Identification

Name
Palmitic Acid
Accession Number
DB03796  (EXPT01393, EXPT02607)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Experimental
Description

A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 1-Hexyldecanoic Acid
  • 1-Pentadecanecarboxylic acid
  • FAT
  • Hexadecanoate
  • Hexadecanoic acid
  • Hexadecoic acid
  • Hexadecylic acid
  • Hexaectylic acid
  • Palmitate
  • Palmitinic acid
  • Palmitinsaeure
External IDs
EDENOR C 16-98-100 / FEMA NO. 2832 / HYDROFOL ACID 1690 / IMEX C 1498 / KORTACID 1698 / LOXIOL EP 278 / NSC-5030
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Levovist - Pws IV (4g Granules /vial)Palmitic Acid (1 mg) + Galactose (999 mg)Powder, for solutionIntravenousBerlex Laboratories, Inc.1997-12-192003-06-26Canada
SurfaxinPalmitic Acid (4.05 mg/mL) + 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-(phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)), sodium salt (7.5 mg/mL) + Colfosceril palmitate (22.5 mg/mL) + Sinapultide (.862 mg/mL)SuspensionEndotrachealDiscovery Health2013-11-012017-01-04Us
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Sha-lemPalmitic Acid (7.25 g/30mL) + Bismuth Subcarbonate (1.89 g/30mL) + Boric acid (.95 g/30mL) + Oleic Acid (14.5 g/30mL) + Stearic acid (7.25 g/30mL)OintmentTopicalShalem Products, Inc.1992-05-08Not applicableUs
Categories
UNII
2V16EO95H1
CAS number
57-10-3
Weight
Average: 256.4241
Monoisotopic: 256.240230268
Chemical Formula
C16H32O2
InChI Key
IPCSVZSSVZVIGE-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H32O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16(17)18/h2-15H2,1H3,(H,17,18)
IUPAC Name
hexadecanoic acid
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication
Not Available
Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during lipogenesis (fatty acid synthesis) and from which longer fatty acids can be produced. Palmitate negatively feeds back on acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) which is responsible for converting acetyl-ACP to malonyl-ACP on the growing acyl chain, thus preventing further palmitate generation

Mechanism of action
TargetActionsOrganism
URhodopsinNot AvailableHuman
USEC14-like protein 2Not AvailableHuman
UPalmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1Not AvailableHuman
UMyelin P2 proteinNot AvailableHuman
UGlycodelinNot AvailableHuman
UHepatocyte nuclear factor 4-gammaNot AvailableHuman
ULipid binding proteinNot AvailableGeobacillus stearothermophilus
UCytochrome P450 2C8Not AvailableHuman
UTrafficking protein particle complex subunit 3Not AvailableHuman
UFatty acid-binding protein TM_1468Not AvailableThermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
UAlpha-lactalbuminNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Acute oral toxicity (LD50) in rat is >10000 mg/kg

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Pravastatin Action PathwayDrug action
Risedronate Action PathwayDrug action
Glutaric Aciduria Type IDisease
Glycerol Kinase DeficiencyDisease
HypercholesterolemiaDisease
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIDisease
Zellweger SyndromeDisease
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIIDisease
D-glyceric aciduraDisease
Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)Disease
palmitate biosynthesis Metabolic
palmitate biosynthesis 2Metabolic
Fatty Acid Elongation In Mitochondria Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/14:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/16:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/18:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/18:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/20:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/10:0/20:1(13Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/15:1(9Z)/15:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/14:0/18:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/16:0/16:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(12:0/14:1(9Z)/16:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(14:0/14:0/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(14:0/14:1(9Z)/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(14:1(9Z)/14:1(9Z)/14:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(12:0/15:0/16:0)Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(12:0/15:0/16:1(9Z))Metabolic
Triacylglycerol metabolism TG(10:0/14:1(9Z)/20:0)Metabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved, Investigational
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of the active metabolites of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when Dabigatran etexilate is used in combination with Palmitic Acid.Approved
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved, Investigational
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved, Investigational
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved, Investigational
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved, Investigational
VincristineThe excretion of Vincristine can be decreased when combined with Palmitic Acid.Approved, Investigational
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Walter R. Fehr, Earl G. Hammond, "Elevated palmitic acid production in soybeans." U.S. Patent US5750846, issued February, 1997.

