Identification

Name
Iron
Accession Number
DB01592
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved
Description

A metallic element found in certain minerals, in nearly all soils, and in mineral waters. It is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, cytochrome, and other components of respiratory enzyme systems. Its chief functions are in the transport of oxygen to tissue (hemoglobin) and in cellular oxidation mechanisms. Depletion of iron stores may result in iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is used to build up the blood in anemia.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Carbonyl iron
  • Eisen
  • Electrolytic iron
  • Fe
  • fer
  • Ferrum
  • Ferrum metallicum
  • Hierro
  • Iron powder
  • Iron, carbonyl
  • Iron, electrolytic
  • Iron, elemental
  • Iron, reduced
  • Reduced iron
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Ferrous cationionicGW89581OWR15438-31-0CWYNVVGOOAEACU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DexironLiquid50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousLuitpold Pharmaceuticals1996-09-06Not applicableCanada
InfuferLiquid50 mgIntramuscular; IntravenousSandoz Canada Incorporated1997-02-072016-12-01Canada
VenoferLiquid20 mgIntravenousLuitpold Pharmaceuticals2001-06-05Not applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Chelated Iron 25mg - CapletTablet25 mgOralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1995-12-312002-07-18Canada
Chelated Iron Supplement - TabTablet18 mgOralAlbion1996-09-062002-09-30Canada
Fe-chelate TabTablet28 mgOralNutri West Products Ltd.1994-12-311997-08-05Canada
Fera Liq 16.7mg/15mlLiquid16.7 mgOralInno Vite Incorporated1987-12-312007-07-31Canada
Iferex 150Capsule150 mg/1OralNnodum Pharmaceuticals2007-10-282009-12-18Us
IronCapsule40 mgOralSeroyal International Inc.1994-12-312008-10-09Canada
Iron Amino Chelate Tab 37mgTablet37 mgOralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312000-07-27Canada
Iron Chelate 25 mgTablet25 mgOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2002-03-132006-08-08Canada
Polysacc Iron ComplexCapsule150 mg/1OralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2007-10-282013-01-15Us
Polysaccharide-IronCapsule150 mg/1OralAdvance Pharmaceutical Inc.2015-05-26Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ActyformIron (4.18 mg) + Copper (1 mg) + Magnesium (61.15 mg) + Zinc (9 mg)CapsuleOralTechnodiet S.E.N.C.1999-10-262008-08-13Canada
Advanced B & T FormulaIron (1.67 mg) + Ascorbic acid (33.3 mg) + Calcium (200 mg) + Chromium (33.33 mcg) + Copper (0.5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (6.67 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.133 mg) + Magnesium (83.3 mg) + Manganese (3.33 mg) + Nicotinamide (6.67 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (5 mg) + Phosphorus (100 mg) + Potassium (16.67 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6.67 mg) + Riboflavin (2.67 mg) + Selenium (33.33 mcg) + Silicon (0.333 mg) + Sodium molybdate (16.67 mcg) + Thiamine (2.67 mg) + Vanadium (8.33 mg) + Vitamin D (66.67 unit) + Zinc (5 mg)CapsuleOralNutraceutical CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Calcium Et Magnesium Plus Vitamine D/fe/znIron (10 mg) + Calcium (400 mg) + Magnesium (167 mg) + Vitamin D (220 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralLaboratoire Lalco Inc.1993-12-312008-07-29Canada
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsIron (4 mg) + Ascorbic acid (50 mg) + Biotin (30 mcg) + Calcium (160 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (3 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.1 mg) + Nicotinamide (15 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (1.5 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (10 unit)TabletOralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2000-03-012001-07-18Canada
Children's Chewable Vit and Min TabIron (5 mg) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Beta carotene (5000 unit) + Biotin (10 mcg) + Calcium (65 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (5 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg) + Folic Acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (5 mg) + Magnesium (25 mg) + Manganese (1 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg) + Potassium (5 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Riboflavin (5 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Vitamin E (25 unit) + Zinc (2 mg)TabletOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1990-12-312002-09-11Canada
CitraNatal 90 DHAIron (90 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (160 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium triiodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboprine (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2010-02-01Not applicableUs
CitraNatal DHAIron (27 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal2007-11-20Not applicableUs
Citranatal Harmony 2.1Iron (29 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (104 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMission Pharmacal2013-01-21Not applicableUs
