Identification

Name
Vitamin E
Accession Number
DB00163  (NUTR00061, EXPT03227)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
Description

A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-α-tocopherol
  • (2R,4'R,8'R)-α-tocopherol
  • (2R)-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-TRIMETHYLTRIDECYL]CHROMAN-6-OL
  • (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol
  • 5,7,8-trimethyltocol
  • alpha-tocopherol
  • d-α-tocopherol
External IDs
E-307A / INS NO.307A / INS-307A / J24.260H
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Vitamin E acetate9E8X80D2L0 Not AvailableNot applicable
Vitamin E succinateLU4B53JYVE 4345-03-3IELOKBJPULMYRW-NJQVLOCASA-N
Product Images
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Vision E - 134iu/capCapsule134 unitOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E (water Dispersible)Capsule400 unitOralNusano Enterprises Ltd.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E 1000 Iu - Water SolubleCapsule1000 unitOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E 400 Iu Water Dispersible SupplementCapsule400 unitOralGarden State NutritionalsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E Cap 50unitTablet50 unitOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E Inj 100unit/mlLiquid100 unitIntramuscularKripps Pharmacy Ltd.1986-12-31Not applicableCanada
Vitamine E 400 U.I.Capsule400 unitOralLaboratoire Riva IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti-succinate Caplet 400unitTablet400 unitOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Chewable Vitamin E 200 I.U.Tablet200 unitOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2000-01-282005-08-05Canada
Chewable Vitamin E 400 I.U.Tablet400 unitOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2000-01-282005-08-05Canada
Dl E 400 Cap 400unitCapsule400 unitOralThorne Research Inc.1984-12-311997-07-16Canada
E 100 IuCapsule100 unitOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.2000-04-052008-07-17Canada
E 400 IuCapsule400 unitOralRegime Industries Ltd.2002-08-282007-07-08Canada
E Vitamin 1000 I.U. (natural Source)Capsule1000 unitOralH.J. Sutton Industries Ltd.1996-10-151998-08-31Canada
Formula S.D.Tablet100 unitOralChanges InternationalNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Liquid Vitamin ELiquid200 unitOralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.2003-09-202007-08-01Canada
Mycellized Vit E Liq 150unit/mlLiquid150 unitOralMetagenics, Inc.1985-12-312005-08-19Canada
International/Other Brands
Amino-Opti-E / Aquasol E
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Active FEVitamin E (40 [iU]/1) + Beta carotene (2100 [iU]/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (30 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1250 ug/1) + Iron (75 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (30 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (4 mg/1) + Vitamin C (160 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)TabletOralGm Pharmaceuticals2013-11-11Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsVitamin E acetate (10 [iU]/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Folic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + Vitamin C (200 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsVitamin E acetate (10 [iU]/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Folic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + Vitamin C (200 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2003-06-16Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsVitamin E acetate (10 [iU]/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Folic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + Vitamin C (200 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2003-06-16Not applicableUs
Adult Infuvite Multiple VitaminsVitamin E acetate (10 [iU]/10mL) + Biotin (60 ug/10mL) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/10mL) + Cyanocobalamin (5 ug/10mL) + Dexpanthenol (15 mg/10mL) + Folic Acid (600 ug/10mL) + Nicotinamide (40 mg/10mL) + Phylloquinone (150 ug/10mL) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium (3.6 mg/10mL) + Thiamine Hydrochloride (6 mg/10mL) + Vitamin A palmitate (3300 [iU]/10mL) + Vitamin C (200 mg/10mL)Injection, solutionIntravenousSandoz2005-05-18Not applicableUs
Am CapsVitamin E (15 unit) + Beta carotene (2500 unit) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.20 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.85 mg) + Selenium (50 mcg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg) + Calcium ascorbate (30 mg)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Avon Nutrivance Vitamin E PlusVitamin E (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.2 mg) + Magnesium (120 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Selenium (35 mcg) + Vitamin C (120 mg)TabletOralAvon Products, Inc.2001-09-252007-07-26Canada
B Stress C + Iron & ViteVitamin E (30 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (12 mcg) + Folic Acid (.4 mg) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg) + Nicotinamide (100 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Riboflavin (15 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (15 mg) + Vitamin C (600 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1990-12-312004-07-26Canada
BacminVitamin E acetate (30 [iU]/1) + Biotin (150 ug/1) + Chromium Cr-51 chloride (.1 mg/1) + Cupric oxide (3 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (50 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (27 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Manganese gluconate (5 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (100 mg/1) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Radium Ra 223 Dichloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (20 mg/1) + Selenomethionine (50 ug/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (20 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (2000 [iU]/1) + Vitamin C (500 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (22.5 mg/1)Tablet, coatedOralMarnel Pharmaceuticals, Llc2000-04-01Not applicableUs
Balanced B-complex Vit + Vit C&e TabVitamin E (15 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (10 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.1 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (50 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (10 mg) + Riboflavin (10 mg) + Thiamine mononitrate (10 mg) + Vitamin C (100 mg)TabletOralPharmavite1991-12-312006-07-05Canada
Categories
UNII
N9PR3490H9
CAS number
59-02-9
Weight
Average: 430.7061
Monoisotopic: 430.381080844
Chemical Formula
C29H50O2
InChI Key
GVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H50O2/c1-20(2)12-9-13-21(3)14-10-15-22(4)16-11-18-29(8)19-17-26-25(7)27(30)23(5)24(6)28(26)31-29/h20-22,30H,9-19H2,1-8H3/t21-,22-,29-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[[email protected]@H](C)CCC[[email protected]@H](C)CCC[[email protected]]1(C)CCC2=C(O1)C(C)=C(C)C(O)=C2C

