Identification

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Name
Vitamin E
Accession Number
DB00163  (NUTR00061, EXPT03227)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical, Vet approved
Description

In 1922, vitamin E was demonstrated to be an essential nutrient12. Vitamin E is a term used to describe 8 different fat soluble tocopherols and tocotrienols, alpha-tocopherol being the most biologically active1. Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant, protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage1. The antioxidant effects are currently being researched for use in the treatment of diseases causing bone loss, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and associated comorbidities, eye diseases, inflammatory diseases (including skin conditions), lipid disorders, neurological diseases, and radiation damage13. Though this research is so far inconclusive, vitamin E remains a popular supplement and is generally considered safe by the FDALabel.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (+)-α-tocopherol
  • (2R,4'R,8'R)-α-tocopherol
  • (2R)-2,5,7,8-TETRAMETHYL-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-TRIMETHYLTRIDECYL]CHROMAN-6-OL
  • (R,R,R)-α-tocopherol
  • 5,7,8-trimethyltocol
  • alpha-tocopherol
  • d-α-tocopherol
External IDs
E-307A / INS NO.307A / INS-307A / J24.260H
Product Images
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acne C-PatchPatch0.06 g/2gTopicalNeoBiotech Global Corporation2018-02-10Not applicableUs
Acti-copherols 200 CapCapsuleOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-D Alphacopherol Cap 400unitCapsuleOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
Acti-D Alphacopherol Cap 800unitCapsuleOralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada
E 100 Cap Natural 100unitCapsuleOralVita Health Products Inc1979-12-312008-08-05Canada
E 100 IuCapsuleOralNatural Factors Nutritional Products Ltd.2000-04-052008-07-17Canada
E 100 Iu CapsulesCapsuleOralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1988-12-312000-04-20Canada
E 200 Cap Natural 200unitCapsuleOralVita Health Products Inc1979-12-312008-08-05Canada
E 400 IuCapsuleOralRegime Industries Ltd.2002-08-282007-07-08Canada
E Vitamin 1000 I.U. (natural Source)CapsuleOralH.J. Sutton Industries Ltd.1996-10-151998-08-31Canada
Additional Data Available
  • Application Number
    Application Number

    A unique ID assigned by the FDA when a product is submitted for approval by the labeller.

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  • Product Code
    Product Code

    A governmentally-recognized ID which uniquely identifies the product within its regulatory market.