Complete Multivitamins and Minerals Tablets Timed ReleaseIron (15 mg) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (5000 unit) + Biotin (50 mcg) + Calcium (125 mg) + Choline bitartrate (50 mg) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Folic Acid (0.4 mg) + Inositol (50 mg) + Magnesium (100 mg) + Manganese (1 mg) + Nicotinamide (50 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (50 mg) + Potassium (25 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg) + Riboflavin (50 mg) + Selenium (25 mcg) + Thiamine mononitrate (50 mg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit) + Zinc (10 mg) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (75 unit)Tablet, extended releaseOralPharmetics (2011) Inc.1999-07-262009-07-30Canada
Copper 3mg Plus Iron & Zinc TabIron (25 mg) + Copper (3 mg) + Zinc (15 mg)TabletOralSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.1986-12-312000-08-03Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Active FEIron (75 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (160 mg/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (40 [iU]/1) + Folic Acid (1250 ug/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUs
Active OBIron (20 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + D-alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (320 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (2 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (30 mg/1)Capsule, liquid filledOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-10-282017-03-31Us
BioFerr 90Iron (88.5 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (138 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (16.8 ug/1) + Docusate sodium (55 mg/1) + Ferrous gluconate dihydrate (13.2 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1.4 mg/1)Tablet, film coatedOralBiocomp Pharma, Inc.2014-07-01Not applicableUs
BumP DHAIron (15 mg/1) + Cobamamide (500 mg/1) + Flavin adenine dinucleotide (1 mg/1) + Flavin mononucleotide (2 mg/1) + Leucovorin (1 mg/1) + Levomefolate magnesium (1 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (125 mg/1) + NADH (25 ug/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (300 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (250 ug/1) + Pyridoxal Phosphate (5 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Zinc glycinate (15 1/1)CapsuleOralCenturion Labs2017-03-242017-04-17Us
Cavan AlphaIron (27 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium Carbonate (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (3 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iodine (220 ug/1) + Magnesium oxide (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (300 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-07-012013-09-30Us
Cavan Heme OBIron (28 mg/1) + Biotin (30 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Niacin (17 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (175 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.6 mg/1) + Sodium selenate (65 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.5 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol succinate (10 [iU]/1)TabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-08-032012-06-10Us
Cavan OneIron (20 mg/1) + Alpha-Linolenic Acid (30 mg/1) + Calcium (150 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate dihydrate (25 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (170 [iU]/1) + DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (40 mg/1) + Linoleic acid (30 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-10-302011-11-27Us
CentratexIron (106 mg/1) + Cupric sulfate (0.8 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium sulfate (6.9 mg/1) + Manganese sulfate (1.3 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (30 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg/1) + Riboflavin (6 mg/1) + Sodium ascorbate (200 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (10 mg/1) + Zinc sulfate, unspecified form (18.2 mg/1)CapsuleOralCenturion Labs2009-06-14Not applicableUs
CitraNatal 90 DHAIron (85 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (159 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (2 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Ferrous gluconate dihydrate (5 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (4.54 mg/1) + Vitamin D (400 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (25 mg/1) + alpha-Tocopherol acetate (30 [iU]/1)TabletOralMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-11Not applicableUs
CitraNatal AssureIron (35 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitMission Pharmacal2008-11-19Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Ed-In-Sol / Fe-40 / Feosol (GlaxoSmithkline) / Feostat / Fer-In-Sol / Feratab (Upsher-Smith) / Ferate / Fergon / Ferralet / Ferretts / Ferro sanol / Ferro-Caps / Ferro-Time / Ferrousal / Siderol / Simron / Slow Fe / Vitedyn-Slo / Yieronia
Categories
UNII
E1UOL152H7
CAS number
7439-89-6
Weight
Average: 55.845
Monoisotopic: 55.934942133
Chemical Formula
Fe
InChI Key
XEEYBQQBJWHFJM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/Fe
IUPAC Name
iron
SMILES
[Fe]