Pharmacology

Indication

Vitamin E, known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions. Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.

Mechanism of action

Although all forms of Vitamin E exhibit antioxidant activity, it is known that the antioxidant activity of vitamin E is not sufficient to explain the vitamin's biological activity.
Vitamin E's anti-atherogenic activity involves the inhibition of the oxidation of LDL and the accumulation of oxLDL in the arterial wall. It also appears to reduce oxLDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Oxidation of LDL is a key early step in atherogenesis as it triggers a number of events which lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, vitamin E inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKC plays a role in smooth muscle cell proliferation, and, thus, the inhibition of PKC results in inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is involved in atherogenesis.
Vitamin E's antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities involves the downregulation of the expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule(ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule(VCAM)-1 which lowers the adhesion of blood components to the endothelium. In addition, vitamin E upregulates the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 which in turn enhances the release of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is a vasodilating factor and inhibitor of platelet aggregation and platelet release. It is also known that platelet aggregation is mediated by a mechanism involving the binding of fibrinogen to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) complex of platelets. GPIIb/IIIa is the major membrane receptor protein that is key to the role of the platelet aggregation response. GPIIb is the alpha-subunit of this platelet membrane protein. Alpha-tocopherol downregulates GPIIb promoter activity which results in reduction of GPIIb protein expression and decreased platelet aggregation. Vitamin E has also been found in culture to decrease plasma production of thrombin, a protein which binds to platelets and induces aggregation. A metabolite of vitamin E called vitamin E quinone or alpha-tocopheryl quinone (TQ) is a potent anticoagulant. This metabolite inhibits vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, which is a major enzyme in the coagulation cascade.
The neuroprotective effects of vitamin E are explained by its antioxidant effects. Many disorders of the nervous system are caused by oxidative stress. Vitamin E protects against this stress, thereby protecting the nervouse system.
The immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro, where alpha-tocopherol increases mitogenic response of T lymphocytes from aged mice. The mechanism of this response by vitamin E is not well understood, however it has been suggested that vitamin E itself may have mitogenic activity independent of its antioxidant activity.
Lastly, the mechanism of action of vitamin E's antiviral effects (primarily against HIV-1) involves its antioxidant activity. Vitamin E reduces oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis, as well as to the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Vitamin E also affects membrane integrity and fluidity and, since HIV-1 is a membraned virus, altering membrane fluidity of HIV-1 may interfere with its ability to bind to cell-receptor sites, thus decreasing its infectivity.