US5750846
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0000220
KEGG Drug
D05341
KEGG Compound
C00249
PubChem Compound
985
PubChem Substance
46506400
ChemSpider
960
BindingDB
50152850
ChEBI
15756
ChEMBL
CHEMBL82293
IUPHAR
1055
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
PLM
Wikipedia
Palmitic_acid
PDB Entries
1aca / 1b0o / 1b56 / 1be2 / 1cov / 1e12 / 1e7h / 1eh5 / 1ev1 / 1gxa
show 284 more
MSDS
Download (73 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRespiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
Not AvailableNo Longer AvailableNot AvailableCholestasis / Liver Diseases1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder, for solutionIntravenous
OintmentTopical
SuspensionEndotracheal
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61.8 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)351.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility0.04 mg/L (at 25 °C)ROBB.ID (1966)
logP7.17SANGSTER (1993)
logS-6.81ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000407 mg/mLALOGPS
logP7.23ALOGPS
logP6.26ChemAxon
logS-5.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity77.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.36 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9888
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9488
Caco-2 permeable+0.8326
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6321
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9598
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9277
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9266
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7886
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8956
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6982
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.8326
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8808
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9554
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9578
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9484
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9647
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9865
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6452
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8795
Rat acute toxicity1.3275 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9322
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8868
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (10.5 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-51ee83f9462d25fa4045
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0100-9700000000-3d8b6cf4736afa482b57
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0abc-9110000000-6d7f0dbe5b588850b941
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0901000000-51ee83f9462d25fa4045
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0100-9700000000-3d8b6cf4736afa482b57
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0159-2901000000-fb423e89a78708021db1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-1900000000-d7638a578d846871e670
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-06xx-9100000000-7ac9cd088cb9cb9f7560
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-39c3a0e17432781e9760
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-8ec1a6953701fc22ce27
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0fba-9200000000-23c995bf81d5ef609489
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0abc-9110000000-12f1884d67998fb924a5
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-26bb4965a56ab0e82b49
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-06rj-5790000000-251700f3edf9a5af04cd
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-9600000000-5b75a67e276017f221b8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0090000000-26bb4965a56ab0e82b49
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-06rj-5790000000-251700f3edf9a5af04cd
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-052f-9600000000-5b75a67e276017f221b8
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e4a4200bd25f8fa480cc
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0bti-1090000000-768a48058fc0a2d7a877
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9320000000-c9714c7ffdc804bf9323
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e4a4200bd25f8fa480cc
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0bti-1090000000-768a48058fc0a2d7a877
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4l-9320000000-c9714c7ffdc804bf9323
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-223f4eff3e7317becc5f
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-b8d2b3a35e69dec8d778
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-f22762c18b3f60b84574
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-06di-0060900000-1ee2cc4eeef223b6220d
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-06di-0070900000-639764620ee4d4bf831d
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-c3f9f4d5c336137b7fcf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-47919da3faa8e0f52bbc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0090000000-fdd9e98416da12470fe9
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-52c7106f2cfc09665c35
MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0a4i-0190000000-c199865dcd8bfe2fdc8c
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as long-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 13 and 21 carbon atoms.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Fatty Acyls
Sub Class
Fatty acids and conjugates
Direct Parent
Long-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Straight chain fatty acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Long-chain fatty acid / Straight chain fatty acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Carbonyl group
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
long-chain fatty acid, straight-chain saturated fatty acid (CHEBI:15756) / Straight chain fatty acids, Saturated fatty acids (C00249) / Straight chain fatty acids (LMFA01010001)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Photoreceptor activity
Specific Function
Photoreceptor required for image-forming vision at low light intensity. Required for photoreceptor cell viability after birth. Light-induced isomerization of 11-cis to all-trans retinal triggers a ...
Gene Name
RHO
Uniprot ID
P08100
Uniprot Name
Rhodopsin
Molecular Weight
38892.335 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Carrier protein. Binds to some hydrophobic molecules and promotes their transfer between the different cellular sites. Binds with high affinity to alpha-tocopherol. Also binds with a weaker affinit...
