Identification

Name
Vitamin E
Accession Number
DB00163  (NUTR00061, EXPT03227)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Description

A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-α-tocopherol
  • (2R,4'R,8'R)-α-tocopherol
  • (2R)-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-TRIMETHYLTRIDECYL]CHROMAN-6-OL
  • (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol
  • 5,7,8-trimethyltocol
  • alpha-tocopherol
  • d-α-tocopherol
External IDs
E-307A / INS NO.307A / INS-307A / J24.260H
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Natural Source Vitamin E 1000 IuCapsule1000 unitOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vision E - 134iu/capCapsule134 unitOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E 1000 Iu - Water SolubleCapsule1000 unitOralLeiner Health ProductsNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E 200 Iu CapsulesCapsule200 unitOralAshbury Research CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E 400 Iu CapsulesCapsule400 unitOralAshbury Research CorporationNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamin E Cap 50unitTablet50 unitOralStandard Process Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Vitamine E 400 U.I.Capsule400 unitOralLaboratoire Riva IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acne C-PatchPatch0.06 g/2gTopicalNeoBiotech Global Corporation2018-02-10Not applicableUs
Acti-copherols 200 CapCapsule200 unitOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-D Alphacopherol Cap 400unitCapsule400 unitOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-D Alphacopherol Cap 800unitCapsule800 unitOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
E 100 Cap Natural 100unitCapsule100 unitOralVita Health Products Inc1979-12-312008-08-05Canada
E 100 IuCapsule100 unitOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.2000-04-052008-07-17Canada
E 100 Iu CapsulesCapsule100 unitOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1988-12-312000-04-20Canada
E 200 Cap Natural 200unitCapsule200 unitOralVita Health Products Inc1979-12-312008-08-05Canada
E 400 IuCapsule400 unitOralRegime Industries Ltd.2002-08-282007-07-08Canada
E Vitamin 1000 I.U. (natural Source)Capsule1000 unitOralH.J. Sutton Industries Ltd.1996-10-151998-08-31Canada
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsVitamin E (50 unit) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic Acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 PlusVitamin E (20 unit) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic Acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada
Aces Formula/formule A A SVitamin E (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Beta carotene (3333 unit) + Selenium (25 mcg)CapsuleOralQuantofill Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Aces TabVitamin E (200 unit) + Calcium ascorbate (350 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Zinc (25 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
Am CapsVitamin E (15 unit) + Beta carotene (2500 unit) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Calcium ascorbate (30 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.20 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.85 mg) + Selenium (50 mcg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Avon Nutrivance Vitamin E PlusVitamin E (200 unit) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.2 mg) + Magnesium (120 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Selenium (35 mcg)TabletOralAvon Products, Inc.2001-09-252007-07-26Canada
Bear EssentialsVitamin E (6 unit) + Ascorbic acid (12 mg) + Cholecalciferol (80 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (1.2 mcg) + Folic Acid (0.080 mg) + Pantothenic acid (2 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.0304 mg) + Vitamin A (1000 unit)TabletOralHealth Asure, Inc.2003-07-022008-06-24Canada
Beta-carotene 10,000 Iu With Vitamins C & EVitamin E (60 unit) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit)TabletOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1993-12-312001-09-14Canada
Bio-efa Borage Gla 240 CapVitamin E (10 unit) + Gamolenic acid (240 mg) + Linoleic acid (378 mg)CapsuleOralPge Canada (86) Inc.1989-12-312006-06-19Canada
Bio-efa Borage Gla 90 CapVitamin E (10 unit) + Alpha-Linolenic Acid (1 mg) + Gamolenic acid (90 mg) + Linoleic acid (216 mg)CapsuleOralPge Canada (86) Inc.1989-12-312006-06-19Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
C-Nate DHAVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (30 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (200 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralCenturion Labs2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Cavan PrenatalVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (200 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (420 [iU]/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (8 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 ug/1)TabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-07-092009-07-22Us
Cavan-EC SOD DHAVitamin E (30 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc (26 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15Us
CitraNatal AssureVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitMission Pharmacal2008-11-19Not applicableUs
CitraNatal AssureVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (124 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-30Not applicableUs
CitraNatal Harmony 3.0Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (104 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (25 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMission Pharmacal Company2014-03-21Not applicableUs
CitraNatal MedleyVitamin E (15 [iU]/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (62 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (200 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (2 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (12.5 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMission Pharmacal2018-03-20Not applicableUs
Extra-Virt Plus DHAVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (28 mg/1) + Biotin (250 ug/1) + Calcium Carbonate (158 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate calcium (55 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (29 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2012-12-282014-01-01Us
FlorivaVitamin E (20 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg/1) + Beta carotene (1000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (40 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (600 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (6 ug/1) + Folic Acid (100 ug/1) + Levomefolate glucosamine (162 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.3 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Zinc gluconate (5 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralBonGeo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-09-10Not applicableUs
FlorivaVitamin E (20 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg/1) + Beta carotene (1000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (40 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (600 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (6 ug/1) + Folic Acid (100 ug/1) + Levomefolate glucosamine (162 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.5 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.3 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Zinc gluconate (5 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralBonGeo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2014-10-15Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Amino-Opti-E / Aquasol E
Categories
UNII
N9PR3490H9
CAS number
59-02-9
Weight
Average: 430.7061
Monoisotopic: 430.381080844
Chemical Formula
C29H50O2
InChI Key
GVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H50O2/c1-20(2)12-9-13-21(3)14-10-15-22(4)16-11-18-29(8)19-17-26-25(7)27(30)23(5)24(6)28(26)31-29/h20-22,30H,9-19H2,1-8H3/t21-,22-,29-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@]1(C)CCC2=C(O1)C(C)=C(C)C(O)=C2C

