Identification

Name
MMDA
Accession Number
DB01442
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental, Illicit
Description

MMDA, or 3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine, is a stimulant and psychedelic drug of the amphetamine class. It also acts as an entheogen and an entactogen. MMDA bears resemblance to the psychopharmacologically active essential oils elemicin and myristicin found in nutmeg. The effects of MMDA includes feelings of euphoria and warmth, as well as realistic closed-eye visuals.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+-)-mmda
  • 3-Methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyphenylisopropylamine
  • 3-Methoxy-alpha-methyl-4,5-methylenedioxyphenethylamine
  • 3-METHOXY-METHYLENEDIOXYAMPHETAMINE
  • 5-Methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine
  • Amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-5-methoxy
External IDs
DEA No. 7401
Categories
UNII
RG7FY73ZAA
CAS number
13674-05-0
Weight
Average: 209.2417
Monoisotopic: 209.105193351
Chemical Formula
C11H15NO3
InChI Key
YQYUWUKDEVZFDB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C11H15NO3/c1-7(12)3-8-4-9(13-2)11-10(5-8)14-6-15-11/h4-5,7H,3,6,12H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
1-(7-methoxy-2H-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)propan-2-amine
SMILES
COC1=CC(CC(C)N)=CC2=C1OCO2

Pharmacology

Indication

MMDA is a recreational drug. It has no current medical uses and is a Schedule I controlled substance in the USA at present.

Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

The mechanism that produces the psychedelic activity of MMDA has not been definitively established. There are, as of the present time, no reported studies on the human pharmacokinetics or metabolism of MMDA. Based on its structural relationship with other similar drugs for which the pharmacology is known, it is likely that MMDA has multiple mechanisms of action, and probably acts both as a 5HT2A agonist in a similar manner to hallucinogenic amphetamines such as DOM, and also as a serotonin releaser by reversing the direction of the serotonin reuptake transporter in a similar manner to MDMA.

TargetActionsOrganism
A5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
agonist
Human
ASodium-dependent dopamine transporter
negative modulator
Human
ASodium-dependent serotonin transporter
negative modulator
Human
ASodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
negative modulator
Human
ASynaptic vesicular amine transporter
inhibitor
Human
AChromaffin granule amine transporter
inhibitor
Human
AAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
inhibitor
Human
AAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
inhibitor
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline7,8-Dichloro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline may increase the hypertensive activities of MMDA.
AcebutololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acebutolol is combined with MMDA.
AcepromazineAcepromazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of MMDA.
AceprometazineAceprometazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of MMDA.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may decrease the excretion rate of MMDA which could result in a higher serum level.
AcetophenazineAcetophenazine may decrease the stimulatory activities of MMDA.
AcrivastineMMDA may decrease the sedative activities of Acrivastine.
AlcaftadineMMDA may decrease the sedative activities of Alcaftadine.
AlfentanilMMDA may increase the analgesic activities of Alfentanil.
AlimemazineMMDA may decrease the sedative and stimulatory activities of Alimemazine.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
Not Available
External Links
PubChem Compound
26175
PubChem Substance
46506802
ChemSpider
24386
ChEMBL
CHEMBL126506
Wikipedia
MMDA_%28psychedelic%29

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.71 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.07ALOGPS
logP1.27ChemAxon
logS-1.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area53.71 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity55.94 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability22.38 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9972
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9147
Caco-2 permeable+0.6269
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6271
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8586
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9336
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7891
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8935
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6434
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5519
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.7772
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7849
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.7001
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5393
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5469
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6085
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5878
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9168
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7228
Rat acute toxicity2.5346 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9776
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.957
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzodioxoles. These are organic compounds containing a benzene ring fused to either isomers of dioxole. Dioxole is a five-membered unsaturated ring of two oxygen atoms and three carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organoheterocyclic compounds
Class
Benzodioxoles
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Benzodioxoles
Alternative Parents
Anisoles / Aralkylamines / Alkyl aryl ethers / Oxacyclic compounds / Acetals / Organopnictogen compounds / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Benzodioxole / Anisole / Alkyl aryl ether / Aralkylamine / Benzenoid / Acetal / Oxacycle / Ether / Organic nitrogen compound / Organooxygen compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Not Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodop...
Gene Name
HTR2A
Uniprot ID
P28223
Uniprot Name
5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A
Molecular Weight
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
  4. Kokoshka JM, Metzger RR, Wilkins DG, Gibb JW, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Methamphetamine treatment rapidly inhibits serotonin, but not glutamate, transporters in rat brain. Brain Res. 1998 Jul 13;799(1):78-83. [PubMed:9666084]
  5. Haughey HM, Fleckenstein AE, Metzger RR, Hanson GR: The effects of methamphetamine on serotonin transporter activity: role of dopamine and hyperthermia. J Neurochem. 2000 Oct;75(4):1608-17. [PubMed:10987842]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of dopamine by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A3
Uniprot ID
Q01959
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent dopamine transporter
Molecular Weight
68494.255 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613]
  2. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
  3. Haughey HM, Brown JM, Wilkins DG, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Differential effects of methamphetamine on Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 28;863(1-2):59-65. [PubMed:10773193]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into t...
Gene Name
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID
P31645
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent serotonin transporter
Molecular Weight
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
  4. Haughey HM, Brown JM, Wilkins DG, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE: Differential effects of methamphetamine on Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters. Brain Res. 2000 Apr 28;863(1-2):59-65. [PubMed:10773193]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Negative modulator
General Function
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID
P23975
Uniprot Name
Sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter
Molecular Weight
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Monoamine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the ATP-dependent vesicular transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters. Pumps cytosolic monoamines including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine into synaptic vesicles...
Gene Name
SLC18A2
Uniprot ID
Q05940
Uniprot Name
Synaptic vesicular amine transporter
Molecular Weight
55712.075 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613]
  2. Henry JP, Sagne C, Bedet C, Gasnier B: The vesicular monoamine transporter: from chromaffin granule to brain. Neurochem Int. 1998 Mar;32(3):227-46. [PubMed:9587917]
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the transport of biogenic monoamines, such as serotonin, from the cytoplasm into the secretory vesicles of neuroendocrine and endocrine cells.
Gene Name
SLC18A1
Uniprot ID
P54219
Uniprot Name
Chromaffin granule amine transporter
Molecular Weight
56256.71 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613]
  2. Henry JP, Sagne C, Bedet C, Gasnier B: The vesicular monoamine transporter: from chromaffin granule to brain. Neurochem Int. 1998 Mar;32(3):227-46. [PubMed:9587917]
  3. Fleckenstein AE, Volz TJ, Riddle EL, Gibb JW, Hanson GR: New insights into the mechanism of action of amphetamines. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2007;47:681-98. [PubMed:17209801]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Serotonin binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOA
Uniprot ID
P21397
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] A
Molecular Weight
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Primary amine oxidase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral...
Gene Name
MAOB
Uniprot ID
P27338
Uniprot Name
Amine oxidase [flavin-containing] B
Molecular Weight
58762.475 Da
References
  1. Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A: Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review. Prog Neurobiol. 2005 Apr;75(6):406-33. [PubMed:15955613]

Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:09 / Updated on August 02, 2018 04:36