Accession Number
Biologic Classification
Protein Based Therapies
Other protein based therapies

Regramostim (GM-CSF) is a differentially glycosylated factor produced mainly by activated T cells and macrophages. Endothelial cells and fibroblasts can also produce GM-CSF after exposure to TNF-α, IL-1, IL-2 and IFN-γ. GM-CSF is found associated with extracellular matrix and in membrane-bound formats too. GM-CSF stimulates proliferation, activation and differentiation of macrophages and granulocytes and their progenitors.

Protein chemical formula
Not Available
Protein average weight
Not Available
Not Available
  • Colony-stimulating factor 2 (human clone pCSF-1 protein moiety reduced), glycoform GMC 89-107
  • GM-CSF
  • Regramostim
  • Regramostime
  • Regramostimum
  • rhGm-CSF
External IDs
GMC 89-107
CAS number



Investigated for use/treatment in adverse effects (chemotherapy) and bone marrow transplant.

Not Available
Mechanism of action

This drug activates mononuclear phagocytes, promotes migration of epithelial cells, and further regulates cytokine production. In 2 recent placebo-controlled studies involving venous leg ulceration, subcutaneous perilesional injections of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were found to be significantly better than placebo in the time to complete wound healing. In other studies, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered topically to wounds. Several case reports have also demonstrated the use of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for postsurgical wounds, chronic leg ulcers of sickle cell anemia patients, and refract and refractory pyoderma gangrenosum.

UGranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alphaNot AvailableHumans
UGM-CSF receptor alpha subunitNot AvailableHumans
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Not Available
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available


Drug Interactions
This information should not be interpreted without the help of a healthcare provider. If you believe you are experiencing an interaction, contact a healthcare provider immediately. The absence of an interaction does not necessarily mean no interactions exist.
AcebutololRegramostim may increase the bradycardic activities of Acebutolol.
AcetylcholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Regramostim is combined with Acetylcholine.
AclidiniumRegramostim may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Aclidinium.
AgmatineThe therapeutic efficacy of Agmatine can be decreased when used in combination with Regramostim.
AlcuroniumRegramostim may decrease the neuromuscular blocking activities of Alcuronium.
AldosteroneThe therapeutic efficacy of Regramostim can be decreased when used in combination with Aldosterone.
AlprenololRegramostim may increase the bradycardic activities of Alprenolol.
AmantadineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amantadine can be decreased when used in combination with Regramostim.
AmifampridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Regramostim is combined with Amifampridine.
AmitriptylineThe therapeutic efficacy of Amitriptyline can be decreased when used in combination with Regramostim.
Additional Data Available
  • Extended Description
    Extended Description

    Extended description of the mechanism of action and particular properties of each drug interaction.

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  • Severity

    A severity rating for each drug interaction, from minor to major.

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  • Evidence Level
    Evidence Level

    A rating for the strength of the evidence supporting each drug interaction.

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  • Action

    An effect category for each drug interaction. Know how this interaction affects the subject drug.

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Food Interactions
Not Available


General References
  1. Sardana R, Dudani AK, Tackaberry E, Alli Z, Porter S, Rowlandson K, Ganz P, Altosaar I: Biologically active human GM-CSF produced in the seeds of transgenic rice plants. Transgenic Res. 2007 Dec;16(6):713-21. Epub 2007 Feb 16. [PubMed:17985214]
  2. Rosas M, Gordon S, Taylor PR: Characterisation of the expression and function of the GM-CSF receptor alpha-chain in mice. Eur J Immunol. 2007 Sep;37(9):2518-28. [PubMed:17694571]
External Links
PubChem Substance