Pharmacology

Indication

Used in preventing and treating iron-deficiency anemia.

Associated Conditions
Associated Therapies
Pharmacodynamics

The major activity of supplemental iron is in the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Iron has putative immune-enhancing, anticarcinogenic and cognition-enhancing activities.

Mechanism of action

Iron is necessary for the production of hemoglobin. Iron-deficiency can lead to decreased production of hemoglobin and a microcytic, hypochromic anemia.

TargetActionsOrganism
UTransferrin receptor protein 1Not AvailableHuman
UEgl nine homolog 1Not AvailableHuman
UHistone deacetylase 8
cofactor
Human
UAlpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing proteinNot AvailableHuman
UHemoglobin subunit alphaNot AvailableHuman
UFrataxin, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UFerritin heavy chainNot AvailableHuman
UFlap endonuclease 1Not AvailableHuman
UEndonuclease 8-like 1Not AvailableHuman
UEndonuclease 8-like 2Not AvailableHuman
UDNA polymerase betaNot AvailableHuman
UCeruloplasminNot AvailableHuman
USerotransferrinNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

The efficiency of absorption depends on the salt form, the amount administered, the dosing regimen and the size of iron stores. Subjects with normal iron stores absorb 10% to 35% of an iron dose. Those who are iron deficient may absorb up to 95% of an iron dose.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Acute iron overdosage can be divided into four stages. In the first stage, which occurs up to six hours after ingestion, the principal symptoms are vomiting and diarrhea. Other symptoms include hypotension, tachycardia and CNS depression ranging from lethargy to coma. The second phase may occur at 6-24 hours after ingestion and is characterized by a temporary remission. In the third phase, gastrointestinal symptoms recur accompanied by shock, metabolic acidosis, coma, hepatic necrosis and jaundice, hypoglycemia, renal failure and pulmonary edema. The fourth phase may occur several weeks after ingestion and is characterized by gastrointestinal obstruction and liver damage. In a young child, 75 milligrams per kilogram is considered extremely dangerous. A dose of 30 milligrams per kilogram can lead to symptoms of toxicity. Estimates of a lethal dosage range from 180 milligrams per kilogram and upwards. A peak serum iron concentration of five micrograms or more per ml is associated with moderate to severe poisoning in many.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismMetabolic
Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty AcidsMetabolic
Atorvastatin Action PathwayDrug action
beta-Ureidopropionase DeficiencyDisease
HawkinsinuriaDisease
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)Disease
PhenylketonuriaDisease
Tyrosinemia Type IDisease
Vitamin A DeficiencyDisease
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)Disease
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationMetabolic
Galactosemia IIIDisease
Dopamine beta-Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Hyper-IgD SyndromeDisease
Threonine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Flavonol BiosynthesisMetabolic
Carnitine SynthesisMetabolic
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismMetabolic
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolic
Retinol MetabolismMetabolic
Pravastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Cerivastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Risedronate Action PathwayDrug action
Pamidronate Action PathwayDrug action
HypercholesterolemiaDisease
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)Disease
Acute Intermittent PorphyriaDisease
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug action
Galactosemia II (GALK)Disease
Tyrosine Hydroxylase DeficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl DiphosphateIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of 3-Aza-2,3-Dihydrogeranyl Diphosphate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
BenazeprilIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Benazepril resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
BenazeprilatIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Benazeprilat resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Calcium phosphate dihydrateIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Calcium phosphate dihydrate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CaptoprilIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Captopril resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CefdinirIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cefdinir resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CilazaprilIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cilazapril resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CinoxacinIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Cinoxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CiprofloxacinIron can cause a decrease in the absorption of Ciprofloxacin resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ClomocyclineClomocycline can cause a decrease in the absorption of Iron resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Walter Lugscheider, Paul Mullner, Wilhelm Schiffer, Alois Leutgob, "Arrangement for producing metals, such as molten pig iron, steel pre-material and ferroalloys." U.S. Patent US4617671, issued 0000.

