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Identification
NameDifluprednate
Accession NumberDB06781
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionDifluprednate is a topical corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of infammation and pain associated with ocular surgery. It is a butyrate ester of 6(α), 9(α)-difluoro prednisolone acetate. Difluprednate is abbreviated DFBA, or difluoroprednisolone butyrate acetate. It is indicated for treatment of endogenous anterior uveiti.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
DFBA
Difluoroprednisolone butyrate acetate
Durezol
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
DurezolEmulsion.5 mg/mLOphthalmicPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2011-08-29Not applicableUs
DurezolEmulsion0.05 %OphthalmicAlcon Canada Inc2014-02-19Not applicableCanada
DurezolEmulsion.5 mg/mLOphthalmicAlcon Laboratories, Inc.2011-01-25Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIS8A06QG2QE
CAS number23674-86-4
WeightAverage: 508.5515
Monoisotopic: 508.227259852
Chemical FormulaC27H34F2O7
InChI KeyWYQPLTPSGFELIB-JTQPXKBDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H34F2O7/c1-5-6-23(34)36-26(22(33)14-35-15(2)30)10-8-17-18-12-20(28)19-11-16(31)7-9-24(19,3)27(18,29)21(32)13-25(17,26)4/h7,9,11,17-18,20-21,32H,5-6,8,10,12-14H2,1-4H3/t17-,18-,20-,21-,24-,25-,26-,27-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1R,2S,8S,10S,11S,14R,15S,17S)-14-[2-(acetyloxy)acetyl]-1,8-difluoro-17-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyl-5-oxotetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-3,6-dien-14-yl butanoate
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@](OC(=O)CCC)(C(=O)COC(C)=O)[C@@]1(C)C[[email protected]](O)[C@@]1(F)[C@@]2([H])C[[email protected]](F)C2=CC(=O)C=C[C@]12C
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of inflammation and pain associated with ocular surgery.
Structured Indications
PharmacodynamicsDifluprednate is a corticosteroid used as an anti-inflammatory steroidal drug used primarily in ocular surgery.
Mechanism of actionCorticosteroids are thought to act by the induction of phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins (lipocortins). It is postulated that these proteins control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of infammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of their common precursor arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid is released from membrane phospholipids by phospholipase A2.
TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Glucocorticoid receptorProteinyes
agonist
HumanP04150 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionDifluprednate penetrates the corneal epithelium rapidly and effectively. Low systemic absorption.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Difluprednate is rapidly deacetylated in the aqueous humor to difluoroprednisolone butyrate (DFB), the drug’s active metabolite. Endogenous tissue esterases then metabolize DFB to the inert metabolite hydroxyfluoroprednisolone butyrate (HFB), which limits systemic exposure to the active compound.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Difluprednate
Not Available
difluoroprednisolone butyrateDetails
Difluprednate
Not Available
Hydroxyfluoroprednisolone butyrate (HFB)Details
Route of elimination78.5% of radioactivity was excreted aftert 24 hours, and 99.5% by 7 days after a single dose of labeled difluprednate instilled in the right eyes of pigmented rabbits.
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityPreclinical pharmacokinetic and toxicity studies have established that difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% given 4 times a day is not toxic to the eye.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
1,10-PhenanthrolineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with 1,10-Phenanthroline.Experimental
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceclofenac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
AcetovanilloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetovanillone is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acetylsalicylic acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Adapalene is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
AldesleukinDifluprednate may decrease the antineoplastic activities of Aldesleukin.Approved
ALT-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with ALT-110.Investigational
Aluminum hydroxideThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Aluminum hydroxide.Approved
Aluminum phosphateThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Aluminum phosphate.Approved
AmbenoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ambenonium.Approved
Aminosalicylic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aminosalicylic Acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
AmiodaroneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Amiodarone.Approved, Investigational
Amphotericin BDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Amphotericin B.Approved, Investigational
AnisodamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anisodamine is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Antipyrine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
ApremilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Apremilast is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
AprepitantThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Aprepitant.Approved, Investigational
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Atazanavir.Approved, Investigational
Atracurium besylateAtracurium besylate may increase the adverse neuromuscular activities of Difluprednate.Approved
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azapropazone is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
BalsalazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
BazedoxifeneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Bazedoxifene.Approved, Investigational
BendroflumethiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bendroflumethiazide.Approved
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benoxaprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
Benzoic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Benzoic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
Betulinic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Betulinic Acid is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
Bismuth SubcitrateThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Bismuth Subcitrate.Approved
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Boceprevir.Approved
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromfenac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
BucillamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bucillamine is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
BumetanideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Bumetanide.Approved
CalcitriolThe therapeutic efficacy of Calcitriol can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved, Nutraceutical
Calcium carbonateThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Calcium carbonate.Approved
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Carbamazepine.Approved, Investigational
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved, Withdrawn
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Castanospermine is combined with Difluprednate.Experimental
CDX-110The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with CDX-110.Investigational
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Celecoxib is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
CeritinibDifluprednate may increase the hyperglycemic activities of Ceritinib.Approved
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroquine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorothiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorotrianiseneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Chlorotrianisene.Withdrawn
ChlorthalidoneDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Chlorthalidone.Approved
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Difluprednate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
CinoxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Cinoxacin.Approved, Withdrawn
CiprofloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ciprofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Clarithromycin.Approved
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonixin is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.Approved
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Difluprednate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Difluprednate resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.Approved
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Conjugated Equine Estrogens.Approved