Pharmacology

Indication

Vitamin E, known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.

Pharmacodynamics

Vitamin E has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions. Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. There are three specific situations when a vitamin E deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A vitamin E deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as vitamin E help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.

Mechanism of action

Although all forms of Vitamin E exhibit antioxidant activity, it is known that the antioxidant activity of vitamin E is not sufficient to explain the vitamin's biological activity.
Vitamin E's anti-atherogenic activity involves the inhibition of the oxidation of LDL and the accumulation of oxLDL in the arterial wall. It also appears to reduce oxLDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells. Oxidation of LDL is a key early step in atherogenesis as it triggers a number of events which lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. In addition, vitamin E inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) activity. PKC plays a role in smooth muscle cell proliferation, and, thus, the inhibition of PKC results in inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, which is involved in atherogenesis.
Vitamin E's antithrombotic and anticoagulant activities involves the downregulation of the expression of intracellular cell adhesion molecule(ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule(VCAM)-1 which lowers the adhesion of blood components to the endothelium. In addition, vitamin E upregulates the expression of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 which in turn enhances the release of prostacyclin. Prostacyclin is a vasodilating factor and inhibitor of platelet aggregation and platelet release. It is also known that platelet aggregation is mediated by a mechanism involving the binding of fibrinogen to the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) complex of platelets. GPIIb/IIIa is the major membrane receptor protein that is key to the role of the platelet aggregation response. GPIIb is the alpha-subunit of this platelet membrane protein. Alpha-tocopherol downregulates GPIIb promoter activity which results in reduction of GPIIb protein expression and decreased platelet aggregation. Vitamin E has also been found in culture to decrease plasma production of thrombin, a protein which binds to platelets and induces aggregation. A metabolite of vitamin E called vitamin E quinone or alpha-tocopheryl quinone (TQ) is a potent anticoagulant. This metabolite inhibits vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, which is a major enzyme in the coagulation cascade.
The neuroprotective effects of vitamin E are explained by its antioxidant effects. Many disorders of the nervous system are caused by oxidative stress. Vitamin E protects against this stress, thereby protecting the nervouse system.
The immunomodulatory effects of Vitamin E have been demonstrated in vitro, where alpha-tocopherol increases mitogenic response of T lymphocytes from aged mice. The mechanism of this response by vitamin E is not well understood, however it has been suggested that vitamin E itself may have mitogenic activity independent of its antioxidant activity.
Lastly, the mechanism of action of vitamin E's antiviral effects (primarily against HIV-1) involves its antioxidant activity. Vitamin E reduces oxidative stress, which is thought to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis, as well as to the pathogenesis of other viral infections. Vitamin E also affects membrane integrity and fluidity and, since HIV-1 is a membraned virus, altering membrane fluidity of HIV-1 may interfere with its ability to bind to cell-receptor sites, thus decreasing its infectivity.