TargetActionsOrganism
USEC14-like protein 4Not AvailableHuman
USEC14-like protein 3Not AvailableHuman
USEC14-like protein 2Not AvailableHuman
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHuman
UProtein kinase C beta typeNot AvailableHuman
UArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseNot AvailableHuman
UProtein kinase C alpha typeNot AvailableHuman
UDiacylglycerol kinase alphaNot AvailableHuman
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoformNot AvailableHuman
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoformNot AvailableHuman
Absorption

50 to 80% absorbed from gastrointestinal tract.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Bound to beta-lipoproteins in blood.

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AbciximabVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.Approved
AcenocoumarolVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.Approved
Acetylsalicylic acidVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.Approved, Vet Approved
AlprostadilVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Alprostadil.Approved, Investigational
AnagrelideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.Approved
AncrodVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.Investigational
AndrographolideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Andrographolide.Investigational
Antithrombin III humanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.Approved
ApixabanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.Approved
ArdeparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.Approved, Withdrawn
ArgatrobanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.Approved, Investigational
AzelastineVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Azelastine.Approved
BecaplerminVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.Approved, Investigational
BeraprostVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Beraprost.Investigational
BivalirudinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.Approved, Investigational
BuflomedilVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Buflomedil.Experimental
ButylphthalideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Butylphthalide.Investigational
CangrelorVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cangrelor.Approved
CertoparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.Approved
CilostazolVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cilostazol.Approved
Citric AcidVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.Nutraceutical, Vet Approved
ClopidogrelVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Clopidogrel.Approved, Nutraceutical
CloricromenVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Cloricromen.Experimental
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be decreased when it is combined with Vitamin E.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
Dabigatran etexilateVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.Approved
DalteparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.Approved
DanaparoidVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.Approved, Withdrawn
DarexabanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Darexaban.Investigational
DefibrotideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Defibrotide.Approved, Investigational
DesirudinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.Approved
DextranVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.Approved, Vet Approved
Dextran 40Vitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.Approved
Dextran 70Vitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.Approved
Dextran 75Vitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.Approved
DicoumarolVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.Approved
DipyridamoleVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Dipyridamole.Approved
Edetic AcidVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.Approved, Vet Approved
EdoxabanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.Approved
EnoxaparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.Approved
EpinastineVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epinastine.Approved, Investigational
EplivanserinVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eplivanserin.Investigational
eplivanserineVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of eplivanserine.Investigational
EpoprostenolVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Epoprostenol.Approved
EptifibatideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Eptifibatide.Approved, Investigational
Ethyl biscoumacetateVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.Withdrawn
Ferulic acidVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ferulic acid.Experimental
FluindioneVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fluindione.Investigational
FondaparinuxVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux.Investigational
Fondaparinux sodiumVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.Approved, Investigational
GabexateVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Gabexate.Investigational
HeparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Heparin.Approved, Investigational
HydroxytyrosolVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Hydroxytyrosol.Investigational
IbrutinibVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibrutinib.Approved
IbudilastVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ibudilast.Approved, Investigational
Icosapent ethylVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Icosapent ethyl.Approved, Nutraceutical
IdraparinuxVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Idraparinux.Investigational
IfenprodilVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifenprodil.Approved, Withdrawn
IfetrobanVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ifetroban.Investigational
IloprostVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Iloprost.Approved, Investigational
IndobufenVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Indobufen.Investigational
KetanserinVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ketanserin.Investigational
LepirudinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.Approved
LetaxabanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Letaxaban.Investigational
LinsidomineVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Linsidomine.Experimental
MelagatranVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Melagatran.Experimental
MilrinoneVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Milrinone.Approved
NadroparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.Approved
NafamostatVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nafamostat.Approved, Investigational
NaftopidilVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Naftopidil.Investigational
NimesulideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nimesulide.Approved, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Nitroaspirin.Investigational
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Vitamin E can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OtamixabanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.Investigational
Pentosan PolysulfateVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.Approved
PentoxifyllineVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Pentoxifylline.Approved, Investigational
PhenindioneVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.Approved
PhenprocoumonVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.Approved
PicotamideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Picotamide.Experimental
PrasugrelVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Prasugrel.Approved
Protein CVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.Approved
Protein S humanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein S human.Approved
ProtocatechualdehydeVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.Approved
RamatrobanVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ramatroban.Investigational
ResveratrolVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Resveratrol.Experimental, Investigational
ReviparinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.Approved
RidogrelVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ridogrel.Approved
RivaroxabanVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.Approved
SarpogrelateVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sarpogrelate.Investigational
SevofluraneVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Sevoflurane.Approved, Vet Approved
SRT501Vitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of SRT501.Investigational
SulodexideVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.Approved, Investigational
TesmilifeneVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tesmilifene.Investigational
TiclopidineVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Ticlopidine.Approved
TipranavirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tipranavir is combined with Vitamin E.Approved, Investigational
TirofibanVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tirofiban.Approved
TranilastVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Tranilast.Approved, Investigational
TrapidilVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Trapidil.Approved
TriflusalVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Triflusal.Approved
TroxerutinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Troxerutin.Investigational
VorapaxarVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Vorapaxar.Approved
WarfarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
XimelagatranVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ralph E. Close, William Oroshnik, "Synthesis of dehydrophytol and Vitamin E." U.S. Patent US4039591, issued February, 1945.