Corticorelin ovine triflutateThe therapeutic efficacy of Corticorelin ovine triflutate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
CoumaphosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Coumaphos.Vet Approved
CurcuminThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Curcumin is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
D-LimoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when D-Limonene is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.Approved
DecamethoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Decamethonium.Approved
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Deferasirox.Approved, Investigational
DemecariumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Demecarium.Approved
dersalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when dersalazine is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
DichlorvosThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Dichlorvos.Vet Approved
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
DienestrolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Dienestrol.Approved
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Diethylstilbestrol.Approved
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diflunisal is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
DihydrotestosteroneDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Dihydrotestosterone.Illicit
DonepezilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Donepezil.Approved
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droxicam is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
DuvelisibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Duvelisib is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
E6201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when E6201 is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
EbselenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ebselen is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
EchothiophateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Echothiophate.Approved
EdrophoniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Edrophonium.Approved
EnoxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Enoxacin.Approved
EnzalutamideThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Enzalutamide.Approved
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Epirizole is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Estradiol.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EstriolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Estriol.Approved, Vet Approved
EstroneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Estrone.Approved
Etacrynic acidDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Etacrynic acid.Approved
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etanercept is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Ethinyl Estradiol.Approved
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etodolac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etofenamate is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etoricoxib is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
Evening primrose oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Evening primrose oil is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
exisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when exisulind is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenbufen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fenoprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
FenthionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Fenthion.Vet Approved
FleroxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Fleroxacin.Approved
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Withdrawn
FlumequineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Flumequine.Withdrawn
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunixin is combined with Difluprednate.Vet Approved
FluoxymesteroneDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Fluoxymesterone.Approved, Illicit
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurbiprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
FosaprepitantThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Fosaprepitant.Approved
FosphenytoinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Fosphenytoin.Approved
FurosemideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Furosemide.Approved, Vet Approved
G17DTThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with G17DT.Investigational
GalantamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Galantamine.Approved
Gallamine TriethiodideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Gallamine Triethiodide.Approved
GarenoxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Garenoxacin.Investigational
GatifloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Gatifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GemifloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Gemifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
GenisteinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Genistein.Investigational
GI-5005The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with GI-5005.Investigational
Ginkgo bilobaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ginkgo biloba.Approved, Nutraceutical
Glycerol PhenylbutyrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Glycerol Phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
GrepafloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Grepafloxacin.Withdrawn
HexestrolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Hexestrol.Withdrawn
HigenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Higenamine is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
HMPL-004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when HMPL-004 is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
Huperzine AThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Huperzine A.Investigational
HyaluronidaseThe therapeutic efficacy of Hyaluronidase can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
HydrochlorothiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydrochlorothiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Hydroflumethiazide.Approved
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ibuproxam is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
IcatibantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Icatibant is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Idelalisib.Approved
IndacaterolIndacaterol may increase the hypokalemic activities of Difluprednate.Approved
IndapamideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Indapamide.Approved
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Indinavir.Approved
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indomethacin is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Indoprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
INGN 201The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with INGN 201.Investigational
INGN 225The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with INGN 225.Investigational
IsoflurophateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Isoflurophate.Approved, Withdrawn
IsoniazidThe serum concentration of Isoniazid can be decreased when it is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoxicam is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
ItraconazoleThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Itraconazole.Approved, Investigational
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Kebuzone is combined with Difluprednate.Experimental
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Ketoconazole.Approved, Investigational
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketoprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Leflunomide is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
LevofloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Levofloxacin.Approved, Investigational
LisofyllineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisofylline is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
LomefloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Lomefloxacin.Approved
LopinavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Lopinavir.Approved
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lornoxicam is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxoprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
LumacaftorThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Lumacaftor.Approved
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lumiracoxib is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
MagaldrateThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Magaldrate.Withdrawn