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Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
24 Multivitamins + MineralsVitamin E (50 unit) + Ascorbic acid (150 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Biotin (25 mcg) + Calcium (130 mg) + Cholecalciferol (400 unit) + Choline bitartrate (25 mg) + Chromium (20 mcg) + Copper (1 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (25 mcg) + Ferrous fumarate (15 mg) + Folic acid (.8 mg) + Inositol (25 mg) + Magnesium (65 mg) + Manganese (2 mg) + Molybdenum (20 mcg) + Niacin (25 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (25 mg) + Potassium (15 mg) + Potassium Iodide (.1 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Racemethionine (25 mg) + Riboflavin (25 mg) + Selenium (20 mcg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (25 mg) + Vanadium (20 mcg) + Vitamin A palmitate (5000 unit) + Zinc (10 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1997-04-302002-07-31Canada
50 PlusVitamin E (20 unit) + Ascorbic acid (200 mg) + Biotin (20 mcg) + Choline bitartrate (20 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (20 mcg) + Folic acid (.2 mg) + Inositol (20 mg) + Niacin (20 mg) + Calcium pantothenate (20 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Racemethionine (20 mg) + Riboflavin (20 mg) + Thiamine hydrochloride (20 mg) + Vitamin A palmitate (10000 unit) + Vitamin D (400 unit)TabletOralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1998-08-042001-07-06Canada
Aces Formula/formule A A SVitamin E (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (250 mg) + Beta carotene (3333 unit) + Selenium (25 mcg)CapsuleOralQuantofill Inc.Not applicableNot applicableCanada
Aces TabVitamin E (200 unit) + Calcium ascorbate (350 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Chromium (25 mcg) + Selenium (100 mcg) + Vitamin A (5000 unit) + Zinc (25 mg)TabletOralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1987-12-312005-03-15Canada
Adrien Gagnon Formule A-C-E + SeleniumVitamin E (200 unit) + Beta carotene (10000 unit) + Calcium ascorbate (500 mg) + Selenium (50 mcg)CapsuleOralSantÉ Naturelle (Ag) LtÉe2002-02-222007-08-03Canada
Am CapsVitamin E (15 unit) + Beta carotene (2500 unit) + Biotin (150 mcg) + Calcium ascorbate (30 mg) + Cholecalciferol (200 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (5 mcg) + Folic acid (0.20 mg) + Nicotinamide (10 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (1 mg) + Riboflavin (0.85 mg) + Selenium (50 mcg) + Thiamine (0.75 mg)CapsuleOralNew Vision Nutritionals CompanyNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Avon Nutrivance Vitamin E PlusVitamin E (200 unit) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg) + Cyanocobalamin (100 mcg) + Folic acid (0.2 mg) + Magnesium (120 mg) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (5 mg) + Selenium (35 mcg)TabletOralAvon Products, Inc.2001-09-252007-07-26Canada
Bear EssentialsVitamin E (6 unit) + Ascorbic acid (12 mg) + Cholecalciferol (80 unit) + Cyanocobalamin (1.2 mcg) + Folic acid (0.080 mg) + Pantothenic acid (2 mg) + Potassium Iodide (0.0304 mg) + Vitamin A (1000 unit)TabletOralHealth Asure, Inc.2003-07-022008-06-24Canada
Beta-carotene 10,000 Iu With Vitamins C & EVitamin E (60 unit) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg) + Beta carotene (10000 unit)TabletOralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1993-12-312001-09-14Canada
Beta-CE CapVitamin E (400 unit) + Ascorbic acid (500 mg) + Beta carotene (25000 unit) + Selenium (50 mcg)CapsuleOralGlobal Drugs Inc.1994-12-311998-04-30Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acne C-PatchVitamin E (0.06 g/2g)PatchTopicalNeoBiotech Global Corporation2018-02-10Not applicableUs
C-Nate DHAVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (100 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Cupric sulfate pentahydrate (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (15 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (30 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (200 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (20 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (20 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralCenturion Labs2013-01-01Not applicableUs
Cavan PrenatalVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium carbonate (200 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (420 [iU]/1) + Choline bitartrate (55 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (8 ug/1) + Ferrous fumarate (28 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Niacin (20 mg/1) + Potassium Iodide (150 ug/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (3 mg/1) + Zinc oxide (15 ug/1)TabletOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2009-07-092009-07-22Us
Cavan-EC SOD DHAVitamin E (30 mg/1) + Ascorbic acid (130 mg/1) + Beta carotene (3000 [iU]/1) + Calcium (230 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (410 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (12 ug/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Magnesium (25 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (440 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (28 mg/1) + Riboflavin (4 mg/1) + Sodium feredetate (30 mg/1) + Thiamine mononitrate (1.8 mg/1) + Zinc (26 mg/1)KitOralSeton Pharmaceuticals2010-01-102014-07-15Us
CitraNatal AssureVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (124 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitOralMission Pharmacal Company2014-04-30Not applicableUs
CitraNatal AssureVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (120 mg/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (125 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Copper (2 mg/1) + Doconexent (300 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (0.75 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (35 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Riboflavin (3.4 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (3 mg/1) + Zinc (25 mg/1)KitOralMission Pharmacal2008-11-19Not applicableUs
CitraNatal Harmony 3.0Vitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (104 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (400 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (25 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMission Pharmacal Company2014-03-21Not applicableUs
CitraNatal MedleyVitamin E (15 [iU]/1) + Calcium citrate tetrahydrate (62 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (200 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (200 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (2 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (12.5 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMission Pharmacal2018-03-20Not applicableUs
Extra-Virt Plus DHAVitamin E (30 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (28 mg/1) + Biotin (250 ug/1) + Calcium carbonate (158 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate calcium (55 mg/1) + Ferrous fumarate (29 mg/1) + Folic acid (1 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralVirtus Pharmaceuticals LLC2012-12-282014-01-01Us
FlorivaVitamin E (20 [iU]/1) + Ascorbic acid (75 mg/1) + Beta carotene (1000 [iU]/1) + Biotin (40 ug/1) + Cholecalciferol (600 [iU]/1) + Cupric oxide (1 mg/1) + Cyanocobalamin (6 ug/1) + Folic acid (100 ug/1) + Levomefolate glucosamine (162 ug/1) + Nicotinamide (15 mg/1) + Pyridoxine (1.8 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Sodium fluoride (0.25 mg/1) + Thiamine chloride (1.3 mg/1) + Vitamin A acetate (1000 [iU]/1) + Zinc gluconate (5 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralBonGeo Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2015-09-10Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Amino-Opti-E / Aquasol E
Categories
UNII
N9PR3490H9
CAS number
59-02-9
Weight
Average: 430.7061
Monoisotopic: 430.381080844
Chemical Formula
C29H50O2
InChI Key
GVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C29H50O2/c1-20(2)12-9-13-21(3)14-10-15-22(4)16-11-18-29(8)19-17-26-25(7)27(30)23(5)24(6)28(26)31-29/h20-22,30H,9-19H2,1-8H3/t21-,22-,29-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@]1(C)CCC2=C(O1)C(C)=C(C)C(O)=C2C

Pharmacology

Indication

Vitamin E supplementation is indicated for treatment of vitamin E deficiency which can occur in cystic fibrosis, cholestasis and severe liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia or simply poor diet1,15.

Pharmacodynamics

Vitamin E is a collective term used to describe 8 separate fat soluble antioxidants, most commonly alpha-tocopherol1. Vitamin E acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Vitamin E deficiency is seen in persons with abetalipoproteinemia, premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), cystic fibrosis, and cholestasis and severe liver disease1. Preliminary research suggests vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease and protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer2. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen3. Low levels of vitamin E have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer16.

