Alginic acid

Identification

Name
Alginic acid
Accession Number
DB13518
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Alginic acid, also referred to as algin or alginate, is a hydrophilic or anionic polysaccharide isolated from certain brown seaweed (Phacophycae) via alkaline extraction. It is present in cell walls of brown algae where it forms a viscous gel when binding with water. Alginic acid is a linear polymer consisted of L-glucuronic acid and D-mannuronic acid residues connected via 1,4-glycosidic linkages [4]. Available in different types of salt, alginic acid has been used in a variety of uses in food, cosmetics and pharmaceu-tical products for over 100 years [4]. Alginic acid is an FDA-approved food ingredient in soup and soup mixes as an emulsifier, thickener, and stabilizer [5]. It is also available in oral dietary supplements and is found in antacids such as Gaviscon to inhibit gastroesophageal reflux by creating a physical barrier in presence of gastric acid [7]. Alginate-based raft-forming formulations in the management of heartburn and gastric acid reflux have been used worldwide for over 30 years [4].

Synonyms
  • (Alginate)n
  • (Alginate)n+1
  • algin
  • alginate
  • Norgine
External IDs
A 2830-9 / E-400 / INS NO.400 / INS-400
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Gaviscon Butterscotch Flavour TabletsAlginic acid (200 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (80 mg)TabletOralSmithkline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc.1997-08-151998-08-25Canada
Gaviscon Extra Strength Butterscotch Flavoured TabletsAlginic acid (400 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (160 mg)TabletOralSmithkline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc.1997-08-151998-08-25Canada
Gaviscon Extra Strength Strawberry Fl.tabsAlginic acid (400 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (160 mg)TabletOralSmithkline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc.1997-08-151998-08-25Canada
Gaviscon Extra Strength TabletsAlginic acid (400 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (160 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1997-08-152002-07-31Canada
Gaviscon Heartburn Relief TabletsAlginic acid (200 mg) + Magnesium carbonate (40 mg)TabletOralSmithkline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc.1996-12-311997-08-15Canada
Gaviscon TabletsAlginic acid (200 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (80 mg)TabletOralGlaxosmithkline Inc1996-12-312002-07-31Canada
Gaviscon Tablets - Butterscotch and Fr.fl.Alginic acid (200 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (80 mg)TabletOralSmithkline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc.1996-12-311997-08-15Canada
Gaviscon Tabs Extra StrengthAlginic acid (400 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (160 mg)TabletOralSmithkline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Division Of Smithkline Beecham Inc.1996-12-311997-08-15Canada
Heartburn ReliefAlginic acid (200 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (61.2 mg)TabletOralVita Health Products Inc1997-07-292006-07-31Canada
Heartburn Relief - TabAlginic acid (200 mg) + Aluminum hydroxide (80 mg)TabletOralStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.1996-10-182002-07-31Canada
Categories
UNII
8C3Z4148WZ
CAS number
9005-32-7
Weight
Not Available
Chemical Formula
C12H20O12P2
InChI Key
FHVDTGUDJYJELY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
Not Available
IUPAC Name
Not Available
SMILES
Not Available

Pharmacology

Indication

Indicated for the management of gastric reflux, reflux oesophagitis, hiatus hernia, heartburn (including heartburn of pregnancy) and similar gastric distress [7].

Pharmacodynamics

Alginic acid reduces reflux via its floating, foaming, and viscous properties [2]. Alginic acid precipitates upon contact with gastric acid to create a mechanical barrier, or a "raft", that displaces the postprandial acid pocket [3]. The formation of a raft is thought to occur rapidly, often within a few seconds of dosing [4]. In clinical trials, alginic acid was effective in reducing the symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [3]. In healthy volunteers, alginic acid in combination with an antacid was effective in decreasing postprandial reflux in the upright position [1]. Alginic acid is able to bind to cations when ingested [6].

Mechanism of action

Once orally administered, alginic acid reacts with gastric acid to form a floating "raft" of alginic acid gel on the gastric acid pool. Alginate-based raft-forming formulations commonly contain sodium or bicarbonate; bicarbonate ions are converted to carbon dioxide in presence of gastric acid and get entrapped within the gel precipitate, converting it into a foam which floats on the surface of the gastric contents, much like a raft on water [4]. The "raft" has a near neutral pH due to carbon dioxide and floats on the stomach contents and potentially functions as a barrier to impede gastroesophageal reflux [1, 7]. In severe cases, the raft itself may be refluxed into the oesophagus in preference to the stomach contents and exert a demulcent effect [7].

Absorption

The absorption into the systemic circulation from oral formulations of alginic acid is reported to be minimal, as the mode of action of alginic acid is physical [7].

Volume of distribution

This pharmacokinetic parameter is unlikely to apply for alginic acid.

Protein binding

This pharmacokinetic parameter is unlikely to apply for alginic acid.

Metabolism

This pharmacokinetic parameter is unlikely to apply for alginic acid.

Route of elimination

This pharmacokinetic parameter is unlikely to apply for alginic acid.

Half life

This pharmacokinetic parameter is unlikely to apply for alginic acid.

Clearance

This pharmacokinetic parameter is unlikely to apply for alginic acid.

Toxicity

Probable oral lethal dose reported in humans is above 15 g/kg [6]. Ingestion of large quantities may result in abdominal distension, intestinal obstruction, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty swallowing. Aspiration or inhalation may lead to pneumonitis [6]. In the event of overdosage symptomatic treatment should be given [7].

Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

General References
  1. Castell DO, Dalton CB, Becker D, Sinclair J, Castell JA: Alginic acid decreases postprandial upright gastroesophageal reflux. Comparison with equal-strength antacid. Dig Dis Sci. 1992 Apr;37(4):589-93. [PubMed:1551350]
  2. Malmud LS, Charkes ND, Littlefield J, Reilley J, Stern H, Rosenberg R, Fisher RS: The mode of action alginic acid compound in the reduction of gastroesophageal reflux. J Nucl Med. 1979 Oct;20(10):1023-8. [PubMed:231639]
  3. Leiman DA, Riff BP, Morgan S, Metz DC, Falk GW, French B, Umscheid CA, Lewis JD: Alginate therapy is effective treatment for gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dis Esophagus. 2017 Feb 1;30(2):1-8. doi: 10.1111/dote.12535. [PubMed:27671545]
  4. Mandel KG, Daggy BP, Brodie DA, Jacoby HI: Review article: alginate-raft formulations in the treatment of heartburn and acid reflux. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Jun;14(6):669-90. [PubMed:10848650]
  5. FDA CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Sec. 184.1011 Alginic acid [Link]
  6. ALGINIC ACID - National Library of Medicine HSDB Database - Toxnet [Link]
  7. Gaviscon Summary of Product Characteristics [File]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB0029940
KEGG Drug
D02324
KEGG Compound
C01768
PubChem Compound
131704328
PubChem Substance
347829302
ChEBI
17548
Wikipedia
Alginic_acid
ATC Codes
A02BX13 — Alginic acid

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
3RecruitingTreatmentGastroesophageal Reflux Disease / Scleroderma / Sclerosis, Progressive Systemic1
4CompletedTreatmentIndigestion1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
TabletOral
TabletOral; Other
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Not Available
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
Not Available
Predicted ADMET features
Not Available

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
Not Available

Taxonomy

Classification
Not classified

Drug created on June 23, 2017 14:43 / Updated on October 01, 2018 15:33