Magnesium carbonateThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Magnesium carbonate.Approved
Magnesium hydroxideThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Magnesium hydroxide.Approved
Magnesium oxideThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Magnesium oxide.Approved
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Magnesium salicylate is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
Magnesium TrisilicateThe bioavailability of Difluprednate can be decreased when combined with Magnesium Trisilicate.Approved
MalathionThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Malathion.Approved, Investigational
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Masoprocol is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclofenamic acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mefenamic acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
MefloquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Mefloquine.Approved
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meloxicam is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
MemantineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Memantine.Approved, Investigational
MesalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesalazine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
MestranolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Mestranol.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
MethallenestrilThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Methallenestril.Experimental
Methanesulfonyl FluorideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Methanesulfonyl Fluoride.Investigational
MethyclothiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Methyclothiazide.Approved
MethyltestosteroneDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Methyltestosterone.Approved
MetolazoneDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Metolazone.Approved
MifepristoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Difluprednate can be decreased when used in combination with Mifepristone.Approved, Investigational
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Minaprine.Approved
MitotaneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Mitotane.Approved
MivacuriumMivacurium may increase the adverse neuromuscular activities of Difluprednate.Approved
MizoribineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mizoribine is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
MoxifloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Moxifloxacin.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolate mofetil is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mycophenolic acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nabumetone is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
NafamostatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nafamostat is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naftifine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
Nalidixic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Nalidixic Acid.Approved
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Naproxen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
NCX 4016The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when NCX 4016 is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
NefazodoneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Nefazodone.Approved, Withdrawn
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Nelfinavir.Approved
NemonoxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Nemonoxacin.Investigational
NeostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Neostigmine.Approved, Vet Approved
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nepafenac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
NevirapineThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Nevirapine.Approved
NicorandilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Nicorandil.Approved
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Niflumic Acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nimesulide is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Withdrawn
NitroaspirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitroaspirin is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
NorfloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Norfloxacin.Approved
OfloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Ofloxacin.Approved
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
OlsalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olsalazine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orgotein is combined with Difluprednate.Vet Approved
OxandroloneDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Oxandrolone.Approved, Investigational
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxaprozin is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
OxymetholoneDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Oxymetholone.Approved, Illicit
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxyphenbutazone is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Parecoxib is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
PazufloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Pazufloxacin.Investigational
PefloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Pefloxacin.Approved
PentobarbitalThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Pentobarbital.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenobarbital.Approved
Phenylacetic acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Phenylacetic acid can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenylbutazone is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Phenytoin.Approved, Vet Approved
PhysostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Physostigmine.Approved
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
PiretanideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Piretanide.Experimental
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pirfenidone is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Piroxicam is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
Polyestradiol phosphateThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Polyestradiol phosphate.Approved
PolythiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Polythiazide.Approved
PosaconazoleThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Posaconazole.Approved, Investigational, Vet Approved
PrimidoneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Primidone.Approved, Vet Approved
PromestrieneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Promestriene.Investigational
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propacetamol is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
PrulifloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Prulifloxacin.Investigational
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PTC299 is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
PyridostigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Pyridostigmine.Approved
QuinestrolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Quinestrol.Approved
QuinethazoneDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Quinethazone.Approved
Rabies vaccineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Rabies vaccine.Approved
RapacuroniumRapacuronium may increase the adverse neuromuscular activities of Difluprednate.Withdrawn
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Resveratrol is combined with Difluprednate.Experimental, Investigational
RifabutinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Rifabutin.Approved
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Rifampicin.Approved
RifapentineThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with Rifapentine.Approved
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Ritonavir.Approved, Investigational
RivastigmineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Rivastigmine.Approved, Investigational
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rofecoxib is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational, Withdrawn
RosoxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Rosoxacin.Approved
S EquolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with S Equol.Investigational
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylamide is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salicylic acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Vet Approved
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Salsalate is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Saquinavir.Approved, Investigational
SecoisolariciresinolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Secoisolariciresinol.Investigational
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Seratrodast is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
