Aluminum hydroxide

Identification

Name
Aluminum hydroxide
Accession Number
DB06723
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Investigational
Description

Aluminum hydroxide is an inorganic salt used as an antacid. It is a basic compound that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Subsequent increases in pH may inhibit the action of pepsin. An increase in bicarbonate ions and prostaglandins may also confer cytoprotective effects.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • Aluminium hydroxide
  • Aluminium hydroxide gel, dried
  • Aluminium hydroxide, dried
  • Aluminum hydroxide gel, dried
  • Aluminum hydroxide, dried
  • Dried aluminium hydroxide
  • Dried aluminum hydroxide gel
External IDs
NSC-664400
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Algeldrate03J11K103C1330-44-5SMYKVLBUSSNXMV-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Almagate568Z59H7ZJ66827-12-1MTEOMEWVDVPTNN-UHFFFAOYSA-E
Active Moieties
NameKindUNIICASInChI Key
Aluminum cationionic3XHB1D032B22537-23-1REDXJYDRNCIFBQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AlternagelLiquid600 mg/5mLOralMc Neil Consumer Pharmaceuticals Co.1990-01-012012-08-31Us
Alu-tab Tab 600mgTablet600 mgOral3 M Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of 3 M Canada Company1993-12-312001-08-01Canada
Aluminum HydroxideGel320 mg/5mLOralLLC Federal Solutions2013-08-12Not applicableUs
Aluminum HydroxideLiquid320 mg/5mLOralAtlantic Biologicals Corps.2005-02-01Not applicableUs
Aluminum HydroxideLiquid320 mg/5mLOralRugby2005-02-01Not applicableUs
Derma GranOintment0.275 g/100gTopicalMckesson Medical Surgical2013-11-12Not applicableUs
Derma GranOintment0.275 g/100gTopicalDerma Sciences2015-06-16Not applicableUs
DermadroxOintment1.356 g/113gTopicalGeritrex Llc2015-07-31Not applicableUs
Dermagran OintmentOintment0.275 %TopicalCanadian Medical Supply Inc.1987-12-311996-09-09Canada
DermaMedOintment2 g/100gTopicalDermarite Industries, Llc2016-10-18Not applicableUs
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acid Gone AntacidAluminum hydroxide (95 mg/15mL) + Magnesium carbonate (358 mg/15mL)LiquidOralMajor2004-12-30Not applicableUs
Acid Gone Antacid Extra StrengthAluminum hydroxide (160 mg/1) + Magnesium carbonate (105 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralAvera McKennan Hospital2015-07-09Not applicableUs
Acid Gone Antacid Extra StrengthAluminum hydroxide (160 mg/1) + Magnesium carbonate (105 mg/1)Tablet, chewableOralMajor2014-06-06Not applicableUs
Acidex Tc Oral SuspensionAluminum hydroxide (600 mg) + Magnesium hydroxide (300 mg)SuspensionOralGen Drug Company Ltd.Not applicable1997-05-30Canada
Advanced Antacid CherryAluminum hydroxide (400 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (40 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (400 mg/5mL)LiquidOralMc Kesson2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Advanced Antacid Regular StrengthAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)LiquidOralSunmark (Mckesson)2012-06-01Not applicableUs
Advanced Regular Strength AntacidAluminum hydroxide (200 mg/5mL) + Dimethicone (20 mg/5mL) + Magnesium hydroxide (200 mg/5mL)SuspensionOralWalgreen2015-01-01Not applicableUs
AHC Premium Intense Contour BalmAluminum hydroxide (0.45 g/50mL) + Adenosine (0.02 g/50mL) + Aluminium tristearate (0.04 g/50mL) + Arbutin (1 g/50mL) + Methicone (20 cst) (1.3 g/50mL) + Octinoxate (1.5 g/50mL) + Talc (2.05 g/50mL) + Titanium dioxide (3.96 g/50mL) + Zinc oxide (0.96 g/50mL)CreamTopicalCarver Korea Co.,Ltd.2014-01-152017-11-22Us
Alka Phenyl TabAluminum hydroxide (100 mg) + Magnesium Trisilicate (150 mg) + Phenylbutazone (100 mg)TabletOralDuchesnay Inc.1978-12-311997-08-11Canada
Alka Phenylbutazone TabAluminum hydroxide (100 mg) + Magnesium Trisilicate (150 mg) + Phenylbutazone (100 mg)TabletOralPro Doc Limitee1974-12-311997-08-14Canada
Unapproved/Other Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
FIRST Mouthwash BLMAluminum hydroxide (3.15 g/236mL) + Dimethicone 410 (0.315 g/236mL) + Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (.2 g/.2g) + Lidocaine hydrochloride (1.6 g/1.6g) + Magnesium hydroxide (3.15 g/236mL)KitOralCutisPharma, Inc.2004-11-01Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
AlternaGel (J&J-Merck) / Alu-Cap (3M) / Amphojel (Wyeth)
Categories
UNII
5QB0T2IUN0
CAS number
21645-51-2
Weight
Average: 78.0036
Monoisotopic: 77.989757403
Chemical Formula
AlH3O3
InChI Key
WNROFYMDJYEPJX-UHFFFAOYSA-K
InChI
InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3
IUPAC Name
aluminium(3+) trihydroxide
SMILES
[OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]

Pharmacology

Indication

For relief of heartburn and acid indigestion.