US4039591
General References
  1. Iuliano L, Micheletta F, Maranghi M, Frati G, Diczfalusy U, Violi F: Bioavailability of vitamin E as function of food intake in healthy subjects: effects on plasma peroxide-scavenging activity and cholesterol-oxidation products. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Oct;21(10):E34-7. [PubMed:11597949 ]
  2. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537682 ]
  3. Horwitt MK, Elliott WH, Kanjananggulpan P, Fitch CD: Serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol after ingestion of various vitamin E preparations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Aug;40(2):240-5. [PubMed:6465056 ]
  4. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1796-806. [PubMed:16641396 ]
  5. Poston L, Briley AL, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Shennan AH: Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Apr 8;367(9517):1145-54. [PubMed:16616557 ]
  6. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01893
KEGG Compound
C02477
PubChem Compound
14985
PubChem Substance
46506524
ChemSpider
14265
ChEBI
18145
ChEMBL
CHEMBL47
PharmGKB
PA451900
HET
VIV
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Vitamin_E
ATC Codes
Not Available
AHFS Codes
  • 84:24.12
  • 88:20.00
PDB Entries
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (74.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPeyronie's Disease1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Mycobacterium avium complex infection1
1CompletedPreventionHIV / AIDS1
1CompletedPreventionInfant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Intracranial Hemorrhages / Newborn Infants / Very Low Birth Weight Infant1
1CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR) / Mild Asthma1
1CompletedTreatmentCancers / Metastases1
1CompletedTreatmentCystoid Macular Edema / Uveitis1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Macular Edema (ME)2
1CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
1RecruitingTreatmentBurn Injuries1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedPreventionFibrosis1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionPeripheral Neuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentAdrenomyeloneuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Arsenic Poisoning1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
2CompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver / Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentNon-Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Head and Neck1
2RecruitingTreatmentAsthma, Allergic1
2RecruitingTreatmentDepressive State1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD) / Mild or Moderate Anaemia / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
2TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Artery Diseases / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Heart Diseases / Intracranial Arteriosclerosis / Vascular Diseases1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCancers1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentKidney Failure,Chronic / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2, 3RecruitingTreatmentMinor burns1
3Active Not RecruitingPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRadiation Induced Brachial Plexopathy1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction (MI) / Myocardial Ischemia / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers / Precancerous Conditions1
3CompletedPreventionNon ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / Post MI / Stable Angina (SA) / Unstable Angina (UA)1
3CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)2
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Myocardial Infarction (MI)1
3CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarcinoma, Breast / Fibrosis1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentAvascular Necrosis / Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw1
3Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentNAFLD1
3TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3Unknown StatusPreventionAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
3Unknown StatusPreventionBladder Cancers2
3Unknown StatusPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias / Fatty Liver1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPigmentation From Visible Light1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThalassaemic disorders1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LotionTopical
PowderOral
Paste, dentifriceDental
TabletOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
PowderTopical
Tablet, effervescentOral
PatchTopical
Kit
ClothTopical
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidOral200 unit
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, powder, lyophilized, for solutionIntravenous
Solution / dropsOral
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidOral
SolutionOral
LiquidOral150 unit
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
CapsuleOral
CapsuleOral7 unit
TabletOral100 unit
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Tablet, coatedOral
Powder, for solutionOral
LiquidTopical
EmulsionTopical
KitOral
LozengeOral
CapsuleOral134 unit
CapsuleOral800 mg
Capsule, liquid filledOral
TabletOral200 unit