Sodium phenylbutyrateThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium phenylbutyrate can be decreased when used in combination with Difluprednate.Approved
SparfloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Sparfloxacin.Approved
SRP 299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with SRP 299.Investigational
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when SRT501 is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
St. John's WortThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be decreased when it is combined with St. John's Wort.Nutraceutical
StanozololDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Stanozolol.Approved, Vet Approved
SulfasalazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulindac is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Suprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Withdrawn
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, AThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, A.Approved
Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, BThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Synthetic Conjugated Estrogens, B.Approved
TacrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Tacrine.Withdrawn
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be decreased when it is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TelithromycinThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Telithromycin.Approved
TemafloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Temafloxacin.Withdrawn
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tenoxicam is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tepoxalin is combined with Difluprednate.Vet Approved
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Teriflunomide is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TestosteroneDifluprednate may increase the fluid retaining activities of Testosterone.Approved, Investigational
TG4010The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with TG4010.Investigational
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiaprofenic acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TiboloneThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Tibolone.Approved
TinoridineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tinoridine is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolfenamic Acid is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolmetin is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TorasemideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Torasemide.Approved
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranilast is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational
TrichlorfonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Trichlorfon.Vet Approved
TrichlormethiazideDifluprednate may increase the hypokalemic activities of Trichlormethiazide.Approved, Vet Approved
Trisalicylate-cholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trisalicylate-choline is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
TrovafloxacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Trovafloxacin.Approved, Withdrawn
TubocurarineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Difluprednate is combined with Tubocurarine.Approved
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valdecoxib is combined with Difluprednate.Investigational, Withdrawn
VoriconazoleThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Voriconazole.Approved, Investigational
WarfarinDifluprednate may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.Approved
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaltoprofen is combined with Difluprednate.Approved
ZeranolThe serum concentration of Difluprednate can be increased when it is combined with Zeranol.Vet Approved
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zileuton is combined with Difluprednate.Approved, Investigational, Withdrawn
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zomepirac is combined with Difluprednate.Withdrawn
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Ercoli, A. and Gardi, R.; U.S. Patent 3,780,177; December 18,1973; assigned to Warner-Lambert Co.

General References
  1. Korenfeld MS, Silverstein SM, Cooke DL, Vogel R, Crockett RS: Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% for postoperative inflammation and pain. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009 Jan;35(1):26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrs.2008.09.024. [PubMed:19101421 ]
  2. Jamal KN, Callanan DG: The role of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion in clinical practice. Clin Ophthalmol. 2009;3:381-90. Epub 2009 Jun 29. [PubMed:19668594 ]
  3. Morton KD, Van de Kar LD, Brownfield MS, Bethea CL: Neuronal cell bodies in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus mediate stress-induced renin and corticosterone secretion. Neuroendocrinology. 1989 Jul;50(1):73-80. [PubMed:2666872 ]
External Links
ATC CodesD07AC19
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (149 KB)
MSDSDownload (129 KB)
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9904
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9908
Caco-2 permeable+0.6127
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7679
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6413
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.789
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8044
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8882
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9152
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7641
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9138
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.911
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8162
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.94
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7263
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9014
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9326
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9242
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable1.0
Rat acute toxicity2.1368 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9677
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.5493
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
EmulsionOphthalmic.5 mg/mL
EmulsionOphthalmic0.05 %
PricesNot Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6114319 Yes1999-11-182019-11-18Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point191-194Ercoli, A. and Gardi, R.; U.S. Patent 3,780,177; December 18,1973; assigned to Warner-Lambert Co.
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0097 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.28ALOGPS
logP3ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.55ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.97 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity125.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability51.46 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives. These are steroids with a structure based on a hydroxylated prostane moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassPregnane steroids
Direct ParentGluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • Steroid ester
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • 11-hydroxysteroid
  • 11-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • Halo-steroid
  • 6-halo-steroid
  • 9-halo-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-1,4-steroid
  • Delta-1,4-steroid
  • Alpha-acyloxy ketone
  • Acetate salt
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Halohydrin
  • Fluorohydrin
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alkyl halide
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for glucocorticoids (GC). Has a dual mode of action: as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), both for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, and as a modulator of other transcription factors. Affects inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Could act as a coactivator for STAT5-dependent transcription upon grow...
Gene Name:
NR3C1
Uniprot ID:
P04150
Molecular Weight:
85658.57 Da
References
  1. Jamal KN, Callanan DG: The role of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion in clinical practice. Clin Ophthalmol. 2009;3:381-90. Epub 2009 Jun 29. [PubMed:19668594 ]
  2. Tajika T, Takahashi H, Sakai Y, Fujii H, Isowaki A, Sakaki H: Metabolic profiles of difluprednate in rabbit ocular tissues after instillation of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion. Xenobiotica. 2010 Aug;40(8):569-77. doi: 10.3109/00498254.2010.490308. [PubMed:20509750 ]
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Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on December 09, 2016 03:54