Associated Conditions
Pharmacodynamics

Gastric-peptic disease occurs as a result of an imbalance between protective factors, such as mucus, bicarbonate, and prostaglandin secretion, and aggressive factors, such as hydrochloric acid, pepsin, and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Antacids work by restoring acid-base balance, attenuating the pepsin activity and increasing bicarbonate and prostaglandin secretion.

Mechanism of action

Aluminum hydroxide is a basic inorganic salt that acts by neutralizing hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions. Aluminum hydroxide is slowly solubilized in the stomach and reacts with hydrochloric acid to form aluminum chloride and water. It also inhibits the action of pepsin by increasing the pH and via adsorption. Cytoprotective effects may occur through increases in bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) and prostaglandins.

Absorption

Approximately 17-30% of the aluminum chloride formed is absorbed.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Not metabolized.

Route of elimination

Absorbed aluminum chloride is rapidly eliminated by the kidneys in patients with normal renal function.

Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
Not Available
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteraction
1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5The serum concentration of Aluminum hydroxide can be increased when it is combined with 1alpha-Hydroxyvitamin D5.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamineAluminum hydroxide may decrease the excretion rate of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamineAluminum hydroxide may decrease the excretion rate of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-ethylthioamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
3,4-MethylenedioxyamphetamineAluminum hydroxide may decrease the excretion rate of 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamineAluminum hydroxide may decrease the excretion rate of 4-Bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine which could result in a higher serum level.
AcepromazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acepromazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AceprometazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Aceprometazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AcetaminophenAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetaminophen resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AcetophenazineAluminum hydroxide can cause a decrease in the absorption of Acetophenazine resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
AlclometasoneThe bioavailability of Alclometasone can be decreased when combined with Aluminum hydroxide.
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Richard H. Goheen, William A. Nigro, Paul J. The, "Process for producing aluminum hydroxide of improved whiteness." U.S. Patent US4915930, issued November, 1933.

US4915930
General References
Not Available
External Links
KEGG Compound
C13391
PubChem Compound
10176082
PubChem Substance
175427087
ChemSpider
8351587
ChEBI
33130
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1200706
Wikipedia
Aluminum_hydroxide
ATC Codes
A02AD03 — AlmagateA02AB01 — Aluminium hydroxideA02AB02 — Algeldrate
AHFS Codes
  • 56:04.00 — Antacids and Adsorbents
  • 84:04.92 — Miscellaneous Local Anti-infectives

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1Active Not RecruitingPreventionExposure to Hepatitis B Virus1
1CompletedBasic ScienceGastroesophageal Reflux Disease1
1CompletedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers3
1CompletedBasic ScienceHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedPreventionFlu caused by Influenza1
1CompletedPreventionHIV Seronegativity / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections6
1CompletedTreatmentAdvanced Solid Tumors1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1CompletedTreatmentToxic Shock Syndrome Staphylococcal1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceGastroesophageal Reflux Disease1
1RecruitingPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1WithdrawnPreventionCoronavirus (SARS-CoV)1
1WithdrawnPreventionHIV Seronegativity / Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
1WithdrawnPreventionSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome1
1, 2CompletedPreventionFlu caused by Influenza3
1, 2RecruitingPreventionH7N9 Influenza1
2CompletedNot AvailableAcid Reflux Disease / Gastro-esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Heartburn / Regurgitation1
2CompletedTreatmentDiabetes, Diabetes Mellitus Type 11
3TerminatedTreatmentRadiation-induced Oesophagitis1
4CompletedTreatmentEmergency / Indigestion / Pain1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedPreventionRenal Failure1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusPreventionPeptic Ulcers / Ulcer Complications1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tablet, chewableOral
LiquidOral600 mg/5mL
TabletOral600 mg
GelOral320 mg/5mL
LiquidOral320 mg/5mL
SuspensionOral
OintmentTopical0.275 g/100g
OintmentTopical1.356 g/113g
OintmentTopical0.275 %
OintmentTopical2 g/100g
SolutionOral
Tablet, chewableOral160 mg/5mL
PowderOral
KitOral
LiquidOral
TabletOral
GranuleOral
LiquidTopical
OintmentTopical
TabletOral; Other
CreamTopical
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.45ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.07ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5922
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8181
Caco-2 permeable-0.5094
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8274
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9892
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9433
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8282
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8206
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9291
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9148
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9584
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9447
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9672
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9578
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8393
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5918
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.81
Rat acute toxicity1.7247 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9592
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9742
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as post-transition metal hydroxides. These are inorganic compounds in which the largest oxoanion is hydroxide, and in which the heaviest atom not in an oxoanion is a post-transition metal.
Kingdom
Inorganic compounds
Super Class
Mixed metal/non-metal compounds
Class
Post-transition metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub Class
Post-transition metal hydroxides
Direct Parent
Post-transition metal hydroxides
Alternative Parents
Post-transition metal salts / Inorganic salts / Inorganic oxides / Inorganic hydrides
Substituents
Post-transition metal hydroxide / Inorganic post-transition metal salt / Inorganic hydride / Inorganic oxide / Inorganic salt
Molecular Framework
Not Available
External Descriptors
aluminium hydroxides (CHEBI:33130)

Drug created on August 09, 2010 11:11 / Updated on October 16, 2018 05:49