CapsuleOral400 mg
CapsuleOral1000 unit
CapsuleOral100 unit
CapsuleOral200 unit
CapsuleOral400 unit
TabletOral50 unit
CapsuleOral800 unit
TabletOral400 unit
CreamTopical
LiquidIntramuscular100 unit
OintmentTopical1000 unit
OintmentTopical30 unit
CreamTopical250 unit
CapsuleOral25 unit
LiquidOral100 unit
Tablet, film coatedOral
LiquidOral77 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vitamin e acetate liquid1.07USD ml
Ester-e 400 unit softgel0.26USD softgel capsule
Vit e nat'l blnd 1000 unit capsule0.2USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit tablet0.19USD tablet
E pherol 400 unit tablet0.13USD tablet
Vitamin e 1000 unit capsule0.13USD capsule
Vitamin e beauty oil0.1USD ml
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 800 unit softgel0.09USD softgel capsule
Vitamin e 600 unit capsule0.07USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.06USD capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.05USD capsule
Vitamin e 200 unit capsule0.05USD each
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 200 unit softgel0.04USD softgel capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit cap0.04USD capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.04USD capsule
Vitamin e 100 unit capsule0.04USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit softgel0.04USD softgel capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e plus cream0.03USD g
Natural vit e 200 unit capsule0.03USD capsule
Vitamin e cream0.02USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)3 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsoluble in water, but water-dispersible.Not Available
logP10Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.04e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.84ALOGPS
logP10.51ChemAxon
logS-7.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity135.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability55.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9795
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9767
Caco-2 permeable+0.8484
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7189
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7598
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7802
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7882
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6949
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7813
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7533
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8122
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7762
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8813
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9965
Rat acute toxicity2.1598 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7192
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6449
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0159-2900500000-03e8a824731610752eb3
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9600100000-aaf885290800a10d3fb2
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01wr-9300000000-f0c814976a58a9d837ca
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-1494700000-6b5f8f817c5a5429ed70
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-4910600000-1eda05dacf9642d7cea0
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tocopherols. These are vitamin E derivatives containing a saturated trimethyltridecyl chain attached to the carbon C6 atom of a benzopyran ring system. The differ from tocotrienols that contain an unsaturated trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl chain.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Quinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct Parent
Tocopherols
Alternative Parents
Diterpenoids / 1-benzopyrans / Alkyl aryl ethers / Benzenoids / Oxacyclic compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Tocopherol / Diterpenoid / 1-benzopyran / Benzopyran / Chromane / Alkyl aryl ether / Benzenoid / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
alpha-tocopherol (CHEBI:18145 ) / vitamin E, Fat-soluble vitamins (C02477 ) / Vitamin E (LMPR02020000 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L4
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX3
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 4
Molecular Weight
46643.385 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX4
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 3
Molecular Weight
46047.835 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Ye X, Ji C, Yin G, Tang R, Zeng L, Gu S, Ying K, Xie Y, Zhao RC, Mao Y: Characterization of a human Sec14-like protein cDNA SEC14L3 highly homologous to human SPF/TAP. Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Mar;31(1):59-63. [PubMed:15040456 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Carrier protein. Binds to some hydrophobic molecules and promotes their transfer between the different cellular sites. Binds with high affinity to alpha-tocopherol. Also binds with a weaker affinit...
Gene Name
SEC14L2
Uniprot ID
O76054
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
46144.9 Da
References
  1. Neuzil J, Dong LF, Wang XF, Zingg JM: Tocopherol-associated protein-1 accelerates apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in mesothelioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1113-7. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16579965 ]
