272027-02-27Us
US9775953No2017-10-032026-07-17Us
US8324157No2012-12-042030-06-25Us
US9884094No2018-02-062033-05-01Us
US9861757No2018-01-092026-01-20Us
US9616180No2017-04-112026-01-20Us

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
Not Available

Taxonomy

Description
Not Available
Kingdom
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Class
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Peptides
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Receptor signaling protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific Function
Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates the pleiotropic actions of insulin. Binding of insulin leads to phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including, insulin receptor substrates (...
Gene Name
INSR
Uniprot ID
P06213
Uniprot Name
Insulin receptor
Molecular Weight
156331.465 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]
  2. Zib I, Raskin P: Novel insulin analogues and its mitogenic potential. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 Nov;8(6):611-20. [PubMed:17026485]

Drug created on June 30, 2007 08:44 / Updated on November 16, 2018 11:20