Identification

Name
Maltose
Accession Number
DB03323  (EXPT02111)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Experimental, Investigational
Description

A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • D-(+)-maltose
  • Maltose anhydrous
Categories
UNII
66Y63L379N
CAS number
69-79-4
Weight
Average: 342.2965
Monoisotopic: 342.116211546
Chemical Formula
C12H22O11
InChI Key
GUBGYTABKSRVRQ-PICCSMPSSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C12H22O11/c13-1-3-5(15)6(16)9(19)12(22-3)23-10-4(2-14)21-11(20)8(18)7(10)17/h3-20H,1-2H2/t3-,4-,5-,6+,7-,8-,9-,10-,11?,12-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3S,4S,5R,6R)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-3-yl]oxy}oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[C@H]2[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)C(O)O[C@@H]2CO)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
UCyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferaseNot AvailableBacillus circulans
UAlpha-amylase 2BNot AvailableHuman
UAlpha-glucosidaseNot AvailableThermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
UMaltose binding proteinNot AvailableAlicyclobacillus acidocaldarius
UMalto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolaseNot AvailableDeinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422)
UMaltose-binding periplasmic proteinNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
UBeta-amylaseNot AvailableBacillus cereus
UMaltogenic alpha-amylaseNot AvailableGeobacillus stearothermophilus
UMaltodextrin phosphorylaseNot AvailableEscherichia coli (strain K12)
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismMetabolic
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly SyndromeDisease
Glycogen Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers DiseaseDisease
Sucrase-Isomaltase DeficiencyDisease
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismMetabolic
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismMetabolic
Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori Disease, Debrancher GlycogenosisDisease
Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson DiseaseDisease
Starch and Sucrose Metabolism Metabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Chobe Yomoto, Takashi Adachi, Yutaka Nakajima, Hidemasa Hidaka, Tsukasa Yoshida, Fumio Sugawara, "Method for producing maltose." U.S. Patent US3998696, issued May, 1971.

US3998696
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Drug
D00044
KEGG Compound
C00208
PubChem Compound
439186
PubChem Substance
46508819
ChemSpider
388329
ChEBI
17306
HET
MAL
Wikipedia
Maltose

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Feeling Anxious1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMalignancies / Neoplasms / Tumors1
3RecruitingTreatmentBipolar Disorder (BD) / Depression, Bipolar1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVascular Aging1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)102-103 °CPhysProp
water solubility7.8E+005 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility586.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS0.23ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count11ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area189.53 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity68.34 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability31.57 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.8748
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6207
Caco-2 permeable-0.8836
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5394
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7589
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9142
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8144
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8451
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8853
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.658
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.961
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9376
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9399
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9083
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9645
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8898
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8628
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9551
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6632
Rat acute toxicity1.0242 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9517
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8283
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as o-glycosyl compounds. These are glycoside in which a sugar group is bonded through one carbon to another group via a O-glycosidic bond.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Carbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct Parent
O-glycosyl compounds
Alternative Parents
Disaccharides / Oxanes / Secondary alcohols / Hemiacetals / Polyols / Oxacyclic compounds / Acetals / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
O-glycosyl compound / Disaccharide / Oxane / Secondary alcohol / Hemiacetal / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Polyol / Acetal / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycosylglucose, maltooligosaccharide (CHEBI:17306) / Disaccharides (C00208)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus circulans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Starch binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P30920
Uniprot Name
Cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase
Molecular Weight
78046.265 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Alpha-amylase activity
Gene Name
AMY2B
Uniprot ID
P19961
Uniprot Name
Alpha-amylase 2B
Molecular Weight
57709.49 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-oh group of donors, nad or nadp as acceptor
Specific Function
Alpha-glycosidase with a very broad specificity. Hydrolyzes maltose and other small maltooligosaccharides but is inactive against the polymeric substrate starch. AglA is not specific with respect t...
Gene Name
aglA
Uniprot ID
O33830
Uniprot Name
Alpha-glucosidase
Molecular Weight
55046.815 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Maltose transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
malE
Uniprot ID
Q9RHZ6
Uniprot Name
Maltose binding protein
Molecular Weight
45673.62 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Deinococcus radiodurans (strain ATCC 13939 / DSM 20539 / JCM 16871 / LMG 4051 / NBRC 15346 / NCIMB 9279 / R1 / VKM B-1422)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Cation binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
treZ
Uniprot ID
Q9RX51
Uniprot Name
Malto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase
Molecular Weight
66909.235 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the high-affinity maltose membrane transport system MalEFGK. Initial receptor for the active transport of and chemotaxis toward maltooligosaccharides.
Gene Name
malE
Uniprot ID
P0AEX9
Uniprot Name
Maltose-binding periplasmic protein
Molecular Weight
43387.235 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus cereus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Starch binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
spoII
Uniprot ID
P36924
Uniprot Name
Beta-amylase
Molecular Weight
61628.585 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Geobacillus stearothermophilus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Starch binding
Specific Function
Converts starch into maltose.
Gene Name
amyM
Uniprot ID
P19531
Uniprot Name
Maltogenic alpha-amylase
Molecular Weight
78675.13 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known ...
Gene Name
malP
Uniprot ID
P00490
Uniprot Name
Maltodextrin phosphorylase
Molecular Weight
90521.74 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 02, 2018 05:33