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action for most of vitamin E's effects are still unknown1,4. Vitamin E is an antioxidant, preventing free radical reactions with cell membranes10. Though in some cases vitamin E has been shown to have pro-oxidant activity10.

One mechanism of vitamin E's antioxidant effect is in the termination of lipid peroxidation11. Vitamin E reacts with unstable lipid radicals, producing stable lipids and a relatively stable vitamin E radical11. The vitamin E radical is then reduced back to stable vitamin E by reaction with ascorbate or glutathione11.

TargetActionsOrganism
UNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2Not AvailableHumans
UProtein kinase C beta typeNot AvailableHumans
UArachidonate 5-lipoxygenaseNot AvailableHumans
UProtein kinase C alpha typeNot AvailableHumans
UDiacylglycerol kinase alphaNot AvailableHumans
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoformNot AvailableHumans
USerine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoformNot AvailableHumans
USEC14-like protein 4Not AvailableHumans
USEC14-like protein 3Not AvailableHumans
USEC14-like protein 2Not AvailableHumans
Additional Data Available
Adverse Effects

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Contraindications

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Absorption

10-33% of deuterium labelled vitamin E is absorbed in the small intestine5,15. Absorption of Vitamin E is dependant upon absorption of the fat in which it is dissolved15,1. For patients with poor fat absorption, a water soluble form of vitamin E may need to be substituted such as tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-1000 succinate15.

In other studies the oral bioavailability of alpha-tocopherol was 36%, gamma-tocotrienol was 9%14. The time to maximum concentration was 9.7 hours for alpha-tocopherol and 2.4 hours for gamma-tocotrienol14.

Volume of distribution

0.41L/kg in premature neonates given a 20mg/kg intramuscular injection6.

Protein binding

Vitamin E is bound to lipoproteins in blood1,11.

Metabolism

Alpha and gamma tocopherol are undergo beta oxidation and a process mediated by cytochrome P450s such as CYP4F2, CYP3A4, and CYP3A57. These processes convert alpha and gamma tocopherol to alpha-CEHC (2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(2’-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman) and gamma-CEHC (2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(2’-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman) respectively, however the full process is not known7.

Route of elimination

Alpha tocopherol is excreted in urine as well as bile in the feces mainly as a carboxyethyl-hydrochroman (CEHC) metabolite, but it can be excreted in it's natural form 8.

Half life

44 hours in premature neonates given a 20mg/kg intramuscular injection6. 12 minutes in intravenous injection of intestinal lymph11.

Clearance

6.5mL/hr/kg in premature neonates given a 20mg/kg intramuscular injection6.

Toxicity

There is no data available for effects in pregnancy, breast feeding, hepatic impairment, or renal impairment. However, it appears that the process of vitamin E elimination is strict and self regulating enough that vitamin E toxicity is exceedingly rare8,9. Studies showing adverse effects from excess vitamin E generally involve people consuming more than 1000mg/day for weeks to months15.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
DrugInteraction
(R)-warfarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of (R)-warfarin.
(S)-WarfarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of (S)-Warfarin.
4-hydroxycoumarinVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of 4-hydroxycoumarin.
9-aminocamptothecinThe metabolism of 9-aminocamptothecin can be increased when combined with Vitamin E.
AbciximabVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Abciximab.
AcenocoumarolVitamin E may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
Acetylsalicylic acidVitamin E may increase the antiplatelet activities of Acetylsalicylic acid.
AlbendazoleThe metabolism of Albendazole can be increased when combined with Vitamin E.
AlfentanilThe metabolism of Alfentanil can be increased when combined with Vitamin E.
AllylestrenolThe metabolism of Allylestrenol can be increased when combined with Vitamin E.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

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  • Severity
    Severity

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

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  • Action
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Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Ralph E. Close, William Oroshnik, "Synthesis of dehydrophytol and Vitamin E." U.S. Patent US4039591, issued February, 1945.