US4617671
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0015531
KEGG Compound
C00023
PubChem Compound
23925
PubChem Substance
46509190
ChemSpider
22368
ChEBI
18248
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP001313
PharmGKB
PA450087
RxList
RxList Drug Page
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Iron
ATC Codes
B03AE02 — Iron, multivitamins and folic acidB03AE01 — Iron, vitamin b12 and folic acidB03AE04 — Iron, multivitamins and mineralsA11AA01 — Multivitamins and ironB03AE03 — Iron and multivitamins
AHFS Codes
  • 20:04.04 — Iron Preparations
  • 88:29.00* — Minerals
FDA label
Download (100 KB)
MSDS
Download (75.6 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia of Pregnancy1
1CompletedBasic ScienceChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
1CompletedOtherHealthy Volunteers1
1CompletedPreventionBacterial Infection Due to Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) / Healthy Participants / Non-anemic Children1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentIron-refractory, Iron-deficiency Anemia (IRIDA)1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingPreventionPrevention of Anemia1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia of Pregnancy1
2CompletedPreventionLead Toxicity1
2CompletedTreatmentAnemias2
2CompletedTreatmentAngiodysplasia / Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia / Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding / Thalidomide1
2CompletedTreatmentAutism Spectrum Conditions/Disorders / Sleeplessness1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Arsenic Poisoning1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
2CompletedTreatmentIron-Refractory Iron-Deficiency Anemia1
2RecruitingSupportive CareMetastatic Colorectal Cancers1
2RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) / Cyanosis / Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease1
2RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemias1
2WithdrawnTreatmentInflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHaematological Malignancies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentHeart Failure, Systolic / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias / Postpartum Depression / Puerperal Disorders1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAnemias1
3CompletedDiagnosticAnemias1
3CompletedOtherAnemias / Haematopoiesis1
3CompletedOtherChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
3CompletedPreventionIron Deficiency1
3CompletedSupportive CareAnemias / Postoperative Blood Loss1
3CompletedTreatmentAnemias7
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
3CompletedTreatmentFibromyalgia, Primary1
3CompletedTreatmentHip Fractures1
3CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency1
3CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)2
3CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia of Pregnancy1
3CompletedTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias / Obese experiencing rapid weight loss1
3CompletedTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1
3CompletedTreatmentUterine Leiomyomas1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
3RecruitingTreatmentAnemias3
3RecruitingTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease; Iron Deficiency Anemia1
3RecruitingTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
3RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
3TerminatedPreventionContraception1
3TerminatedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
3TerminatedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Nondialysis Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease / Nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease1
3WithdrawnTreatmentLeiomyomas1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) Secondary to Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) or Gastric Bypass1
4Active Not RecruitingTreatmentLeiomyomas1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Hemorrhage, Gastrointestinal1
4CompletedTreatmentAnemias / Neoplasms, Colorectal1
4CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias2
4CompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD) / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
4CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency / Tiredness1
4CompletedTreatmentKnee Osteoarthritis (Knee OA) / Postoperative Anaemia1
4CompletedTreatmentLiposomated Iron / Parenteral Iron Therapy / Y-de-Roux Gastric By-Pass1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4Enrolling by InvitationDiagnosticIron Absorption / Post-gastrointestinal bypass surgery / Roux- en -y Gastric Bypass1
4Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentIron Deficiency1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Iron-Deficiency1
4RecruitingPreventionAnemias / Iron-Deficiency1
4RecruitingPreventionIron-Deficiency1
4RecruitingSupportive CareIron Deficiency1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnemia During Pregnancy1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Carcinoma, Colorectal / General Surgery1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) / Malignant Lymphomas1
4RecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Major Abdominal Surgery / Pre-operative1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF) / Iron Deficiency1
4RecruitingTreatmentHeart Failure, Unspecified / Iron-Deficiency1
4RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)2
4RecruitingTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia of Pregnancy / Iron Malabsorption1
4RecruitingTreatmentIron-Deficiency Anemias1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
4TerminatedTreatmentLymphoid Disease / Solid Cancer Metastatic Disease1
4Unknown StatusPreventionAnemias / Child Behavior Disorders / Cognitive Manifestations / Iron-Deficiency1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemias1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentAnemias / Iron Deficiency1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentIron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / Neoplasms, Colorectal1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentPostoperative Anaemia1