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
0RecruitingTreatmentEpendymoma, Recurrent Childhood / Ependymomas1
0RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastoma (NB)1
0TerminatedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
0TerminatedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndromes1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL)1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas / Gliomas, Malignant / Pediatric Brain Tumor / Pediatric Brain Tumor, Recurrent / Pediatric Glioblastoma Multiforme / Recurrent Medulloblastoma1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer2
1CompletedPreventionBreast Cancer2
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
1CompletedTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) / Bronchiectasis / Cystic Fibrosis (CF) / Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP)1
1CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer1
1CompletedTreatmentCarcinoma, Colorectal1
1CompletedTreatmentEwing's Sarcoma (ES) / Malignant Lymphomas / Neuroblastomas / Rhabdomyosarcomas / Wilms' tumor1
1CompletedTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL) / Lymphoma, B Cell / Lymphoma, B-Cell / Malignant Lymphomas1
1CompletedTreatmentHodgkins Disease (HD) / Leukemias / Multiple Myeloma (MM) / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) / Other Plasma Cell Dyscrasia (Waldenstrom, Amyloidosis)1
1CompletedTreatmentInfection, Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare1
1CompletedTreatmentLung Cancers / Melanoma / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma / Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN)1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Melanoma of Skin / Melanoma (Skin)1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
1CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas / Resectable Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma1
1CompletedTreatmentMelanoma, Malignant1
1CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Breast Cancer1
1RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Tumor / Metastatic Tumors1
1RecruitingTreatmentAnatomic Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / HER2/Neu Negative / Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified / Progesterone Receptor Negative / Prognostic Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentAnatomic Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Anatomic Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Estrogen Receptor Positive / HER2/Neu Negative / Invasive Breast Carcinoma / Prognostic Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Prognostic Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v8 / Recurrent Breast Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentBrain Stem Gliomas / Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)1
1RecruitingTreatmentDuctal Breast Carcinoma In Situ / HER2/Neu Positive1
1RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastomas / Glioma of Brainstem / Gliomas, Malignant / High Grade Glioma (HGG) / Overall Survivals / Recurrent Glioblastoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentGliomas, Malignant / High Grade Glioma (HGG)1
1RecruitingTreatmentLocally Advanced Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Metastatic Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Recurrent Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
1RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Melanoma of Skin / Melanoma (Skin)2
1RecruitingTreatmentMelanoma, Malignant1
1RecruitingTreatmentPosterior Fossa Ependymoma (PFEPN)1
1RecruitingTreatmentRectal Adenocarcinoma / Stage III Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IV Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7 / Stage IVB Rectal Cancer AJCC v71
1TerminatedTreatmentCancer of Liver / Cancer of the Liver / Hepatic neoplasms malignant / Hepatocellular Cancer / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma / Liver Cancer / Liver Cancer, Adult / Liver Cell Carcinoma / Liver Cell Carcinoma, Adult / Neoplasms, Hepatic1
1TerminatedTreatmentMetastatic Cancers / Neoplasms / Tumors / Tumors, Solid1
1TerminatedTreatmentRheumatoid Arthritis1
1WithdrawnTreatmentStage 0 Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage 0a Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage 0is Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage I Bladder Urothelial Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v71
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Renal Cell Cancer / Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMelanoma1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentPrimary/Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) of Childhood, Adolescents and Young Adults1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Prostate Cancer1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentRenal Cancers1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMalignancies, Hematologic1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma, Malignant2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer4
1, 2CompletedTreatmentProstatic Neoplasms1
1, 2RecruitingPreventionDCIS1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Melanoma1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
1, 2RecruitingTreatmentRelapsed/Refractory Large B-cell Lymphoma1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentHepatitis B Chronic Infection1
1, 2Unknown StatusTreatmentProstate Cancer1
1, 2WithdrawnTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF) / Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentFallopian Tube Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Primary Peritoneal Cancer1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Chest Wall Neoplasm / Recurrent Breast Carcinoma / Recurrent Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma / Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 / Stage IV Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Pancreas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentMantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL)1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentProstate Cancer2
2CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentAppendicitis perforated1
2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) / Locally Advanced Breast Cancer (LABC)1
2CompletedTreatmentBreast Cancer / Neoplasms, Breast1
2CompletedTreatmentBurkitt's Lymphoma / Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Diffuse / Lymphoma, Small Noncleaved-Cell1
2CompletedTreatmentEwing's Sarcoma (ES) / Rhabdomyosarcomas1
2CompletedTreatmentGiant Cell Glioblastoma / Glioblastoma With Oligodendroglial Component / Glioblastomas / Gliosarcoma / Recurrent Glioblastoma / Relapsed Glioblastoma / Small Cell Glioblastoma1
2CompletedTreatmentHCC / Hepatocellular,Carcinoma / Liver Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatic Metastases / Melanoma, Uveal1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatitis B Chronic Infection1
2CompletedTreatmentHepatocellular Carinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentHormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer / Metastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer / Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma / Stage IV Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
2CompletedTreatmentLymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse (DLBCL)1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Melanoma of Skin / Melanoma (Skin)1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon / Metastatic Colon Cancer / Metastatic Rectal Cancer / Rectal Carcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentMalignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM)1