US4039591
General References
  1. Okebukola PO, Kansra S, Barrett J: Vitamin E supplementation in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Mar 6;3:CD009422. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009422.pub3. [PubMed:28262916]
  2. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [PubMed:15537682]
  3. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1796-806. [PubMed:16641396]
  4. Brigelius-Flohe R: Vitamin E: the shrew waiting to be tamed. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009 Mar 1;46(5):543-54. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.12.007. Epub 2008 Dec 24. [PubMed:19133328]
  5. Reboul E: Vitamin E Bioavailability: Mechanisms of Intestinal Absorption in the Spotlight. Antioxidants (Basel). 2017 Nov 22;6(4). pii: antiox6040095. doi: 10.3390/antiox6040095. [PubMed:29165370]
  6. Colburn WA, Ehrenkranz RA: Pharmacokinetics of a single intramuscular injection of vitamin E to premature neonates. Pediatr Pharmacol (New York). 1983;3(1):7-14. [PubMed:6646880]
  7. Kaempf-Rotzoll DE, Traber MG, Arai H: Vitamin E and transfer proteins. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2003 Jun;14(3):249-54. doi: 10.1097/01.mol.0000073505.41685.09. [PubMed:12840655]
  8. Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L: Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 May;54(5):631-40. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900445. [PubMed:20166147]
  9. Hathcock JN, Azzi A, Blumberg J, Bray T, Dickinson A, Frei B, Jialal I, Johnston CS, Kelly FJ, Kraemer K, Packer L, Parthasarathy S, Sies H, Traber MG: Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Apr;81(4):736-45. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/81.4.736. [PubMed:15817846]
  10. Herrera E, Barbas C: Vitamin E: action, metabolism and perspectives. J Physiol Biochem. 2001 Mar;57(2):43-56. [PubMed:11579997]
  11. Bjorneboe A, Bjorneboe GE, Drevon CA: Absorption, transport and distribution of vitamin E. J Nutr. 1990 Mar;120(3):233-42. doi: 10.1093/jn/120.3.233. [PubMed:2181082]
  12. Brigelius-Flohe R, Traber MG: Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB J. 1999 Jul;13(10):1145-55. [PubMed:10385606]
  13. Peh HY, Tan WS, Liao W, Wong WS: Vitamin E therapy beyond cancer: Tocopherol versus tocotrienol. Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Jun;162:152-69. doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2015.12.003. Epub 2015 Dec 17. [PubMed:26706242]
  14. Qureshi AA, Khan DA, Silswal N, Saleem S, Qureshi N: Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics, and Bioavailability of Higher Doses of Tocotrienols in Healthy Fed Humans. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2016 Apr;7(4). doi: 10.4172/2155-9880.1000434. Epub 2016 Apr 28. [PubMed:27493840]
  15. NIH ODS Vitamin E Fact Sheet for Health Professionals [Link]
  16. Vitamin E | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University [Link]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0001893
KEGG Compound
C02477
PubChem Compound
14985
PubChem Substance
46506524
ChemSpider
14265
ChEBI
18145
ChEMBL
CHEMBL47
PharmGKB
PA451900
HET
VIV
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Vitamin_E
AHFS Codes
  • 84:24.12 — Basic Ointments and Protectants
  • 88:20.00 — Vitamin E
PDB Entries
1oip / 1r5l / 3w67 / 3w68 / 5mue / 5mug
MSDS
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Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPeyronie's Disease1
1CompletedPreventionInfant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Intracranial Hemorrhages / Newborn Infants / Very Low Birth Weight Infant1
1CompletedPreventionMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas2
1CompletedScreeningAsthma1
1CompletedTreatmentAllergic Rhinitis (AR) / Mild Asthma1
1CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
1CompletedTreatmentCystoid Macular Edema / Uveitis1
1CompletedTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Macular Edema2
1CompletedTreatmentIron Deficiency / Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)1
1CompletedTreatmentNeoplasms, Pancreatic1
1CompletedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceChronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) / Heart Failure / High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) / Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH)1
1RecruitingPreventionBMI >30 kg/m2 / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Fatty Liver / Healthy Volunteers1
1RecruitingTreatmentBurn Injuries1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnemias1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentDisseminated Sclerosis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentRetinal Vein Occlusions(RVO)1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentPostpartum Anemia1
2CompletedBasic ScienceFatty Liver1
2CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia1
2CompletedPreventionFibrosis1
2CompletedPreventionNeoplasms, Head and Neck1
2CompletedPreventionPeripheral neuropathy1
2CompletedSupportive CareEndometriosis1
2CompletedTreatmentAdrenomyeloneuropathy1
2CompletedTreatmentAsthma, Allergic1
2CompletedTreatmentCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Arsenic Poisoning1
2CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
2CompletedTreatmentDepression1
2CompletedTreatmentEnd-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)1
2CompletedTreatmentFatty Liver / Steatohepatitis1
2CompletedTreatmentNPDR - Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
2RecruitingPreventionBrain Metastasis1
2RecruitingPreventionBreast Cancer1
2RecruitingTreatmentAirway Inflammation / Asthma1
2RecruitingTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / NAFLD / NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis1
2TerminatedNot AvailableCrohn's Disease (CD) / Mild or Moderate Anaemia / Ulcerative Colitis1
2TerminatedPreventionAtherosclerosis / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Carotid Artery Diseases / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Heart Diseases / Intracranial Arteriosclerosis / Vascular Diseases1
2TerminatedTreatmentFatty Liver / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2TerminatedTreatmentNeoplasms, Breast1
2Unknown StatusPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI)1
2, 3CompletedBasic ScienceType 2 Diabetes Mellitus1
2, 3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD)1