4WithdrawnTreatmentIron Deficiency1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingDiagnosticIron Absorption1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnemias1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAnemias / Iron Deficiency / Plasmodium Infections / Schistosomiasis Infection1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAltitude Hypoxia / Iron-Deficiency / Pulmonary vascular resistance abnormality / Ventricular Function1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceCritical Illness1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceIron Bioavailability1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticHFE-Associated Hereditary Hemochromatosis / Myocardial Iron Overload1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionAnaemia in Children1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionIron Metabolic Homeostasis1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPostpartum Anemia1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionVisceral Leishmaniasis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAnemias / Helminthiases / Schistosoma infection1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBacterial Infection Due to Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori) / Children / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA) / No Systemic Infection / Not Severely Malnourished1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCrohn's Disease (CD)1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Iron-Deficiency Anemias1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEmotional / Headaches / Pelvic Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentVulvovaginal Candidiasis1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingOtherAnemias / End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingPreventionAnemias / Hip Fractures1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnemia in Pregnancy1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentAnemias / Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Iron Deficiency1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentComplex Valvular Heart Surgery1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentCraniosynostosis1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentEPP / Protoporphyria, Erythropoietic / X-Linked Protoporphyria / XLP1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT)1
Not AvailableTerminatedPreventionAnemias / Plasmodium Infections1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentRenal Failure Chronic Requiring Hemodialysis1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionAnemias1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionEndometriotic Cysts1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Cardinal Health
  • Centrix Pharmaceuticals
  • Contract Pharm
  • Cypress Pharmaceutical Inc.
  • Dayton Pharmaceuticals
  • Edwards Pharmaceuticals
  • Equipharm Inc.
  • Haupt Pharma
  • Lehigh Valley Technologies Inc.
  • Mallinckrodt Inc.
  • Marlop Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Midlothian Labs
  • Nature's Bounty
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Provident Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Rising Pharmaceuticals
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Roxmar Laboratories
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral25 mg
TabletOral18 mg
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
LiquidIntramuscular; Intravenous50 mg
Tablet, chewableOral
TabletOral28 mg
LiquidOral16.7 mg
KitOral
LiquidOral
CapsuleOral
Tablet, coatedOral
CapsuleOral40 mg
TabletOral37 mg
Tablet, chewableOral15 mg/1
TabletOral
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionOral
Powder, for solutionOral
CapsuleOral150 mg/1
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
LiquidIntravenous20 mg
Tablet, film coatedOral
Kit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Iron chews 15 mg tablet chew0.29USD tablet
Ferrous sulfate 28 mg tablet0.04USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6667050No2003-12-232019-04-06Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)1538 °CNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.77ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9838
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9733
Caco-2 permeable+0.7354
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.885
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9787
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9858
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9108
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8466
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8259
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8158
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8807
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9373
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9708
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9553
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.988
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.882
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9633
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.664
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7326
Rat acute toxicity2.0135 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9547
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9746
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Homogeneous metal compounds
Class
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub Class
Not Available
Direct Parent
Homogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Substituents
Homogeneous transition metal
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
elemental iron (CHEBI:82664)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Cellular uptake of iron occurs via receptor-mediated endocytosis of ligand-occupied transferrin receptor into specialized endosomes. Endosomal acidification leads to iron release. The apotransferri...
Gene Name
TFRC
Uniprot ID
P02786
Uniprot Name
Transferrin receptor protein 1
Molecular Weight
84870.665 Da
References
  1. Hemadi M, Ha-Duong NT, El Hage Chahine JM: The mechanism of iron release from the transferrin-receptor 1 adduct. J Mol Biol. 2006 May 12;358(4):1125-36. Epub 2006 Mar 13. [PubMed:16564538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Peptidyl-proline dioxygenase activity
Specific Function
Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. Hydroxylates a specific prol...
Gene Name
EGLN1
Uniprot ID
Q9GZT9
Uniprot Name
Egl nine homolog 1
Molecular Weight
46020.585 Da
References
  1. Davidson TL, Chen H, Di Toro DM, D'Angelo G, Costa M: Soluble nickel inhibits HIF-prolyl-hydroxylases creating persistent hypoxic signaling in A549 cells. Mol Carcinog. 2006 Jul;45(7):479-89. [PubMed:16649251]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Cofactor
General Function
Transcription factor binding
Specific Function
Responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues on the N-terminal part of the core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). Histone deacetylation gives a tag for epigenetic repression and plays an impo...
