Identification

Name
Nonoxynol-9
Accession Number
DB06804
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Withdrawn
Description

Nonoxynol-9 (N-9) is a typical surfactant used as a vaginal spermicide. Spermicides are locally acting non-hormonal contraceptives. When present in the vagina during intercourse, they immobilize/inactivate/damage and/or kill sperms without eliciting systemic effects. N-9 has been in use for more than 30 years as an over-the-counter (OTC) drug in creams, gels, foams and condom lubricants. It is the most commonly used spermicidal contraceptive in the UK and the USA. In several European countries, spermicides are no longer on the market.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • 26-(Nonylphenoxy)-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,24-octaoxahexacosan-1-ol
  • Nonaethylene glycol mono(nonylphenyl) ether
  • Nonaethylene glycol nonylphenyl ether
  • Nonoxynol 9
  • Nonylphenol octa(oxyethylene) ethanol
  • P-Nonylphenyl polyethylene glycol ether
  • PEG-9 nonyl phenyl ether
  • Polyoxyethylene (9) nonyl phenyl ether
  • Tergitol NP-9
  • Tergitol NP9
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Conceptrol OptionsGel4 g/100gVaginalCaldwell Consumer Health Llc2011-05-01Not applicableUs
EncareInsert100 mg/1VaginalBlairex Laboratories, Inc.1999-09-01Not applicableUs
Gynol II Extra StrengthGel3 g/100gVaginalCaldwell Consumer Health Llc2011-05-01Not applicableUs
Today Vaginal ContraceptiveSponge1000 mg/1VaginalMayer Laboratories, Inc.1983-04-01Not applicableUs
VCF ContraceptiveAerosol, foam125 mg/gVaginalApothecus Pharmaceutical Corp.1997-06-01Not applicableUs
VCF ContraceptiveFilm, soluble280 mg/1VaginalApothecus Pharmaceutical Corp.1988-06-01Not applicableUs
VCF Contraceptive Pre-filled ApplicatorsGel, metered4 g/100gVaginalApothecus Pharmaceutical Corp.2014-06-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Advantage 24 (Lake Pharmaceuticals) / Gynoll (Ortho Options) / Today (Bliss Pharmaceuticals) / VCF (Apothecus Pharmaceuticals)
Categories
UNII
48Q180SH9T
CAS number
26027-38-3
Weight
Average: 616.8235
Monoisotopic: 616.41864814
Chemical Formula
C33H60O10
InChI Key
FBWNMEQMRUMQSO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C33H60O10/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-32-10-12-33(13-11-32)43-31-30-42-29-28-41-27-26-40-25-24-39-23-22-38-21-20-37-19-18-36-17-16-35-15-14-34/h10-13,34H,2-9,14-31H2,1H3
IUPAC Name
26-(4-nonylphenoxy)-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,24-octaoxahexacosan-1-ol
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCC1=CC=C(OCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCOCCO)C=C1

Pharmacology

Indication

Nonoxynol 9 is a surfactant spermicide used for contraception in spermicidal creams, jellies, foams, gel, and lubricants. It is also used in conjuction with other methods of contraception, including condoms, cervical caps and diaphragms.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics
Not Available
Mechanism of action

Nonoxynol-9 interacts with the lipids in the membranes of the acrosome and the midpiece of the sperm. The sperm membranes are lysed; the acrosome, neck and midpiece of the spermatozoa are loosened and then detached which results in their immobilization and death.

Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

The major drawback of nonoxynol-9 is its detergent-type action on epithelial cells and the normal vaginal flora. Detergent-type spermicides alter the vaginal flora, possibly leading to an increased risk of opportunistic infections. These are known to enhance the susceptibility of the epithelium of the lower genital tract to HIV and human papillomavirus infection. N-9 can cause vaginal irritation and allergic vaginitis as well as genital irritation in male partners.

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
TipiracilThe therapeutic efficacy of Nonoxynol-9 can be decreased when used in combination with Tipiracil.Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Iyer V, Poddar SS: Update on nonoxynol-9 as vaginal spermicide. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2008 Dec;13(4):339-50. doi: 10.1080/13625180802263515. [PubMed:19117251]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB15680
PubChem Compound
72385
PubChem Substance
99443296
ChemSpider
65319
BindingDB
50442874
ChEBI
53775
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1410
PharmGKB
PA450648
Wikipedia
Nonoxynol-9

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0CompletedDiagnosticHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedBasic ScienceVaginal Infections / Vaginal Inflammation1
2, 3CompletedPreventionContraception1
3CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
3CompletedPreventionPregnancy1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
GelVaginal4 g/100g
InsertVaginal100 mg/1
GelVaginal3 g/100g
SpongeVaginal1000 mg/1
Aerosol, foamVaginal125 mg/g
Film, solubleVaginal280 mg/1
Gel, meteredVaginal4 g/100g
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000214 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.49ALOGPS
logP4.82ChemAxon
logS-6.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count35ChemAxon
Refractivity169.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability77.07 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9932
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8118
Caco-2 permeable+0.661
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.721
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.6742
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7359
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7701
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7821
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7658
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5396
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7665
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.877
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9161
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7044
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.5899
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9084
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9423
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8423
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7353
Rat acute toxicity2.2394 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.6776
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5489
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as polyethylene glycols. These are oligomers or polymers of ethylene oxide, with the general formula (C2H4O)n (with n>=3).
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic oxygen compounds
Class
Organooxygen compounds
Sub Class
Ethers
Direct Parent
Polyethylene glycols
Alternative Parents
Phenoxy compounds / Phenol ethers / Alkyl aryl ethers / Primary alcohols / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Polyethylene glycol / Phenoxy compound / Phenol ether / Alkyl aryl ether / Benzenoid / Monocyclic benzene moiety / Hydrocarbon derivative / Primary alcohol / Alcohol / Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
tergitol (CHEBI:53775)

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inducer
General Function
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and...
Gene Name
PTGS2
Uniprot ID
P35354
Uniprot Name
Prostaglandin G/H synthase 2
Molecular Weight
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Zalenskaya IA, Cerocchi OG, Joseph T, Donaghay MA, Schriver SD, Doncel GF: Increased COX-2 expression in human vaginal epithelial cells exposed to nonoxynol-9, a vaginal contraceptive microbicide that failed to protect women from HIV-1 infection. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Jun;65(6):569-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2010.00964.x. Epub 2011 Jan 18. [PubMed:21241401]

Drug created on September 14, 2010 10:21 / Updated on November 09, 2017 03:56