2, 3CompletedPreventionMalignancies1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentChronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMinor burns1
2, 3TerminatedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Myocardial Infarction1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Cerebrovascular Diseases / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Infarction / Myocardial Ischemia / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedPreventionCardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Coronary Arteriosclerosis / Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Heart Diseases / Myocardial Ischemia / One to five years postmenopausal1
3CompletedPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3CompletedPreventionColorectal Cancers / Precancerous Conditions1
3CompletedPreventionNon ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) / Post MI / Stable Angina (SA) / Unstable Angina Pectoris1
3CompletedPreventionPain1
3CompletedPreventionProstate Cancer1
3CompletedPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
3CompletedSupportive CareCognitive/Functional Effects / Delirium / Depression / Lung Cancers / Radiation Toxicity1
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD)2
3CompletedTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3CompletedTreatmentArterial Occlusive Diseases / Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) / Diabetes Mellitus (DM) / Heart Diseases / Vascular Diseases1
3CompletedTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Fatty Liver / Fibrosis, Liver / Metabolic Syndromes / Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Heart Failure (CHF)1
3CompletedTreatmentCoronary Heart Disease (CHD) / Myocardial Infarction1
3CompletedTreatmentDepression / Work Ability1
3CompletedTreatmentFibrosis, Liver1
3CompletedTreatmentHypobetalipoproteinemias1
3CompletedTreatmentNAFLD1
3CompletedTreatmentPremature Ejaculation1
3CompletedTreatmentRetinitis Pigmentosa (RP)1
3RecruitingPreventionAcute Coronary Syndromes (ACS) / Coronary Artery Angiography / Coronary Artery Disease / Coronary Catheterization / Prophylaxis of Contrast-induced nephropathy / Stable Angina (SA)1
3RecruitingPreventionMigraine / Migraine;Menstrual1
3RecruitingPreventionSurgical Site Infections1
3RecruitingTreatmentAvascular Necrosis / Bisphosphonate-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw / Medication-related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw1
3RecruitingTreatmentOxidative Stress / Shock, Septic1
3RecruitingTreatmentX Fragile Syndrome1
3TerminatedSupportive CareCritically Ill Patients / Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / Surgery, Cardiac / Traumas1
3TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3TerminatedTreatmentTiredness1
3Unknown StatusPreventionBladder Cancers2
3Unknown StatusPreventionCataracts / Macular Degeneration1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentAlzheimer's Disease (AD) / Down Syndrome (DS)1
3WithdrawnTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1
4Active Not RecruitingSupportive CareSickle Cell Disorders1
4CompletedPreventionNeonatal Asphyxia1
4CompletedTreatmentDiabetic Macular Edema (DME)1
4CompletedTreatmentEpilepsies1
4CompletedTreatmentHypertrophic Cicatrix / Hypertrophic Scars / Keloid Scars1
4CompletedTreatmentObesity, Adolescent / Oxidative Stress1
4Enrolling by InvitationSupportive CareLiver Cirrhosis / Muscle Cramps1
4RecruitingTreatmentDiabetes Mellitus (DM) / Dyslipidemias / Fatty Liver1
4TerminatedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD)1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatic Steatosis / Hepatitis B Chronic Infection1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentNASH (Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis)1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableAlzheimer's Disease (AD)1
Not AvailableCompletedBasic ScienceAsthma, Allergic1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionPigmentation From Visible Light1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRetinopathy of Prematurity1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentBeta Thalassemia Major Anemia / Hemolysis / Oxidative Stress1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentThalassaemic disorders1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentDry Eye Syndromes / NPDR - Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy / Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy New Vessels on Disc1
Not AvailableRecruitingNot AvailableEnd Stage Liver Diseases / Hepatitis C Viral Infection1
Not AvailableRecruitingPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin A / Preeclampsia / Vitamin E Deficiency1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceObstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS)1
Not AvailableWithdrawnPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableWithdrawnTreatmentNon Alcoholic Steatohepatitis1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
  • AAIPharma Inc.
  • Accucaps Industries Ltd.
  • Actavis Group
  • A-S Medication Solutions LLC
  • AstraZeneca Inc.
  • Basic Drugs Inc.
  • Baxter International Inc.
  • Breckenridge Pharmaceuticals
  • Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.
  • Carlisle Laboratories Inc.
  • Catalent Pharma Solutions
  • Contract Pharm
  • CVS Pharmacy
  • Dispensing Solutions
  • Domel Laboratories Inc.
  • DSM Corp.
  • E.R. Squibb and Sons LLC
  • Equaline Vitamins
  • Everett Laboratories Inc.
  • Freeda Vitamins
  • H and H Laboratories
  • Hawthorn Pharmaceuticals
  • Hi Tech Pharmacal Co. Inc.
  • Hospira Inc.
  • Ivax Pharmaceuticals
  • IVC Industries Inc.
  • KV Pharmaceutical Co.
  • Lannett Co. Inc.
  • Major Pharmaceuticals
  • Medicine Shop
  • Medvantx Inc.
  • Mission Pharmacal
  • National Vitamin Company
  • Nature's Bounty
  • Nucare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Olive Healthcare
  • Pharmaceutical Generic Developers Inc.
  • Pharmelle LLC
  • Pharmics Inc.
  • Physicians Total Care Inc.
  • Preferred Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Pronova Corp.
  • Puretek Corp.
  • Qualitest
  • Rasi Laboratories Inc.
  • River's Edge Pharmaceuticals
  • Rugby Laboratories
  • Sandoz
  • Sciele Pharma Inc.
  • Seton Pharmaceuticals LLC
  • Seyer Pharmatec Inc.
  • Silarx Pharmaceuticals
  • Spectrum Pharmaceuticals
  • Tri Med Laboratories Inc.
  • V Sab Medical Labs Inc.
  • Vintage Pharmaceuticals Inc.
  • Vitaline Corp.
  • Walgreen Co.
  • Warner Chilcott Co. Inc.
  • Wockhardt Ltd.