TargetActionsOrganism
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHuman
UProtein kinase C beta typeNot AvailableHuman
UArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseNot AvailableHuman
UProtein kinase C alpha typeNot AvailableHuman
UDiacylglycerol kinase alphaNot AvailableHuman
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoformNot AvailableHuman
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoformNot AvailableHuman
USEC14-like protein 4Not AvailableHuman
USEC14-like protein 3Not AvailableHuman
USEC14-like protein 2Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

50 to 80% absorbed from gastrointestinal tract.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding

Bound to beta-lipoproteins in blood.

Metabolism

Hepatic.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of 4-hydroxycoumarin.
AbciximabVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.
AcenocoumarolVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlteplaseVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Alteplase.
AmediplaseVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Amediplase.
AnagrelideVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Anagrelide.
AncrodVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ralph E. Close, William Oroshnik, "Synthesis of dehydrophytol and Vitamin E." U.S. Patent US4039591, issued February, 1945.

US4039591
General References
  1. Iuliano L, Micheletta F, Maranghi M, Frati G, Diczfalusy U, Violi F: Bioavailability of vitamin E as function of food intake in healthy subjects: effects on plasma peroxide-scavenging activity and cholesterol-oxidation products. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Oct;21(10):E34-7. [PubMed:11597949]
  2. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537682]
  3. Horwitt MK, Elliott WH, Kanjananggulpan P, Fitch CD: Serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol after ingestion of various vitamin E preparations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Aug;40(2):240-5. [PubMed:6465056]
  4. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1796-806. [PubMed:16641396]
  5. Poston L, Briley AL, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Shennan AH: Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Apr 8;367(9517):1145-54. [PubMed:16616557]
  6. Link [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001893
KEGG Compound
C02477
PubChem Compound
14985
PubChem Substance
46506524
ChemSpider
14265
ChEBI
18145
ChEMBL
CHEMBL47
PharmGKB
PA451900
HET
VIV
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Vitamin_E
AHFS Codes
  • 84:24.12 — Basic Ointments and Protectants
  • 88:20.00 — Vitamin E
PDB Entries
1oip / 1r5l / 3w67 / 3w68 / 5mue / 5mug
MSDS
Download (74.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPeyronie's Disease1
1CompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Infection, Human Immunodeficiency Virus I / Mycobacterium avium complex infection1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Infection(HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)1
1CompletedPreventionInfant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Intracranial Hemorrhages / Newborn Infants / Very Low Birth Weight Infant1
1CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR) / Mild Asthma1
1CompletedTreatmentCystoid Macular Edema / Uveitis1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Macular Edema (ME)2
1CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignancies / Metastases1
1RecruitingPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Healthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentBurn Injuries1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedPreventionFibrosis1
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedPreventionPeripheral Neuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentAdrenomyeloneuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
2CompletedTreatmentCentral Serous Chorioretinopathy (CSC)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Arsenic Poisoning1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver / Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentNPDR - Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2RecruitingPreventionNeoplasms, Head and Neck1
2RecruitingTreatmentAirway Inflammation1
2RecruitingTreatmentAsthma, Allergic1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Kidney Diseases1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / NAFLD / NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2TerminatedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD) / Mild or Moderate Anaemia / Ulcerative Colitis (UC)1
2TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Artery Diseases / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Heart Diseases / Intracranial Arteriosclerosis / Vascular Diseases1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionMalignancies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Myocardial Infarction1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Disorders / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers / Precancerous Conditions1
3CompletedPreventionNon ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / Post MI / Stable Angina (SA) / Unstable Angina (UA)1
3CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)2
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Myocardial Infarction1
3CompletedTreatmentNAFLD1
3CompletedTreatmentRadiation Induced Brachial Plexopathy1
3CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
3Not Yet RecruitingSupportive CareCarcinoma, Breast / Fibrosis1
3RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentAvascular Necrosis / Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw1
3TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3Unknown StatusPreventionBladder Cancers2
3Unknown StatusPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
4CompletedTreatmentHyperemesis Gravidarum / Morning Sickness / Nausea / Pregnancy / Vomiting1
4CompletedTreatmentObesity, Adolescent / Oxidative Stress1
4CompletedTreatmentPregnancy1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias / Fatty Liver1
4RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAsthma, Allergic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPigmentation From Visible Light1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThalassaemic disorders1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • AAIPharma Inc.
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • Actavis Group
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Basic Drugs Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Contract Pharm
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Domel Laboratories Inc.
  • DSM Corp.
  • E.R. Squibb and Sons LLC
  • Equaline Vitamins
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Freeda Vitamins
  • H and H Laboratories
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • IVC Industries Inc.
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medicine Shop
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Mission Pharmacal
  • National Vitamin Company
  • Nature's Bounty
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Olive Healthcare
  • Pharmaceutical Generic Developers Inc.
  • Pharmelle LLC
  • Pharmics Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pronova Corp.
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Qualitest
  • Rasi Laboratories Inc.
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Sandoz
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Seton Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
  • Silarx Pharmaceuticals
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Tri Med Laboratories Inc.
  • V Sab Medical Labs Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vitaline Corp.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Warner Chilcott Co. Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchTopical0.06 g/2g
LotionTopical
PowderTopical
PowderOral
OintmentTopical34 unit
TabletOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Solution / dropsOral
LiquidOral
LiquidOral200 unit
Tablet, chewableOral
SolutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
LiquidOral150 unit
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
CapsuleOral7 unit
Tablet, film coatedOral
KitOral
CapsuleOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, coatedOral
LozengeOral
CapsuleOral134 unit
TabletOral200 unit
CapsuleOral1000 unit
CapsuleOral100 unit
TabletOral50 unit
CreamTopical
OintmentTopical50 unit
OintmentTopical1000 unit
OintmentTopical30 unit
CapsuleOral200 unit
CapsuleOral800 unit
CreamTopical250 unit
CapsuleOral25 unit
Kit
LiquidOral100 unit
CapsuleOral400 unit
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vitamin e acetate liquid1.07USD ml
Ester-e 400 unit softgel0.26USD softgel capsule
Vit e nat'l blnd 1000 unit capsule0.2USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit tablet0.19USD tablet
E pherol 400 unit tablet0.13USD tablet
Vitamin e 1000 unit capsule0.13USD capsule
Vitamin e beauty oil0.1USD ml
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 800 unit softgel0.09USD softgel capsule
Vitamin e 600 unit capsule0.07USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.06USD capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.05USD capsule
Vitamin e 200 unit capsule0.05USD each
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 200 unit softgel0.04USD softgel capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit cap0.04USD capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.04USD capsule
Vitamin e 100 unit capsule0.04USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit softgel0.04USD softgel capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e plus cream0.03USD g
Natural vit e 200 unit capsule0.03USD capsule
Vitamin e cream0.02USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)3 °CPhysProp
water solubilityInsoluble in water, but water-dispersible.Not Available
logP10Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.04e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.84ALOGPS
logP10.51ChemAxon
logS-7.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity135.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability55.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9795
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9767
Caco-2 permeable+0.8484
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7189
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7598
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7802
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7882
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6949
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7813
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7533
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8122
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7762
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8813
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9965
Rat acute toxicity2.1598 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7192
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6449
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0159-2900500000-03e8a824731610752eb3
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9600100000-aaf885290800a10d3fb2
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01wr-9300000000-f0c814976a58a9d837ca
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-1494700000-6b5f8f817c5a5429ed70
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-4910600000-1eda05dacf9642d7cea0
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tocopherols. These are vitamin E derivatives containing a saturated trimethyltridecyl chain attached to the carbon C6 atom of a benzopyran ring system. The differ from tocotrienols that contain an unsaturated trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl chain.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Quinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct Parent
Tocopherols
Alternative Parents
Diterpenoids / 1-benzopyrans / Alkyl aryl ethers / Benzenoids / Oxacyclic compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Tocopherol / Diterpenoid / 1-benzopyran / Benzopyran / Chromane / Alkyl aryl ether / Benzenoid / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
alpha-tocopherol (CHEBI:18145) / vitamin E, Fat-soluble vitamins (C02477) / Vitamin E (LMPR02020000)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N: Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16603143]