  2. Ni J, Pang ST, Yeh S: Differential retention of alpha-vitamin E is correlated with its transporter gene expression and growth inhibition efficacy in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007 Apr 1;67(5):463-71. [PubMed:17252538 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N: Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16603143 ]
  2. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. [PubMed:16880233 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosom...
Gene Name
PRKCB
Uniprot ID
P05771
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C beta type
Molecular Weight
76868.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Wigg SJ, Tare M, Forbes J, Cooper ME, Thomas MC, Coleman HA, Parkington HC, O'Brien RC: Early vitamin E supplementation attenuates diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction and the rise in protein kinase C-beta in mesenteric artery and ameliorates wall stiffness in femoral artery of Wistar rats. Diabetologia. 2004 Jun;47(6):1038-46. Epub 2004 Jun 8. [PubMed:15184978 ]
  4. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093 ]
  5. Ganz MB, Seftel A: Glucose-induced changes in protein kinase C and nitric oxide are prevented by vitamin E. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;278(1):E146-52. [PubMed:10644549 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [PubMed:16531984 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differenti...
Gene Name
PRKCA
Uniprot ID
P17252
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C alpha type
Molecular Weight
76749.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Clement S, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Ricciarelli R, Tasinato A: Alpha-tocopherol as a modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):507-14. [PubMed:9430404 ]
  4. Sylvester PW, McIntyre BS, Gapor A, Briski KP: Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation. Cell Prolif. 2001 Dec;34(6):347-57. [PubMed:11736999 ]
  5. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity.
Gene Name
DGKA
Uniprot ID
P23743
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol kinase alpha
Molecular Weight
82629.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase.
Gene Name
PPP2CB
Uniprot ID
P62714
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform
Molecular Weight
35574.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
PP2A is the major phosphatase for microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. Cooperates with SGO2 to protect centromeric cohesin from separase-mediated cleavage in oocytes specifically during meiosis I (By similarity). Can dephosphorylate SV40 large T antigen and p53/TP53. Activates RAF1 by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-259'.
Specific Function
Gaba receptor binding
Gene Name
PPP2CA
Uniprot ID
P67775
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform
Molecular Weight
35593.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA2
Uniprot ID
P09210
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Molecular Weight
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Ralat LA, Colman RF: Identification of tyrosine 79 in the tocopherol binding site of glutathione S-transferase pi. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 17;45(41):12491-9. [PubMed:17029404 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates...
Gene Name
GSTO1
Uniprot ID
P78417
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
Molecular Weight
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA: Tocopherol esters inhibit human glutathione S-transferase omega. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(3):547-52. Epub 2006 Oct 1. [PubMed:17019444 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the t...
Gene Name
GSTM3
Uniprot ID
P21266
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3
Molecular Weight
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Mustacich DJ, Gohil K, Bruno RS, Yan M, Leonard SW, Ho E, Cross CE, Traber MG: Alpha-tocopherol modulates genes involved in hepatic xenobiotic pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Jun;20(6):469-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18789671 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCLC
Uniprot ID
P48506
Uniprot Name
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vit...
Gene Name
NQO1
Uniprot ID
P15559
Uniprot Name
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1
Molecular Weight
30867.405 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the a...
Gene Name
HMOX1
Uniprot ID
P09601
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
32818.345 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624 ]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Binds alpha-tocopherol, enhances its transfer between separate membranes, and stimulates its release from liver cells (PubMed:7887897). Binds both phosphatidylinol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidyl...
Gene Name
TTPA
Uniprot ID
P49638
Uniprot Name
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
Molecular Weight
31749.305 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:32