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
PatchTopical0.06 g/2g
LotionTopical
PowderTopical
PowderOral
Tablet, effervescentOral
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
Solution / dropsOral
LiquidOral
TabletOral
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
Tablet, film coatedOral
Powder, for solutionOral
Capsule, liquid filledOral
Tablet, coatedOral
LozengeOral
Tablet, extended releaseOral
Capsule, coatedOral
CapsuleOral
TabletOral
CreamTopical
OintmentTopical
CreamTopical
CapsuleOral
KitOral
LiquidOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Vitamin e acetate liquid1.07USD ml
Ester-e 400 unit softgel0.26USD softgel capsule
Vit e nat'l blnd 1000 unit capsule0.2USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit tablet0.19USD tablet
E pherol 400 unit tablet0.13USD tablet
Vitamin e 1000 unit capsule0.13USD capsule
Vitamin e beauty oil0.1USD ml
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 800 unit softgel0.09USD softgel capsule
Vitamin e 600 unit capsule0.07USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.06USD capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.05USD capsule
Vitamin e 200 unit capsule0.05USD each
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e 200 unit softgel0.04USD softgel capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit cap0.04USD capsule
Natural vitamin e 400 unit capsule0.04USD capsule
Vitamin e 100 unit capsule0.04USD capsule
Vitamin e 400 unit softgel0.04USD softgel capsule
CVS Pharmacy vitamin e plus cream0.03USD g
Natural vit e 200 unit capsule0.03USD capsule
Vitamin e cream0.02USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)3 °CMSDS
water solubilityInsoluble in water, but water-dispersible.MSDS
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.04e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.84ALOGPS
logP10.51ChemAxon
logS-7.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity135.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability55.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9795
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9767
Caco-2 permeable+0.8484
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7189
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7598
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.7802
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7882
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6949
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7813
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7533
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8122
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7762
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8813
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9965
Rat acute toxicity2.1598 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7192
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.6449
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9d
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0159-2900500000-03e8a824731610752eb3
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-9600100000-aaf885290800a10d3fb2
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-01wr-9300000000-f0c814976a58a9d837ca
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0f79-1494700000-6b5f8f817c5a5429ed70
MS/MS Spectrum - EI-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00lr-4910600000-1eda05dacf9642d7cea0
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tocopherols. These are vitamin E derivatives containing a saturated trimethyltridecyl chain attached to the carbon C6 atom of a benzopyran ring system. The differ from tocotrienols that contain an unsaturated trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl chain.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Prenol lipids
Sub Class
Quinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct Parent
Tocopherols
Alternative Parents
Diterpenoids / 1-benzopyrans / Alkyl aryl ethers / Benzenoids / Oxacyclic compounds / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Tocopherol / Diterpenoid / 1-benzopyran / Benzopyran / Chromane / Alkyl aryl ether / Benzenoid / Oxacycle / Organoheterocyclic compound / Ether
Molecular Framework
Aromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
alpha-tocopherol (CHEBI:18145) / vitamin E, Fat-soluble vitamins (C02477) / Vitamin E (LMPR02020000)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism an...
Gene Name
NR1I2
Uniprot ID
O75469
Uniprot Name
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2
Molecular Weight
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N: Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [PubMed:16603143]
  2. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. [PubMed:16880233]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosom...
Gene Name
PRKCB
Uniprot ID
P05771
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C beta type
Molecular Weight
76868.45 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Wigg SJ, Tare M, Forbes J, Cooper ME, Thomas MC, Coleman HA, Parkington HC, O'Brien RC: Early vitamin E supplementation attenuates diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction and the rise in protein kinase C-beta in mesenteric artery and ameliorates wall stiffness in femoral artery of Wistar rats. Diabetologia. 2004 Jun;47(6):1038-46. Epub 2004 Jun 8. [PubMed:15184978]
  4. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093]
  5. Ganz MB, Seftel A: Glucose-induced changes in protein kinase C and nitric oxide are prevented by vitamin E. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;278(1):E146-52. [PubMed:10644549]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name
ALOX5
Uniprot ID
P09917
Uniprot Name
Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase
Molecular Weight
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [PubMed:16531984]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Calcium-activated, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in positive and negative regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differenti...
Gene Name
PRKCA
Uniprot ID
P17252
Uniprot Name
Protein kinase C alpha type
Molecular Weight
76749.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Clement S, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Ricciarelli R, Tasinato A: Alpha-tocopherol as a modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):507-14. [PubMed:9430404]