Gene Name
HDAC8
Uniprot ID
Q9BY41
Uniprot Name
Histone deacetylase 8
Molecular Weight
41757.29 Da
References
  1. Gantt SL, Gattis SG, Fierke CA: Catalytic activity and inhibition of human histone deacetylase 8 is dependent on the identity of the active site metal ion. Biochemistry. 2006 May 16;45(19):6170-8. [PubMed:16681389]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Acts as a chaperone to prevent the harmful aggregation of alpha-hemoglobin during normal erythroid cell development. Specifically protects free alpha-hemoglobin from precipitation. It is predicted to modulate pathological states of alpha-hemoglobin excess such as beta-thalassemia.
Specific Function
Hemoglobin binding
Gene Name
AHSP
Uniprot ID
Q9NZD4
Uniprot Name
Alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein
Molecular Weight
11840.325 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16901899]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oxygen transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in oxygen transport from the lung to the various peripheral tissues.
Gene Name
HBA1
Uniprot ID
P69905
Uniprot Name
Hemoglobin subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
15257.405 Da
References
  1. Zhou S, Olson JS, Fabian M, Weiss MJ, Gow AJ: Biochemical fates of alpha hemoglobin bound to alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein AHSP. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 27;281(43):32611-8. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16901899]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Promotes the biosynthesis of heme and assembly and repair of iron-sulfur clusters by delivering Fe(2+) to proteins involved in these pathways. May play a role in the protection against iron-catalyzed oxidative stress through its ability to catalyze the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+); the oligomeric form but not the monomeric form has in vitro ferroxidase activity. May be able to store large amounts of iron in the form of a ferrihydrite mineral by oligomerization; however, the physiological relevance is unsure as reports are conflicting and the function has only been shown using heterologous overexpression systems. Modulates the RNA-binding activity of ACO1.
Specific Function
2 iron, 2 sulfur cluster binding
Gene Name
FXN
Uniprot ID
Q16595
Uniprot Name
Frataxin, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
23134.895 Da
References
  1. Bencze KZ, Kondapalli KC, Cook JD, McMahon S, Millan-Pacheco C, Pastor N, Stemmler TL: The structure and function of frataxin. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006 Sep-Oct;41(5):269-91. [PubMed:16911956]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Stores iron in a soluble, non-toxic, readily available form. Important for iron homeostasis. Has ferroxidase activity. Iron is taken up in the ferrous form and deposited as ferric hydroxides after ...
Gene Name
FTH1
Uniprot ID
P02794
Uniprot Name
Ferritin heavy chain
Molecular Weight
21225.47 Da
References
  1. Toussaint L, Bertrand L, Hue L, Crichton RR, Declercq JP: High-resolution X-ray structures of human apoferritin H-chain mutants correlated with their activity and metal-binding sites. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jan 12;365(2):440-52. Epub 2006 Oct 7. [PubMed:17070541]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Structure-specific nuclease with 5'-flap endonuclease and 5'-3' exonuclease activities involved in DNA replication and repair. During DNA replication, cleaves the 5'-overhanging flap structure that is generated by displacement synthesis when DNA polymerase encounters the 5'-end of a downstream Okazaki fragment. It enters the flap from the 5'-end and then tracks to cleave the flap base, leaving a nick for ligation. Also involved in the long patch base excision repair (LP-BER) pathway, by cleaving within the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site-terminated flap. Acts as a genome stabilization factor that prevents flaps from equilibrating into structurs that lead to duplications and deletions. Also possesses 5'-3' exonuclease activity on nicked or gapped double-stranded DNA, and exhibits RNase H activity. Also involved in replication and repair of rDNA and in repairing mitochondrial DNA.
Specific Function
5'-3' exonuclease activity
Gene Name
FEN1
Uniprot ID
P39748
Uniprot Name
Flap endonuclease 1
Molecular Weight
42592.635 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
NEIL1
Uniprot ID
Q96FI4
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 1
Molecular Weight
43683.625 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Involved in base excision repair of DNA damaged by oxidation or by mutagenic agents. Has DNA glycosylase activity towards 5-hydroxyuracil and other oxidized derivatives of cytosine with a preferenc...
Gene Name
NEIL2
Uniprot ID
Q969S2
Uniprot Name
Endonuclease 8-like 2
Molecular Weight
36826.285 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Microtubule binding
Specific Function
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5' sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that...
Gene Name
POLB
Uniprot ID
P06746
Uniprot Name
DNA polymerase beta
Molecular Weight
38177.34 Da
References
  1. Hegde ML, Hegde PM, Holthauzen LM, Hazra TK, Rao KS, Mitra S: Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases. J Biol Chem. 2010 Sep 10;285(37):28812-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.126664. Epub 2010 Jul 9. [PubMed:20622253]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ferroxidase activity
Specific Function
Ceruloplasmin is a blue, copper-binding (6-7 atoms per molecule) glycoprotein. It has ferroxidase activity oxidizing Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) without releasing radical oxygen species. It is involved in iro...
Gene Name
CP
Uniprot ID
P00450
Uniprot Name
Ceruloplasmin
Molecular Weight
122204.45 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [PubMed:21049900]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferrin receptor binding
Specific Function
Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from si...
Gene Name
TF
Uniprot ID
P02787
Uniprot Name
Serotransferrin
Molecular Weight
77063.195 Da
References
  1. Ha-Duong NT, Eid C, Hemadi M, El Hage Chahine JM: In vitro interaction between ceruloplasmin and human serum transferrin. Biochemistry. 2010 Dec 7;49(48):10261-3. doi: 10.1021/bi1014503. Epub 2010 Nov 9. [PubMed:21049900]

Drug created on August 29, 2007 10:01 / Updated on November 17, 2018 07:19