Grand mal Generalized tonic-clonic seizure

Also known as: Seizure grand mal / Generalised tonic-clonic seizure / Grand mal Seizures / Generalized tonic-clonic Seizures / Primary generalized tonic-clonic seizre / Seizures, Tonic-Clonic / Grand mal seizure / Generalized tonic-clonic seizure / Tonic-clonic Seizure / Generalised tonic-clonic seizures / Centrencephalic epilepsies / Centrencephalic epilepsy / Tonic-clonic seizures / Grand mal / Epilepsy with grand mal seizures on awakening / Grand mal fit / Grand mal epileptic fit

DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00819AcetazolamideOne of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)
DB00754EthotoinEthotoin is a hydantoin derivative and anticonvulsant. Ethotoin exerts an antiepileptic effect without causing general central nervous system depression. The mechanism of action is probably very similar to that of phenytoin. The latter drug appears to stabilize rather than to raise the normal seizure threshold, and to prevent the spread of seizure activity rather than to abolish the primary focus of seizure discharges. Ethotoin is no longer commonly used.
DB01202LevetiracetamLevetiracetam is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat epilepsy. Levetiracetam may selectively prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing and propagation of seizure activity. Levetiracetam binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, which is thought to be involved in the regulation of vesicle exocytosis. Although the molecular significance of levetiracetam binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A is not understood, levetiracetam and related analogs showed a rank order of affinity for SV2A which correlated with the potency of their antiseizure activity in audiogenic seizure-prone mice.
DB00252PhenytoinAn anticonvulsant that is used in a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.
DB00794PrimidoneAn antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to phenobarbital in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with phenobarbital. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)
DB00273TopiramateTopiramate is a sulfamate-substituted monosaccharide with some activity against carbonic anhydrase.[A175225] It was conceived as part of the efforts to generate analogs of fructose-1,6-diphosphate to block gluconeogenesis in which topiramate was a synthetic intermediate. Analyzing its similarity to acetazolamide, researchers decided to study its capability as an anticonvulsant agent where was shown to be highly active against maximal electroshock seizure and to present a long duration of action.[A175249] Structurally, topiramate does not resemble a normal therapeutic agent as it presents a very high concentration of oxygen. The oxygen atoms in the topiramate molecule are expected to function as acceptors for hydrogen-bond formation while its amide group serves as an important hydrogen donor.[A175249] Topiramate has been approved in Europe since 2003, in the UK in 1995[A175243] and in the US since 2004. This drug has been approved for a number of conditions and in 2014 it was approved for the prevention of migraine in children.[A175231]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00819AcetazolamideAquaporin-1target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
DB00819AcetazolamideSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00819AcetazolamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
DB00819AcetazolamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
DB00754EthotoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00754EthotoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00754EthotoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB01202LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB01202LevetiracetamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB01202LevetiracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSerum albumincarrier
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00794PrimidoneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00794PrimidoneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00794PrimidoneGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00794PrimidoneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00794PrimidoneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00794PrimidoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00273TopiramateSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor 1target
DrugDrug NamePhaseStatusCount
DB01202Levetiracetam3Completed3
DB01320Fosphenytoin4Completed1
DB01202Levetiracetam4Completed1
DB00252Phenytoin4Completed1
DB00273Topiramate4Completed1