  4. Sylvester PW, McIntyre BS, Gapor A, Briski KP: Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation. Cell Prolif. 2001 Dec;34(6):347-57. [PubMed:11736999]
  5. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [PubMed:11850093]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity.
Gene Name
DGKA
Uniprot ID
P23743
Uniprot Name
Diacylglycerol kinase alpha
Molecular Weight
82629.55 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Protein serine/threonine phosphatase activity
Specific Function
PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase.
Gene Name
PPP2CB
Uniprot ID
P62714
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform
Molecular Weight
35574.85 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
PP2A is the major phosphatase for microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. Cooperates with SGO2 to protect centromeric cohesin from separase-mediated cleavage in oocytes specifically during meiosis I (By similarity). Can dephosphorylate SV40 large T antigen and p53/TP53. Activates RAF1 by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-259'.
Specific Function
Gaba receptor binding
Gene Name
PPP2CA
Uniprot ID
P67775
Uniprot Name
Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform
Molecular Weight
35593.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L4
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX3
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 4
Molecular Weight
46643.385 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX4
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 3
Molecular Weight
46047.835 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ye X, Ji C, Yin G, Tang R, Zeng L, Gu S, Ying K, Xie Y, Zhao RC, Mao Y: Characterization of a human Sec14-like protein cDNA SEC14L3 highly homologous to human SPF/TAP. Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Mar;31(1):59-63. [PubMed:15040456]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Carrier protein. Binds to some hydrophobic molecules and promotes their transfer between the different cellular sites. Binds with high affinity to alpha-tocopherol. Also binds with a weaker affinit...
Gene Name
SEC14L2
Uniprot ID
O76054
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
46144.9 Da
References
  1. Neuzil J, Dong LF, Wang XF, Zingg JM: Tocopherol-associated protein-1 accelerates apoptosis induced by alpha-tocopheryl succinate in mesothelioma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 May 19;343(4):1113-7. Epub 2006 Mar 31. [PubMed:16579965]
  2. Ni J, Pang ST, Yeh S: Differential retention of alpha-vitamin E is correlated with its transporter gene expression and growth inhibition efficacy in prostate cancer cells. Prostate. 2007 Apr 1;67(5):463-71. [PubMed:17252538]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Glutathione transferase activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name
GSTA2
Uniprot ID
P09210
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase A2
Molecular Weight
25663.675 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
S-nitrosoglutathione binding
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name
GSTP1
Uniprot ID
P09211
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase P
Molecular Weight
23355.625 Da
References
  1. Ralat LA, Colman RF: Identification of tyrosine 79 in the tocopherol binding site of glutathione S-transferase pi. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 17;45(41):12491-9. [PubMed:17029404]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates...
Gene Name
GSTO1
Uniprot ID
P78417
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase omega-1
Molecular Weight
27565.6 Da
References
  1. Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA: Tocopherol esters inhibit human glutathione S-transferase omega. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(3):547-52. Epub 2006 Oct 1. [PubMed:17019444]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the t...
Gene Name
GSTM3
Uniprot ID
P21266
Uniprot Name
Glutathione S-transferase Mu 3
Molecular Weight
26559.32 Da
References
  1. Mustacich DJ, Gohil K, Bruno RS, Yan M, Leonard SW, Ho E, Cross CE, Traber MG: Alpha-tocopherol modulates genes involved in hepatic xenobiotic pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Jun;20(6):469-76. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.05.007. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [PubMed:18789671]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GCLC
Uniprot ID
P48506
Uniprot Name
Glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit
Molecular Weight
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Superoxide dismutase activity
Specific Function
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vit...
Gene Name
NQO1
Uniprot ID
P15559
Uniprot Name
NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1
Molecular Weight
30867.405 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the a...
Gene Name
HMOX1
Uniprot ID
P09601
Uniprot Name
Heme oxygenase 1
Molecular Weight
32818.345 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name
SOD1
Uniprot ID
P00441
Uniprot Name
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
Molecular Weight
15935.685 Da
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.10.010. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [PubMed:20153624]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
Inducer
Curator comments
Cytochrome P450 3A4 performs omega-hydroxylation on vitamin E in the first step of vitamin E's metabolism.
General Function
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation react...
Gene Name
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID
P08684
Uniprot Name
Cytochrome P450 3A4
Molecular Weight
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Brigelius-Flohe R: Adverse effects of vitamin E by induction of drug metabolism. Genes Nutr. 2007 Dec;2(3):249-56. doi: 10.1007/s12263-007-0055-0. Epub 2007 Oct 16. [PubMed:18850180]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Binds alpha-tocopherol, enhances its transfer between separate membranes, and stimulates its release from liver cells (PubMed:7887897). Binds both phosphatidylinol 3,4-bisphosphate and phosphatidyl...
Gene Name
TTPA
Uniprot ID
P49638
Uniprot Name
Alpha-tocopherol transfer protein
Molecular Weight
31749.305 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Carrier
Curator comments
SEC14-like protein 2 may be involved in intracellular transport of alpha tocopherol to the mitochondria.
General Function