  2. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. [PubMed:16880233]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosom...
Gene Name
PRKCB
Uniprot ID
P05771
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C beta type
Molecular Weight
76868.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wigg SJ, Tare M, Forbes J, Cooper ME, Thomas MC, Coleman HA, Parkington HC, O'Brien RC: Early vitamin E supplementation attenuates diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction and the rise in protein kinase C-beta in mesenteric artery and ameliorates wall stiffness in femoral artery of Wistar rats. Diabetologia. 2004 Jun;47(6):1038-46. Epub 2004 Jun 8. [PubMed:15184978]
  4. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093]
  5. Ganz MB, Seftel A: Glucose-induced changes in protein kinase C and nitric oxide are prevented by vitamin E. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;278(1):E146-52. [PubMed:10644549]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [PubMed:16531984]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differenti...
Gene Name
PRKCA
Uniprot ID
P17252
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C alpha type
Molecular Weight
76749.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Clement S, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Ricciarelli R, Tasinato A: Alpha-tocopherol as a modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):507-14. [PubMed:9430404]
  4. Sylvester PW, McIntyre BS, Gapor A, Briski KP: Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation. Cell Prolif. 2001 Dec;34(6):347-57. [PubMed:11736999]
  5. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity.
Gene Name
DGKA
Uniprot ID
P23743
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol kinase alpha
Molecular Weight
82629.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase.
Gene Name
PPP2CB
Uniprot ID
P62714
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform
Molecular Weight
35574.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
PP2A is the major phosphatase for microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. Cooperates with SGO2 to protect centromeric cohesin from separase-mediated cleavage in oocytes specifically during meiosis I (By similarity). Can dephosphorylate SV40 large T antigen and p53/TP53. Activates RAF1 by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-259'.
Specific Function
Gaba receptor binding
Gene Name
PPP2CA
Uniprot ID
P67775
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform
Molecular Weight
35593.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L4
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX3
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 4
Molecular Weight
46643.385 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX4
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 3
Molecular Weight
46047.835 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ye X, Ji C, Yin G, Tang R, Zeng L, Gu S, Ying K, Xie Y, Zhao RC, Mao Y: Characterization of a human Sec14-like protein cDNA SEC14L3 highly homologous to human SPF/TAP. Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Mar;31(1):59-63. [PubMed:15040456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Carrier protein. Binds to some hydrophobic molecules and promotes their transfer between the different cellular sites. Binds with high affinity to alpha-tocopherol. Also binds with a weaker affinit...
Gene Name
SEC14L2
Uniprot ID
O76054
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
46144.9 Da
References
  1. Neuzil J, Dong LF, Wang XF, Zingg JM: Tocopherol-associated protein-1 accelerates apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in mesothelioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1113-7. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16579965]
  2. Ni J, Pang ST, Yeh S: Differential retention of alpha-vitamin E is correlated with its transporter gene expression and growth inhibition efficacy in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007 Apr 1;67(5):463-71. [PubMed:17252538]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA2
Uniprot ID
P09210
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Molecular Weight
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Ralat LA, Colman RF: Identification of tyrosine 79 in the tocopherol binding site of glutathione S-transferase pi. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 17;45(41):12491-9. [PubMed:17029404]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates...
Gene Name
GSTO1
Uniprot ID
P78417
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
Molecular Weight
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA: Tocopherol esters inhibit human glutathione S-transferase omega. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(3):547-52. Epub 2006 Oct 1. [PubMed:17019444]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the t...
Gene Name
GSTM3
Uniprot ID
P21266
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3
Molecular Weight
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Mustacich DJ, Gohil K, Bruno RS, Yan M, Leonard SW, Ho E, Cross CE, Traber MG: Alpha-tocopherol modulates genes involved in hepatic xenobiotic pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Jun;20(6):469-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18789671]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCLC
Uniprot ID
P48506
Uniprot Name
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vit...
Gene Name
NQO1
Uniprot ID
P15559
Uniprot Name
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1
Molecular Weight
30867.405 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the a...
Gene Name
HMOX1
Uniprot ID
P09601
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
32818.345 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Binds alpha-tocopherol, enhances its transfer between separate membranes, and stimulates its release from liver cells (PubMed:7887897). Binds both phosphatidylinol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidyl...
Gene Name
TTPA
Uniprot ID
P49638
Uniprot Name
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
Molecular Weight
31749.305 Da

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 17, 2018 07:05