Gene Name
SEC14L2
Uniprot ID
O76054
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
46144.9 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Palmitoyl-coa hydrolase activity
Specific Function
Removes thioester-linked fatty acyl groups such as palmitate from modified cysteine residues in proteins or peptides during lysosomal degradation. Prefers acyl chain lengths of 14 to 18 carbons.
Gene Name
PPT1
Uniprot ID
P50897
Uniprot Name
Palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1
Molecular Weight
34193.245 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
May play a role in lipid transport protein in Schwann cells. May bind cholesterol.
Gene Name
PMP2
Uniprot ID
P02689
Uniprot Name
Myelin P2 protein
Molecular Weight
14909.305 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Small molecule binding
Specific Function
This protein is, quantitatively, the main protein synthesized and secreted in the endometrium from mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during the first semester of pregnancy.
Gene Name
PAEP
Uniprot ID
P09466
Uniprot Name
Glycodelin
Molecular Weight
20624.015 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Transcription factor. Has a lower transcription activation potential than HNF4-alpha.
Gene Name
HNF4G
Uniprot ID
Q14541
Uniprot Name
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-gamma
Molecular Weight
45876.235 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Geobacillus stearothermophilus
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipid binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
P83812
Uniprot Name
Lipid binding protein
Molecular Weight
32173.81 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally un...
Gene Name
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID
P10632
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 2C8
Molecular Weight
55824.275 Da
References
  1. Schoch GA, Yano JK, Wester MR, Griffin KJ, Stout CD, Johnson EF: Structure of human microsomal cytochrome P450 2C8. Evidence for a peripheral fatty acid binding site. J Biol Chem. 2004 Mar 5;279(10):9497-503. Epub 2003 Dec 15. [PubMed:14676196]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
May play a role in vesicular transport from endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi.
Gene Name
TRAPPC3
Uniprot ID
O43617
Uniprot Name
Trafficking protein particle complex subunit 3
Molecular Weight
20273.915 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Thermotoga maritima (strain ATCC 43589 / MSB8 / DSM 3109 / JCM 10099)
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lipid binding
Specific Function
Binds long-chain fatty acids, such as palmitate, and may play a role in lipid transport or fatty acid metabolism.
Gene Name
Not Available
Uniprot ID
Q9X1H9
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein TM_1468
Molecular Weight
32574.335 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Lactose synthase activity
Specific Function
Regulatory subunit of lactose synthase, changes the substrate specificity of galactosyltransferase in the mammary gland making glucose a good acceptor substrate for this enzyme. This enables LS to ...
Gene Name
LALBA
Uniprot ID
P00709
Uniprot Name
Alpha-lactalbumin
Molecular Weight
16224.695 Da
References
  1. Barbana C, Perez MD, Pocovi C, Sanchez L, Wehbi Z: Interaction of human alpha-lactalbumin with fatty acids: determination of binding parameters. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008 Jun;73(6):711-6. [PubMed:18620538]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Murakami K, Ide T, Suzuki M, Mochizuki T, Kadowaki T: Evidence for direct binding of fatty acids and eicosanoids to human peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jul 14;260(3):609-13. [PubMed:10403814]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloid...
Gene Name
ALB
Uniprot ID
P02768
Uniprot Name
Serum albumin
Molecular Weight
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Simard JR, Zunszain PA, Hamilton JA, Curry S: Location of high and low affinity fatty acid binding sites on human serum albumin revealed by NMR drug-competition analysis. J Mol Biol. 2006 Aug 11;361(2):336-51. Epub 2006 Jun 30. [PubMed:16844140]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Lipid transport protein in adipocytes. Binds both long chain fatty acids and retinoic acid. Delivers long-chain fatty acids and retinoic acid to their cognate receptors in the nucleus (By similarity).
Gene Name
FABP4
Uniprot ID
P15090
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, adipocyte
Molecular Weight
14718.815 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
High specificity for fatty acids. Highest affinity for C18 chain length. Decreasing the chain length or introducing double bonds reduces the affinity. May be involved in keratinocyte differentiation.
Gene Name
FABP5
Uniprot ID
Q01469
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, epidermal
Molecular Weight
15164.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Oleic acid binding
Specific Function
FABP are thought to play a role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and their acyl-CoA esters.
Gene Name
FABP3
Uniprot ID
P05413
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, heart
Molecular Weight
14857.93 Da
References
  1. Zanotti G, Scapin G, Spadon P, Veerkamp JH, Sacchettini JC: Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human muscle fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1992 Sep 15;267(26):18541-50. [PubMed:1526991]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
FABP are thought to play a role in the intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids and their acyl-CoA esters. FABP2 is probably involved in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein synthesis. Binds satu...
Gene Name
FABP2
Uniprot ID
P12104
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, intestinal
Molecular Weight
15207.165 Da
References
  1. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name
ABCB1
Uniprot ID
P08183
Uniprot Name
Multidrug resistance protein 1
Molecular Weight
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Konishi T, Satsu H, Hatsugai Y, Aizawa K, Inakuma T, Nagata S, Sakuda SH, Nagasawa H, Shimizu M: Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;143(3):379-87. Epub 2004 Sep 6. [PubMed:15351776]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on March 02, 2018 02:44