Vitamin e binding
Specific Function
Carrier protein. Binds to some hydrophobic molecules and promotes their transfer between the different cellular sites. Binds with high affinity to alpha-tocopherol. Also binds with a weaker affinit...
Gene Name
SEC14L2
Uniprot ID
O76054
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 2
Molecular Weight
46144.9 Da
References
  1. Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L: Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 May;54(5):631-40. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900445. [PubMed:20166147]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Carrier
Curator comments
SEC14-like protein 3 may be involved in intracellular transport of alpha tocopherol to the mitochondria.
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids.
Gene Name
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID
Q9UDX4
Uniprot Name
SEC14-like protein 3
Molecular Weight
46047.835 Da
References
  1. Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L: Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 May;54(5):631-40. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900445. [PubMed:20166147]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Carrier
General Function
Facilitates the transfer of a spectrum of different lipid molecules, including diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, cerebroside and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Essential for the transfer of excess surface lipids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to HDL, thereby facilitating the formation of smaller lipoprotein remnants, contributing to the formation of LDL, and assisting in the maturation of HDL particles. PLTP also plays a key role in the uptake of cholesterol from peripheral cells and tissues that is subsequently transported to the liver for degradation and excretion. Two distinct forms of PLTP exist in plasma: an active form that can transfer PC from phospholipid vesicles to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), and an inactive form that lacks this capability.
Specific Function
Ceramide binding
Gene Name
PLTP
Uniprot ID
P55058
Uniprot Name
Phospholipid transfer protein
Molecular Weight
54738.85 Da
References
  1. Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L: Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 May;54(5):631-40. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900445. [PubMed:20166147]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Transporter
Curator comments
SR-BI transporters mediate tocopherol uptake across the brush border membrane in intestinal Caco-2 cells and mouse models
General Function
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function
Receptor for different ligands such as phospholipids, cholesterol ester, lipoproteins, phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells. Probable receptor for HDL, located in particular region of the plasma ...
Gene Name
SCARB1
Uniprot ID
Q8WTV0
Uniprot Name
Scavenger receptor class B member 1
Molecular Weight
60877.385 Da
References
  1. Olivier M, BottG R, Frisdal E, Nowick M, Plengpanich W, Desmarchelier C, Roi S, Quinn CM, Gelissen I, Jessup W, Van Eck M, Guerin M, Le Goff W, Reboul E: ABCG1 is involved in vitamin E efflux. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Dec;1841(12):1741-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.10.003. [PubMed:25462452]
  2. Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L: Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 May;54(5):631-40. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900445. [PubMed:20166147]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Transporter
Curator comments
This transporter is involved in the intestinal absorption of alpha and gamma tocopherol
General Function
Syntaxin binding
Specific Function
cAMP-dependent and sulfonylurea-sensitive anion transporter. Key gatekeeper influencing intracellular cholesterol transport.
Gene Name
ABCA1
Uniprot ID
O95477
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 1
Molecular Weight
254299.89 Da
References
  1. Olivier M, BottG R, Frisdal E, Nowick M, Plengpanich W, Desmarchelier C, Roi S, Quinn CM, Gelissen I, Jessup W, Van Eck M, Guerin M, Le Goff W, Reboul E: ABCG1 is involved in vitamin E efflux. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Dec;1841(12):1741-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.10.003. [PubMed:25462452]
  2. Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L: Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat? Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 May;54(5):631-40. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200900445. [PubMed:20166147]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Curator comments
This transporter is involved in intestinal alpha tocopherol absorption
General Function
Rab gtpase binding
Specific Function
Plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis. Is critical for the uptake of cholesterol across the plasma membrane of the intestinal enterocyte. Is the direct molecular target of ezetimibe, a drug...
Gene Name
NPC1L1
Uniprot ID
Q9UHC9
Uniprot Name
Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1
Molecular Weight
148726.52 Da
References
  1. Olivier M, BottG R, Frisdal E, Nowick M, Plengpanich W, Desmarchelier C, Roi S, Quinn CM, Gelissen I, Jessup W, Van Eck M, Guerin M, Le Goff W, Reboul E: ABCG1 is involved in vitamin E efflux. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Dec;1841(12):1741-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.10.003. [PubMed:25462452]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Humans
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function
Transporter involved in macrophage lipid homeostasis. Is an active component of the macrophage lipid export complex. Could also be involved in intracellular lipid transport processes. The role in c...
Gene Name
ABCG1
Uniprot ID
P45844
Uniprot Name
ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 1
Molecular Weight
75591.275 Da
References
  1. Olivier M, BottG R, Frisdal E, Nowick M, Plengpanich W, Desmarchelier C, Roi S, Quinn CM, Gelissen I, Jessup W, Van Eck M, Guerin M, Le Goff W, Reboul E: ABCG1 is involved in vitamin E efflux. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014 Dec;1841(12):1741-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2014.10.003. [PubMed:25462452]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 13, 2019 18:22