2CompletedTreatmentMelanoma, Malignant2
2CompletedTreatmentProstate Cancer3
2CompletedTreatmentRenal Cell Adenocarcinoma1
2CompletedTreatmentRespiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMetastatic Colorectal Cancer (MCRC)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdnexal Carcinoma / Apocrine Carcinoma / Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma / Hidradenocarcinoma / Keratoacanthoma / Malignant sweat gland neoplasm / Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma / Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Skin / NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable / Paget’s Disease / Papillary Adenocarcinoma / Porocarcinoma / Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma / Recurrent Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma / Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory Merkel Cell Carcinoma / Refractory Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Refractory, advanced Mycosis fungoides / Refractory, primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma / Sezary Syndrome / Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma / Signet-ring cell carcinoma / Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma / Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma / Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma / Spiradenocarcinoma / Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary / Stage III Skin Cancer / Stage IV Skin Cancer / Sweat Gland Carcinoma / Trichilemmal Carcinoma / Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentAdvanced Melanoma / Recurrent Melanoma / Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7 / Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7 / Unresectable Melanoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentAstrocytoma, Grade IV / GBM / Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) / Glioblastomas / Gliomas, Malignant1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiffuse Sclerosis Systemic / Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD) / Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) / Sclerosis, Progressive Systemic1
2RecruitingTreatmentFNCLCC Sarcoma Grade 2 / FNCLCC Sarcoma Grade 3 / Leiomyosarcomas / Liposarcoma / Stage I Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage IA Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage IB Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage II Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIA Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Stage IIB Soft Tissue Sarcoma AJCC v7 / Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma1
2RecruitingTreatmentFollicular Lymphoma (FL)1
2RecruitingTreatmentLung Cancer Metastatic2
2RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Melanoma of Skin / Melanoma (Skin)1
2RecruitingTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Colon1
2RecruitingTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)2
2RecruitingTreatmentNSCLC Stage IV1
2RecruitingTreatmentPulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) / Treatments1
2RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Osteosarcoma1
2TerminatedTreatmentCarcinoma, Colorectal1
2TerminatedTreatmentHematologic Diseases1
2TerminatedTreatmentLymphoma, B-Cell / Lymphoma, Diffuse / Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2TerminatedTreatmentOvarian Cancer / Platinum Sensitive Ovarian Cancer1
2TerminatedTreatmentRefractory, primary Neuroblastoma1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Myelodysplastic Syndrome1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentMalignant Neoplasm of Nasopharynx1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentPulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP)1
2WithdrawnTreatmentLung Cancer Non-Small Cell Cancer (NSCLC)1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentAutoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis1
2, 3TerminatedTreatmentCancer, Bladder / Carcinoma in Situ / Carcinoma in Situ Concurrent With Papillary Tumors / Transitional Cell Carcinoma1
3CompletedTreatmentAdult Patients (Over 55) With Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia1
3CompletedTreatmentFevers / Hematologic Diseases / Neoplasms, Breast / Neutropenia / Sepsis1
3CompletedTreatmentGraft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) / Multiple Myeloma (MM)1
3CompletedTreatmentLeishmaniasis, Cutaneous1
3CompletedTreatmentLeukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML)1
3CompletedTreatmentMetastatic Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer1
3CompletedTreatmentMultiple Myeloma (MM)1
3Enrolling by InvitationTreatmentAutoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis1
3RecruitingPreventionCoronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia / Novel Coronavirus Infectious Disease (COVID-19)1
3TerminatedTreatmentHead and Neck Carcinoma / Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC)1
3TerminatedTreatmentProstate Cancer1
3TerminatedTreatmentStage III Melanoma / Stage IV Melanoma1
3Unknown StatusTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
4CompletedTreatmentDeep Partial Thickness Burn1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
4RecruitingTreatmentAcute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) / Hepatoblastomas / Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) / Malignant Lymphomas / Neuroblastomas / Retinoblastoma1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentLiver Cirrhosis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentEndotoxaemia / Inflammatory Reaction / Multi Organ Dysfunction Syndrome / Sepsis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentLung Cancers1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMelanoma1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyelodysplastic Syndrome RAEB-I or RAEB-II / Refractory Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) / Refractory CML Myeloid Blast Crisis1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentNeuroblastomas1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentPrimary Hepatocellular Carcinoma1
Not AvailableNot Yet RecruitingTreatmentThin Endometrium1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentHepatitis B Chronic Infection1


Not Available
Not Available
Dosage forms
Not Available
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Experimental Properties
Not Available


Not Available
Organic Compounds
Super Class
Organic Acids
Carboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class
Amino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct Parent
Alternative Parents
Not Available
Not Available
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
Not Available


Pharmacological action
General Function
Receptor activity
Specific Function
Low affinity receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Transduces a signal that results in the proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hematopoietic cells.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alpha
Molecular Weight
46206.185 Da
Pharmacological action
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
GM-CSF receptor alpha subunit
Molecular Weight
3014.39 Da


Pharmacological action
General Function
Identical protein binding
Specific Function
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name
Uniprot ID
Uniprot Name
Molecular Weight
68417.575 Da
  1. Takahashi M, Nikkuni K, Moriyama Y, Shibata A: GM-CSF-mediated impairment of liver to synthesize albumin, cholinesterase, and cholesterol. Am J Hematol. 1991 Mar;36(3):213-4. [PubMed:1996559]

Drug created on November 18, 2007 11:24 / Updated on June 12, 2020 10:52

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